Dnipro, called Dnipropetrovsk until May 2016, is Ukraine's fourth-largest city, with about one million inhabitants. It is 391 kilometres southeast of the capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central part of Ukraine. Dnipro is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the centre of Dnipro municipality and extraterritorial administrative centre of Dnipro Raion, its population is 1,000,000 . The first fortified town in what is now Dnipro was built in the mid-16th century according to archeological findings. Known as Ekaterinoslav until 1925, the city was formally inaugurated by the Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1787 as the administrative centre of the newly acquired vast territories of imperial New Russia, including those ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca; the city was envisioned as the Russian Empire's third capital city, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Renamed Dnipropetrovsk in 1926, it became a vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, was one of the key centres of the nuclear and space industries of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile design bureau and manufacturer; because of its military industry, it was a closed city until the 1990s. On 19 May 2016 the official name of the city was changed from Dnipropetrovsk to Dnipro. Dnipro is a powerhouse of Ukraine's business and politics and is the native city of many of the country's most important figures. Ukraine's politics are still defined by the legacies of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko and Yuliya Tymoshenko, whose intermingled careers started in Dnipro. Over time, Dnipro has been known by a number of names: Yekaterinoslav 1776–1782, reestablished 1783–1797 Novorossiysk 1797–1802 Yekaterinoslav 1802–1918 Sicheslav 1918–21 Yekaterinoslav / Katerynoslav 1918–1926 Dnepropetrovsk / Dnipropetrovsk 1926–1992 Dnipropetrovsk 1992–2016 Dnipro 2016–presentThe spelling Catharinoslav was found on some maps of the nineteenth century.
In some Anglophone media the city was known as the Rocket City. In 1918, the Central Council of Ukraine proposed to change the name of the city to Sicheslav. In 1926 the city was renamed after Communist leader Grigory Petrovsky; the 2015 law on decommunization required the city to be renamed, on 19 May 2016 the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill to rename the city to Dnipro. A monastery was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrsky Island in the 9th century; the Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240. At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the mid-15th century, the Nogai and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands; the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, farther east along the Samara River, i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipro. It was in this time that a new force appeared: the Cossacks, they became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks. This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area.
Archeological findings suggest that the first fortified town in what is now Dnipro was built in the mid-16th century. In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak fortress above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky as a result of rivalry in the region between Poland and Crimean Khanate, to maintain control over Cossack activity. On the night of ¾ August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion; the fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan for the Polish Government in 1638, had a mercenary garrison. Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711; the ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is a project to restore it and create a tourist centre and park-museum. Following the Treaty of Andrusovo, the lands of Zaporizhian Sich were under a condominium between the Russian Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Rzeczpospolita relinquished its control over the area with signing of the 1686 Treaty of Perpetual Peace and, handing over Zaporizhia to Russia. In 1688 Zaporozhian Cossacks and Tatar forces unsuccessfully tried to destroy the Russian troops in the town's Bohorodytsia Fortress but ended up destroying the unprotected lower town only. Cossacks in 1711 forced the Russians troops out of the town under the Treaty of the Pruth. In the mid-1730s Russians troops returned to the Bohorodytsia Fortress; the Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari and Novi Kodaky. It was located at the present centre of the city to the West to d
Zaporizhia known as Zaporozhye Alexandrovsk, is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative centre of the Zaporizhia Oblast; the city population is the sixth largest in Ukraine. Zaporizhia is known for its island of Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, it is important industrial centre producing steel, aircraft engines, transformers for substations, other heavy industry goods. Until 1921 the city bore the name of Aleksandrovsk after the name of a fortress, a part of the Dnieper Defence Line of Russian Empire. In 1921 the city name was changed to Zaporizhia; the city's name "Zaporizhia" means the position of the city located beyond the rapids. Archaeological finds show that about two or three thousand years ago Scythians lived around a modern city. Khazars, Kuman and Slavs dwelt there; the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks passed through the island of Khortytsia. These territories were called the "Wild Fields", because they were not under the control of any state (it was the land between the eroded borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Ottoman Empire.
In 1552 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky erected wood-earth fortifications on the small island Little Khortytsia, near the western shore of Khortytsia island. The scientists consider these fortifications to be a prototype for the Zaporizhian Sich — the stronghold of the paramilitary peasant regiments of Cossacks. In 1770 the fortress of Aleksandrovskaya was erected and is considered to be the year of the foundation of Zaporizhia; as a part of the Dnieper Defence Line the fortress protected the southern territories of Russian Empire from Crimean Tatar invasions. It is uncertain in; some believe that it was the general who served Catherine the Great. Other possibilities are Alexander Rumyantsev. In 1775, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Küçük Kaynarca peace treaty, according to which the southern lands of the Russian Plain and Crimean peninsula became Russian-governed territories; as a result, the Aleksandrovskaya Fortress lost its military significance and converted into a small provincial rural town, known from 1806 under the name Alexandrovsk.
In 1789, Mennonites from Danzig accepted the invitation from Catherine the Great to settle several colonies in the area of the modern city. The island of Khortitza was gifted to them for "perpetual possession" by the Russian government. In 1914, the Mennonites sold the island back to the city; the Mennonites built agricultural factories in Alexandrovsk. During the Russian Revolution and by World War II most of the Mennonites had fled to North and South America as well as being forcfully relocated to eastern Russia. At present, few Mennonites live in Zaporizhia, although in the area many industrial buildings and houses built by Mennonites are preserved. In 1829, it was proposed to build a cable ferry across the Dnieper; the ferry could carry a dozen carts. The project was approved by Tsar and was used in other parts of the Russian Empire. In 1904 the ferry was replaced by the Kichkas Bridge, built in the narrowest part of the river called "Wolf Throat", near to the northern part of the Khortytsia Island.
The first railway bridge over the Dnieper was the Kichkas Bridge, designed by Y. D. Proskuryakov and E. O. Paton; the construction works were supervised by F. W. Lat; the total bridge length was 336 meters. It crossed the river with a single span of 190 m; the upper tier carried a double-track railway line, whilst the lower tier was used for other types of vehicles. It was built at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river known as Wolf Throat. Construction started in 1900, it opened for pedestrian traffic in 1902; the official opening of the bridge was 17 April 1904, though railway traffic on the bridge only commenced on 22 January 1908. The opening of the Kichkas Bridge led to the industrial growth of Alexandrovsk. In 1916, during the World War I, the aviation engines plant of DEKA Stock Association was transferred from Saint Petersburg; the Kichkas Bridge was of strategic importance during the Russian Civil War, carried troops, the wounded and medical supplies. Because of this bridge and its environs was the scene of fierce fighting from 1918 to 1921 between the Red Army and the White armies of Denikin and Wrangel and German-Austrian troops, after their defeat, the struggle with insurgents led by Grigoriev and Makhno.
The bridge was damaged a number of times. The most serious damage was inflicted by Makhno's troops when they retreated from Alexandrovsk in 1920 and blew a 40 m wide gap in the middle of the bridge. People's Commissar of Railways Dzerzhinsky of the Bolshevik government ordered the repair of the bridge; the metallurgical plant of Bryansk joint-stock company in Dnipropetrovsk built a replacement section. The Kichkas Bridge reopened on 14 September 1921. On 19 October 1921, the Soviet Council of Labour and Defence awarded the Yekaterininsky railroad the Order of the Red Banner of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic for the early restoration of the Kichkas Bridge. At the beginning of 20th century, Zaporizhia was a s
Yuzhne is a port city in Odessa Oblast of south-western Ukraine. Administratively, Yuzhne is incorporated as a town of oblast significance, it is situated on the country's Black Sea coast. Population: 32,003 Initially created as a settlement of the Odessa Portside Plant in the Hryhorivka Estuary, since 1981 it was transformed into a suburb of Odessa within the Suvorovsky District of the city. From the Southern Marine Terminal of the city port, the Odessa–Brody pipeline takes its beginning towards the Western Ukraine; the city's port is an internationally important oil terminal, one of Ukraine's top three ports, with Odessa and Chornomorsk. In fact, these three nearby port cities have grown into a single conurbation, Yuzhne is considered a satellite of Odessa; the city is located about 32 kilometers east of Odessa. Although it sounds awkwardly in Ukrainian, the city's name has not changed since Ukraine obtained its independence; the correct way to name the town in Ukrainian is Pivdenne, rather than Yuzhne.
