Bakaiku is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is an average 515 m above mean sea level. BAKAIKU in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Bakaiku, pueblos of Spain
Charles II of Navarre
Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. Besides the Pyrenean Kingdom of Navarre, he had extensive lands in Normandy, inherited from his father, Count Philip of Évreux, his mother, Queen Joan II of Navarre, who had received them as compensation for resigning her claims to France and Brie in 1328. Thus, in Northern France, Charles possessed Évreux, parts of Vexin, a portion of Cotentin, he was a major player at a critical juncture in the Hundred Years' War between France and England switching sides in order to further his own agenda. His horrific death by burning was considered God's justice upon him. Charles was born in Évreux. Since his father was first cousin to King Philip VI of France, his mother, Joan II of Navarre, was the only child of King Louis X, Charles of Navarre was'born of the fleur de lys on both sides', as he liked to point out, but he succeeded to a shrunken inheritance as far as his French lands were concerned. Charles was raised in France during childhood and up to the moment he was declared king at 17, so he had no command of the Romance language of Navarre at the moment of his coronation.
In October 1349, he assumed the crown of Navarre. In order to take his coronation oath and be anointed, Charles II visited his kingdom in summer 1350. For the first time, the oath was taken in a language other than Latin or Occitan as it was customary, i.e. Navarro-Aragonese. Apart from short visits paid the first 12 years of his reign, he spent his time entirely in France, he hoped for a long time for recognition of his claim to the crown of France. However, he was unable to wrest the throne from his Valois cousins, who were senior to him by agnatic primogeniture. Charles II served as Royal Lieutenant in Languedoc in 1351 and commanded the army which captured Port-Sainte-Marie on the Garonne in 1352; the same year he married Joan of the daughter of King John II of France. He soon became jealous of the Constable of France, Charles de La Cerda, to be a beneficiary of the fiefdoms of Champagne and Angoulême. Charles of Navarre felt he was entitled to these territories as they had belonged to his mother, the Queen of Navarre, but they had been taken from her by the French kings for a paltry sum in compensation.
After publicly quarrelling with Charles de la Cerda in Paris at Christmas 1353, Charles arranged the assassination of the Constable, which took place at the village of l'Aigle, his brother Philip, Count of Longueville leading the murderers. Charles made no secret of his role in the murder, within a few days was intriguing with the English for military support against his father-in-law King John II, whose favourite the Constable had been. John II was preparing to attack his son-in-law's territories, but Charles's overtures of alliance to King Edward III of England led John instead to make peace with the King of Navarre by the Treaty of Mantes of 22 February 1354, by which Charles enlarged his possessions and was outwardly reconciled with John II; the English, preparing to invade France for a joint campaign with Charles against the French, felt they had been double-crossed: not for the last time, Charles had used the threat of an English alliance to wrest concessions out of the French king.
Relations between Charles and John II deteriorated afresh and John invaded Charles's territories in Normandy in late 1354 while Charles intrigued with Edward III's emissary, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster at the fruitless peace negotiations between England and France held at Avignon in the winter of 1354–55. Once again Charles changed sides: the threat of a renewed English invasion forced John II to make a new agreement of reconciliation with him, sealed by the Treaty of Valognes on 10 September 1355; this agreement, did not last. Charles befriended and was thought to be trying to influence the Dauphin, was involved in a botched coup d'état in December 1355 whose purpose appears to have been to replace John II with the Dauphin. John amended matters by making his son Duke of Normandy, but Charles of Navarre continued to advise the Dauphin how to govern that province. There were continued rumours of his plots against the king, on 5 April 1356 John II and a group of supporters burst unannounced into the Dauphin's castle at Rouen, arrested Charles of Navarre and imprisoned him.
Four of his principal supporters were beheaded and their bodies suspended from chains. Charles was taken to Paris and moved from prison to prison for greater security. Charles remained in prison after John II was defeated and captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers, but many of his partisans were active in the Estates General which endeavoured to govern and reform France in the power-vacuum created by the King's imprisonment while much of the country degenerated into anarchy. They continually pressed the Dauphin to release him. Meanwhile his brother Philip of Navarre threw in his lot with the invading English army of the Duke of Lancaster and made war on the Dauphin's forces throughout Normandy. On 9 November 1357 Charles was sprung from his prison in the castle of Arleux by a band of 30 men from Amiens led by Jean de Picquigny. Greeted as a hero when he entered Amiens, he was invited to enter Paris by the Estates General, which he did with a large retinue and was'received like a newly-crowned monarch'.
