Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 and 1811. Born in Hattem, Netherlands, on 21 October 1762, Daendels was the son of Burchard Johan Daendels, the mayoral secretary and he studied law at the University of Harderwijk, acquiring his doctorate on 10 April 1783. In 1785, he sided with the Patriots, who had seized power in several Dutch cities, in 1786 he defended the city of Hattem against stadholderian troops. In 1787, he defended Amsterdam against the Prussian army that invaded the Netherlands to restore William V of Orange, after William V was in power again, he fled to France because of a death sentence. Daendels was a witness to the French revolution. He returned to the Netherlands in 1794, as a general in the French revolutionary army of general Charles Pichegru, Daendels helped unitarian politician Pieter Vreede to power in a coup détat on 25 January 1798. The group behind Vreede was dissatisfied with the majority in parliament.
The reign of Vreede did not bring the expected results, louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General and his primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved. He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and he demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis, and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. He moved the government from Old Batavia to Weltevreden. However, his achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road across northern Java from Anjer to Panaroecan. The road now serves as the road in the island of Java. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died. He displayed an attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch.
He subjected the population of Java to forced labour, there were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java. There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the bureaucracy and reduced corruption. When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810 and he was appointed a Divisional General and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleons invasion of Russia
Jean Henri van Swinden
Jean Henri van Swinden was a Dutch mathematician and physicist who taught in Franeker and Amsterdam. His parents were the lawyer Phillippe van Swinden and Marie Anne Tollosan and he was trained 1763-1766 at the University of Leiden, where he became doctor of philosophy on 12 June 1766 with the thesis Natural power of attraction. He became professor at the University of Franeker the same year, in 1776 he won a prize from the Académie Royale des Sciences along with Charles-Augustin de Coulomb for his work on earths magnetic field, and the relationship between magnetism and electricity. A year he won a prize from the Academie van Beieren and his description of Eise Eisingas planetarium in 1780 was republished. In 1785 he moved to Amsterdam where he became professor at the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam, there he was instrumental in introducing a house numbering system and in 1795 he directed the first census. In 1798 he led a commission to report on the state of the health of the inhabitants of Amsterdam and he was part of an international commission to determine the length of the meter, as a first step to introducing the metric system in the Netherlands.
His lectures at Felix Meritis from 1777 onwards on this subject were bundled and published as Verhandeling over volmaakte maaten en gewigten in 1802 and his international good name led him to be appointed as representative during the French occupation. He was one of the appointed by Louis Bonaparte in 1808 for the Koninklijk Instituut van Wetenschappen along with Martinus van Marum, Martinus Stuart. The Van Swinden Laboratorium, today the Nederlands Meetinstituut, was named after him in 1971, molhuysen en P. J. Blok, Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek, Part 4, A. W
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. It can thus be defined as a form of government in there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include the United States, Mexico, Germany, some today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states. The terms federalism and confederalism both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning treaty, pact or covenant and their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. It was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new United States as neither a national nor a federal Constitution, this article relates to the modern usage of the word federalism.
Modern federalism is a based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments. The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world depending on context, however, in some countries, those skeptical of federal prescriptions believe that increased regional autonomy is likely to lead to secession or dissolution of the nation. In Syria, federalization proposals have failed in part because Syrians fear that these borders could turn out to be the same as the ones that the parties have currently carved out. Federations such as Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia collapsed as soon as it was possible to put the model to the test, cultural-historical theories, which hold that federal institutions are more likely to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations. Infrastructural power theories, which hold that federalism is likely to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation already have highly developed infrastructures.
In Europe, Federalist is sometimes used to describe those who favor a federal government. Most European federalists want this development to continue within the European Union, European federalism originated in post-war Europe, one of the more important initiatives was Winston Churchills speech in Zürich in 1946. In the United States, federalism originally referred to belief in a central government. Constitution was being drafted, the Federalist Party supported a central government. This is very different from the usage of federalism in Europe. The distinction stems from the fact that federalism is situated in the middle of the spectrum between a confederacy and a unitary state. Constitution was written as a reaction to the Articles of Confederation, in contrast, Europe has a greater history of unitary states than North America, thus European federalism argues for a weaker central government, relative to a unitary state. The modern American usage of the word is closer to the European sense
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since used to describe a wide range of views. There is no set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a range of issues. In contrast to the definition of conservatism, political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism primarily in terms of a general defense of social. In Great Britain, conservative ideas emerged in the Tory movement during the Restoration period, Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty derived from the people, and rejected the authority of parliament, Robert Filmers Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings, published posthumously in 1680 but written before the English Civil War of 1642–1651, became accepted as the statement of their doctrine.
However, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 destroyed this principle to some degree by establishing a government in England. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement, now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown and Commons rather than solely in the Crown, Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th century. Conservatives typically see Richard Hooker as the father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax, David Hume. Halifax promoted pragmatism in government, whilst Hume argued against political rationalism and utopianism, Burke served as the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and as official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig party. Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th century United Kingdom, Burkes views were a mixture of liberal and conservative. He supported the American Revolution of 1765–1783 but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution and he insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition, and saw the aristocracy as the nations natural leaders.
That meant limits on the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive and he favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious toleration. Burke justified the order on the basis of tradition, tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he valued community. Burke was a leading theorist in his day, finding extreme idealism an endangerment to broader liberties, despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these early contributors were explicitly involved in Tory politics. Hooker lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryism, whilst Hume was an apolitical philosopher, Burke described himself as a Whig. Shortly after Burkes death in 1797, conservatism revived as a political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal divisions
The concept of universal suffrage, known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all except a small number of adult citizens. As minors are excluded, the concept is frequently described as universal adult suffrage. Many countries make an exception for small numbers of adults that are considered incapable of voting. Other countries exclude people convicted of crimes or people in jail. In some countries, including the United States, it is very difficult, in any case, where universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by race, belief, wealth, or social status. The term active suffrage is sometimes used for the right to vote, passive suffrage for the right to run for office, the equivalent term when talking about both genders would be universal full suffrage, or full universal suffrage. Greece recognized full male suffrage in 1830 and France and Switzerland have continuously done so since the 1848 Revolution, the German Empire implemented full male suffrage in 1871.
In 1893, the self-governing colony New Zealand became the first country in the world to grant active universal suffrage by giving women the right to vote and it did not grant universal full suffrage until 1919. In 1902 Australia become the first country to grant full suffrage for women, universal suffrage was not implemented, as aboriginals didnt get the right to vote until 1962. It elected the worlds first female members of parliament the following year, in most countries, universal suffrage followed about a generation after universal male suffrage. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote until 1944, Greece and it is worth noting that countries that took a long time to adopt womens suffrage had previously often been pioneers in granting universal male suffrage. In the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, in some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion.
In all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time, in the 19th century in Europe, Great Britain and North America, there were movements advocating universal suffrage. The democratic movement of the late 19th century, unifying liberals and social democrats, particularly in northern Europe, used the slogan Equal, the concept of universal suffrage requires the right to vote to be granted to all its residents. All countries, however, do not allow certain categories of citizens to vote, saudi Arabia was the last major country that did not allow women to vote, but admitted women both to voting and candidacy in the 2015 municipal elections. France, under the 1793 Jacobin constitution, was the first major country to enact suffrage for all adult males, the Second French Republic did institute adult male suffrage after the revolution of 1848. In 1867, Germany enacted suffrage for all adult males, in the United States following the American Civil War, slaves were freed and granted rights of citizens, including suffrage for adult males.
Several European nations that had enacted universal suffrage had their legal process, or their status as an independent nation, interrupted during
Isaac Jan Alexander Gogel was the first minister of finance of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of Holland. He married Catharina van Hasselt in 1800, and had three children, Gogel was the son of Johan Martin Gogel, a German officer in the service of the army of the Dutch Republic, and of Alexandrina Crul. He had only a formal education and went to Amsterdam to apprentice for a career as a merchant at age 16. He started his own firm in 1791, Gogel was a typical self-made man, a product of the petty-broking and merchandising world of Amsterdam. Though one of the most prominent pioneering Dutch economists, he did not receive an education in this field. As a typical self-taught man he tended to borrow his ideas from all the texts from the day. This caused an enmity toward the rivals of the Patriot party. Even before the Batavian revolution of 1795 and the proclamation of the Batavian Republic he became involved in politics, on a local and national. After the January 22,1798 coup détat by general Herman Willem Daendels, he was appointed agent for finance and he became a member of the Uitvoerend Bewind himself for a short while, till elections had been held for a new Representative Assembly.
He was again appointed Agent, this time for Finance, by the new Uitvoerend Bewind and he now started on the reform of the Dutch system of public finance that was long overdue. He attempted to reorganize the tax system, but because this entailed abolition of the old, federal arrangements, besides, he proposed to form a new, national organisation to collect the taxes. His General-Taxation-Plan legislation was first proposed in 1799, but only enacted on March 25,1801, Gogel was working on adopting many parts of the new revolutionary infrastructure that had recently been put into place in Paris, and one of these was the Louvre. Modelled on that concept, he envisioned a National art gallery for art-lovers and artists alike and he decided on a place and two major types of art, and these were the Huis ten Bosch location with its magnificent Oranjezaal and the concepts historieele and moderne art. Oddly the Rijksmuseum which was founded with this collection at its core. In fact most Catholic or Orangist art galleries had either hidden their collections or taken them away, for his national inventory in 1799 he appointed an inspector for this job, Cornelis Sebille Roos.
Gogel was a member of the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen in Haarlem, which was allied with the Teylers Museum. By 1801 the political winds had changed again, the unitarian Constitution of 1798, on whose tenets the plan was based, was being undermined by the Uitvoerend Bewind itself. The new Constitution of 1801, that came into force after another coup in the Fall of that year, Gogel courageously fulminated against the financial chapters of that Constitution before the referendum that was set up to approve it
National Assembly of the Batavian Republic
The National Assembly of the Batavian Republic was the name for the Dutch parliament between 1796 and 1801. The National assembly was founded in 1796 after general elections and it replaced the States-General of the Batavian Republic. The President of the National Assembly was the head of state of the Batavian Republic between 1796 and 1798, during his term in office. A number of members of the second National Assembly were expelled after the coup détat of 25 January 1798 by Pieter Vreede and this rump-Assembly was itself dissolved after a second coup on 12 June 1798, again by Daendels. A new Representative Assembly came into being after the elections of 1798, under that new constitution the head of state of the Batavian Republic was a member of the Uitvoerend Bewind
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795, and ended on 5 June 1806, in early 1795, intervention by French revolutionary forces led to the downfall of the old Dutch Republic. The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the support of the revolutionary French Republic. The political and social reforms that were brought about during the short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact. The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state, for the first time in Dutch history, the constitution that was adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character. For a while the Republic was governed democratically, although the coup détat of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change in constitution, the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848.
A type of government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history. The new king, Louis Bonaparte, surprisingly did not slavishly follow French dictates either, the final days of the intermittent constitutional monarchy/republic, the Dutch Republic, which had governed the Netherlands since the late 16th century, were quite eventful. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while Hollands own Ancien Régime strengthened its grip on Dutch government chiefly through the Orangist Grand Pensionary Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel. Only two years later, the French Revolution began, which embraced many of the ideas that the Patriots had espoused in their own revolt. The Stadtholder joined the ill-fated First Coalition of countries in their attempt to subdue the suddenly anti-Austrian French First Republic, however, in many cities revolution broke out even before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees took over the city governments, and the national government also. William was forced to flee to England on a boat on 18 January 1795.
Though the French presented themselves as liberators, they behaved like conquerors, apart from imposing territorial concessions and a huge indemnity, this obligated the Dutch to maintain a French army of occupation of 25,000 men. However, this did not mean that it lost its independence in all respects, the program of reform that the Dutch revolutionaries attempted to put in place was mostly driven by indigenous needs and aspirations. The political events in the Netherlands were mainly derived from Dutch initiative, the French were responsible for at least one of the coups détat, and the French ambassador often acted as a proconsul. At first, the revolutionaries used the constitutional machinery of the old confederal republic and they resumed where they had left off after the purge in 1787 of Patriot regents, taking over the offices of the Orangist regents that were now purged in their turn. Though the political make-up of the States-General changed appreciably because of change in personnel