Nonetheless, on 11 May 1978 by the order of the Presidium of Verkhovna Rada of Ukrainian SSR the newly built populated place was given the name of the village Yuzhne. Starting from this event the place takes its beginning. In February 1993 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine declared to give the urbanized village a special status in the Odessa Oblast as a city of oblast significance. In 2000 the declaration of Verkhovna Rada # 1914-III confirmed. Yuzhne has a humid subtropical climate. Yuzhne is home to the team BC Khimik in the Ukrainian Basketball Superleague, league champions in the 2014/15 season. Yuzhne is home to the "BK Khimik" women's volleyball team, Ukrainian champions in 2010/11 and 2011/12; the handball team named. Odessa–Brody pipeline Information portal of Yuzhny town Website of the Port of Yuzhny /
BC Budivelnyk Kyiv is a Ukrainian professional basketball club based in Kyiv. The club is playing in the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague and the FIBA Champions League internationally. Budivelnyk is operated by the banking and investing company PrivatBank. Founded in the club's current form in 1962, the club was one of the leading clubs in Soviet League basketball, it was formed out of another team from Kyiv, SKIF, established in 1945. The team was established as a team of the Republican Trade Union Volunteer Sport Society Avanhard, under sponsorship of the local municipal building company Kyivmiskbud-4. In Soviet times, the team played at the 7,000 seat Kiev Sports Palace; the team won the Soviet League in 1989, the Ukrainian League six times. Following the team's long period of success, a period of time in which the team declined ensued, it was relegated to the lower Ukrainian division, due to financial problems. However, in 2006, the team was rescued by a group of businessmen who invested considerable resources into it, thus allowing it to return to the top league of Ukrainian basketball.
Within two years, the team once again became one of the strongest teams in the Ukraine, finishing second in the Ukrainian National League. In March 2010, the management of Budivelnyk held a joint press conference with the CEO and President of Euroleague Basketball Company, Jordi Bertomeu, announcing that they might join the EuroLeague in the next few years. A wildcard was conceded to the team for the 2013–14 EuroLeague season. In 2018, the club withdrew from the Ukrainian Superleague due to debts with their players; the original team played under the name of SKIF, from 1945 to 1962. The current team plays under the current name since 1962; the team's name means "Builder" in Ukrainian. The team is nicknamed as, "Konstruktor" and "Stroitel". BC Budivelnyk play their home games at Kiev Sport Palace, it was built in 1960 and it has capacity of 7,000 seats. Soviet Union League: Gold – 1989 Silver - 1965, 1966, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982 Bronze – 1962, 1964, 1970, 1974, 1983, 1984, 1990 Soviet Union Cup: Runner Up - 1969, 1972 Ukrainian SuperLeague: Gold - 1992 - 1997, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2017 Silver - 1998, 2010 Bronze - 1999 Ukrainian Cup: Winner – 2012, 2014, 2015 Official website Eurobasket.com BC Budivelnyk Page
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Cherkasy, is a city in central Ukraine. It is the capital of Cherkasy Oblast, as well as the administrative center of surrounding Cherkasky Raion within the oblast; the city itself does not belong to the raion. It is not to be confused with the Russian city of Cherkassk, on the Don River to the east. Population: 281,549 The city is the cultural and industrial center of Cherkasy Oblast and Central Economical Region of Ukraine. Cherkasy played a great role in the history of Ukraine. Cherkasy was the center of Cossacks, citizens took part in Koliyivschyna; the city is located on the right bank of Dnieper River, about 200 km south of the nation's capital, Kiev. The city is divided into 2 boroughs: Pridniprovskiy. In June 2011, the city celebrated its 725th anniversary. Cherkasy is situated on the high right bank of the Dnipro River, in the middle of the Kremenchuk Reservoir. Relief of the historical part of the city was influenced by Zamkova mountain, where Cherkasy Castle was situated; the major part of Cherkasy occurs as lowlands.
The city occupies an area of 69 km2. The city's length is 17 km along the Kremenchuk Reservoir. From the north-west, Cherkasy is surrounded by forest. Known as Cherkaskiy Bir, it is the biggest natural pine forest in Ukraine; the climate of Cherkasy is mild warm summers. The average temperature in the city is +7.7 °C. Winters are cold and snowy, but the last few winters have been rather warm with rare severe frosts. Summers are dry and warm, with occasional highs reaching +35 °C; the ecological situation in the city is quite stable. The cumulative pollution index as of 2008 is average with other Ukrainian cities; the main pollutant in the city is "Azot" plant, so the nearby area is the most polluted. The downtown area is polluted as well, due to high traffic volume; the city itself is clean of nuclear pollution from the Chernobyl disaster, although the northernmost part of Cherkasy may have been influenced a little. According to the newest data, the number of inhabitants of Cherkasy is 284,479 as of 1 October 2015.
This number is decreasing because of rising mortality rate, socio-economic situation, the suburbanisation process in the region. This diagram shows the changes of population in Cherkasy: The majority of citizens are Ukrainians, with a large population of Russians and Jews. 46.4% are males, 53.6% are females. According to the data provided by the municipal health care department, teens under 14 encompass 15% of the population while pensioners are 19%, which indicates the prevalence of aging citizens as compared to younger citizens; the history of Cherkasy has not been explored. The year of establishment is considered to be 1286 on the Kievan Rus territory. There are few facts about the beginning of the city, but it is documented that Cherkasy existed in the 14th century; the first record about Cherkasy dates from 1305 in the Gustynskiy Chronicle, the Kievan Rus chronicle. The city is mentioned as an existing city among other Kievan Rus cities, including Kiev, Kaniv and Ovruch; the city became one of the centers of the Cossack movement.
Citizens took part in the Khmelnychchyna of 1648-1657 and in the Koliyivschyna of 1768-1769. The city was influenced by the cruel social and economical experiments of Soviet authorities and by World War II. In 1954 Cherkasy became the administrative center of Cherkasy Oblast, the youngest oblast of Ukraine. In the 1360s, the city entered a new period in its development, by becoming a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since Cherkasy has become an important defender of its southern borders. In 1384 the city is recognized as a fortified town on the south edge, along with Vinnytsia and Kaniv making defensive line from Crimean Tatars; the city started to be ruled by headman. During the end of 15th until the beginning of 16th centuries, the post of Cherkasy headman was held by the prominent persons of that time – Bogdan Glinskiy, Kmyta Oleksandrovych, Vasyl Dashkevych, Andriy Nemyrovych, Ostafiy Dashkevych, Vasyl Tyshkevych, Dmytro Baida-Vyshnevetskiy etc. During 15th–16th centuries, Cherkasy was one of the main centers that helped the Cossacks in the population of Ukrainian south.
Citizens took part in military marches against Tatars and Turkish, including operations led by Ivan Pidkova. New Cherkasy Castle was the center of city life, it was built in 1549–52 on the place of the old one. After the Union of Lublin in 1569 Cherkasy became a part of Poland. Cherkasy Regiment, created in 1625, played a big role in history of the city. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising the regiment became administrative-territorial subdivision. During that time Cherkasy's Regiment was one of the most powerful military units and took part in all of the battles for Bohdan Khmelnytsky army. After a successful campaign, Khmelnytsky in 1654 signed an alliance with Muscovy at Pereyaslav; the war ended in 1667 with the Truce of Andrusovo. Cherkasy remained part of Poland, but territories east of the Dnieper River including left-bank Ukraine and Zaporizhia were secured for Muscovy. While in the Poli
Kharkiv known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 1,439,036 The city was founded in 1654 and after a humble beginning as a small fortress grew to be a major centre of Ukrainian industry and culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kiev. Presently, Kharkiv is a major cultural, educational and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries, its industry specializes in machinery and in electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city, including the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory.
Some sources offer that the city was named after Kharko. Among other names there are Charkow, Zakharpolis. Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is evidence that the Chernyakhov culture flourished in the area from the second to the sixth centuries; the city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine in 1654. The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate; the group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv rivers where an abandoned settlement stood. According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk. At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv, 40 kilometres to the east; the first appointed voivode from Moscow was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog. At that time the population of Kharkiv was just over 1000, half of whom were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow garrison of another 70 servicemen.
The first Kharkiv voivode was replaced in two years after complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort. Kharkiv became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod fortress was being militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of, included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv settlement had a fortress with underground passageways. In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow tsar; the locals led by their otaman. However, with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community sent a request to the tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv churches. Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv sometimes were non-friendly and their arguments were pacified by force. With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was finished the construction of the city fort.
Meanwhile, Kharkiv had become the centre of Sloboda Ukraine. The Kharkiv Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was at University Hill, it was between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, Cathedral Descent. The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others; the tallest was Vestovska, some 16 metres tall, while the shortest one was Tainytska which had a secret well 35 metres deep. The fortress had the Lopanski Gates. In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery, baptized and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa was announced the Hetman of Ukraine. Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv Collegiate, transferred from Belgorod to Kharkiv in 1726. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev Governorate.
Kharkiv is mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was split off, Kharkiv moved to Belgorod Governorate, it was the center of Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod Governorate attached to it again, until in 1765, Sloboda Ukraine Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv. Kharkiv University was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General. Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe searched for instructors for the school. In 1906 Ivan Franko received a doctorate in Russian linguistics here; the streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830. In 1844 the 90 m