He addressed the populace on 30 November listing his grievances agains
Baztan is a municipality from the Chartered Community of Navarre, northern Spain. It is located 58 km from the capital of Navarre, it is the largest municipality in Navarre, with just over 8,000 inhabitants. The capital of the valley is Elizondo, includes 15 other villages, as follows: Amaiur-Maya Aniz Arraioz Almandoz Arizkun Azpilkueta Berroeta Elbete Erratzu Gartzain Irurita Lekaroz Erratzu Oronoz-Mugairi Ziga The territory of the Baztan valley extends over an area of 377 square km of which much is common land jointly owned by the residents of the Baztan valley and used as grazing ground for flocks of sheep and herds of semi-wild horses; the Baztan Valley borders with the French Basque regions of Lapurdi and Lower Navarre, accessed by the Izpegi Pass to the east of the valley and Dantxarinea to the north. This vicinity to France and its ties with its Basque neighbours has characterised the history of the Baztan people over the past centuries. In 2013, there were 7,974 people living in the Baztan Valley with 3489 people living in the capital of Elizondo.
The remaining population are spread out between the other 14 mountain villages. The Baztan Valley is sparsely populated with small-scale pastoral farming making use of the verdant pastures along the banks of the Baztan river. Orchards of apple, cherry and peach trees are common and more kiwis have been planted in the area; the mountain slopes are densely covered with oak, walnut and ash. The odd palm tree can sometimes be found in the grounds of the larger manor houses in the area and belies family links to the Americas where many Baztan people have emigrated since the 16th century. Around 1025 the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI William, gave part of the duchy to King Sancho III of Navarre. Sancho created a lordship for Ximen I Ochoaniz consisting of the Baztan Valley, his son Garcia Xemeniz became a viscount between 1055 and 1065, his grandson Ximen I Garciez donated land to the monastery of Leire in exchange for a pardon for assassinating his nephew. When his siblings assassinated King Sancho IV of Navarre in 1076, they colluded with the bishops of Bayonne.
The kings of Navarre were Ramiro I of Aragon and Navarre and his successor Sancho Ramirez, known as Sancho V of Navarre and Aragon. These Navarrese-Aragonese kings ruled the thinly-populated Aragon with less military strength than Alfonso VI of Castile, a nephew of Ramiro I of Aragon. Viscount Ximen II's daughter, married Fortun Enneconis de Los Cameros in 1085, they had Pedro I Fortunez, the following viscount. A son of Viscount Pedro II Pedriz of Baztan married around 1110 and had three sons: Sancho Pedriz de Baztan, Pedro Pedriz de Baztan and Ximen Pedriz de Baztan. At this time, the king of Navarre and Aragon was Sancho V Ramirez, his successor was his son by a second marriage to a French Nordic aristocrat, Félicia de Roucy: Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre. Alfonso besieged Bayonne for nearly a year in 1131 before conquering it, his successor was Garcia IV Ramirez. During the 1150s the fishing towns of the Gulf of Biscay between Bordeaux and Vigo, between the Duchy of Normandy and the new Iberian kingdom of Portugal, became trading hubs for iron, gold, glass and leather.
Garcia IV's grandson, Sancho VII of Navarre, was succeeded by the count of Champagne, Theobald I of Navarre. Theobald I of Navarre was succeeded by Theobald II of Navarre; the Navarrese crown passed to his youngest brother, Henry I of Navarre, who ruled for about three years. Joanna II of Navarre married Philip III of Navarre, killed in 1343, she died in 1349. France and Navarre were de facto independent kingdoms, their eldest son was Charles II of Navarre. His heir was King Charles III of Navarre, who ruled for about 38 years, his daughter was Queen Blanche I of Navarre, who ruled from 1425 to 1441. The Escors family, from Aquitaine, settled in the kingdom of Navarre in 1234 after the counts of Champagne inherited the throne; the family represented the kings of Navarre in governmental and military affairs from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Nicolás Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcun, became Marqués de las Hormazas in 1767. Juan de Goyeneche y Gastón, became the treasurer and financial adviser to the queen consorts of Spain around 1680, provided war materiel to the Spanish Army for over 30 years.
His palace in Madrid is now the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Juan Francisco de Goyeneche Irigoyen was the Marqués de Ugena. Francisco Miguel de Goyeneche y Balzá, Conde de Saceda, received his title from King Felipe V on 17 December 1743. Miguel Gastón de Iriarte y Elizacoechea built the family palace in Baztan. Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa, was Royal Governor of Chile from 1772 to 1780 and Viceroy of Peru from 1780 to 1784. Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi y Aguirre, Conde de Lizárraga, was governor of the Philippines from 25 August 1709 until his death; the large detached farmhouses which characterise the Baztan valley are built in typical Basque style with solid wooden frames and eaves and wooden balconies decorated with geranium
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Barañáin or Barañain is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. Ayuntamiento de Barañáin BARAÑAIN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ansoain is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarra, northern Spain. ANSOAIN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia