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Ukrainian People's Republic

The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic, a predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 10 June 1917 following the February Revolution in Russia. It formed part of the Russian Republic, proclaimed its independence from the Russian Soviet Republic on 25 January 1918. During its short existence the republic went through several political transformations - from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central Council with its general secretariat to the national republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petliura. Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky. From late 1919 the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic, but by the state de facto no longer existed in Ukraine; the 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia and of Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic. After the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917, many governments formed in Ukraine – most notably the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets and its Soviet successors.

These two entities, plus the White Movement, Green armies and the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, fought with each other, which resulted in many casualties among Ukrainians fighting in a Ukrainian War of Independence as part of the wider Russian Civil War of 1917-1922. The Soviet Union would extend control over what would become the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and a founding member of the Soviet Union. On 10 June 1917, the Ukrainian Central Council declared its autonomy as part of the Russian Republic by its First Universal at the All-Ukrainian Military Congress; the highest governing body of the Ukrainian People's Republic became the General Secretariat headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko. The Prime Minister of Russia Alexander Kerensky recognized the Secretariat, appointing it as the representative governing body of the Russian Provisional Government and limiting its powers to five governorates: Volyn, Podolie and Poltova. At first Vynnychenko protested and left his post as Secretariat leader, but returned to reassemble the Secretariat after the Tsentralna Rada accepted the Kerensky Instruktsiya and issued the Second Universal.

After the October Revolution the Kievan faction of the Bolshevik Party instigated the uprising in Kiev on 8 November 1917 in order to establish Soviet power in the city. Kiev Military District forces attempted to stop it, but after the Tsentralna Rada threw its support behind the Bolsheviks, the Russian forces were eliminated from Kiev. After expelling the government forces, the Rada announced a wider autonomy for the Ukrainian Republic, still maintaining ties to Russia, on 22 November 1917; the territory of the republic was proclaimed by the Third Universal 20 November 1917 of the Tsentralna Rada encompassing the governorates: Volyn, Podolie, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav, Taurida. It stated that the people of the governorates: Voronezh and Kursk were welcome to join the republic through a referendum. Further the Tsentralna Rada in its Universal stated that because there was no Government in the Russian Republic after the October Revolution it proclaimed itself the Supreme governing body of the territory of Ukraine until order in the Russian republic could be restored.

The Central Rada called all revolutionary activities such as the October Revolution a civil war and expressed its hopes for the resolution of the chaos. After a brief truce, the Bolsheviks realized that the Rada had no intention of supporting the Bolshevik Revolution, they re-organized into an All-Ukrainian Council of Soviets in December 1917 in an attempt to seize power. When that failed due to the Bolsheviks' relative lack of popularity in Kiev, they moved to Kharkiv; the Bolsheviks of Ukraine declared the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic outlawed and proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets with capital in Kiev, claiming that the government of the People's Secretaries of Ukraine was the only government in the country. The Bolshevik Red Army entered Ukraine from the Russian SFSR in support of the local Soviet government; as the relationships between members within the Tsentralna Rada soured, a series of regional Soviet republics on the territory of Ukraine proclaimed their independence and allegiance to the Petrograd sovnarkom.

The Donetsk-Kryvoi Rog Republic was created by a direct decree of Lenin as part of the Russian SFSR with its capital in Kharkiv. That decree was implemented by Fyodor Sergeyev who became the chairman of the local government as well as joining the Soviet government of Ukraine, simultaneously. Unlike Fyodor Sergeyev's Republic, the Odessa Republic was not recognized by any other Bolshevik governments and on its own initiative had entered a military conflict with Romania for control over the Moldavian Democratic Republic, whose territory it was contesting; the following information is based on the exposition of the Museum of Soviet occupation in Kiev 8–12 March – February Revolution in the Russian Empire, victory of the democratic forces 17 March – establishment of the Ukrainian Central Council 4 April – recreation of Prosvita, establishment of the Ukrainian Cooperative Committee, the Temporary Military Council, liberation of the people of Galicia Andrei Sheptytsky 9 April – Mykh

Conwy (National Assembly for Wales constituency)

Conwy was a constituency of the National Assembly for Wales from 1999 to 2007. It elected one Assembly Member by the first past the post method of election, it was one of nine constituencies in the North Wales electoral region, which elected four additional members, in addition to nine constituency members, to produce a degree of proportional representation for the region as a whole. The constituency was created for the first election to the Assembly, in 1999, with the name and boundaries of the Conwy Westminster constituency, it was within the preserved county of Clwyd and within the preserved county of Gwynedd. The other eight constituencies of the region were Alyn and Deeside, Clwyd South, Clwyd West, Vale of Clwyd and Ynys Môn; the Conwy constituency was replaced for the 2007 Assembly election. Its area became within the Arfon constituency, within the Aberconwy constituency. Arfon is within the preserved county of Gwynedd and Aberconwy is within the preserved county of Clwyd. Both of these constituencies are in the North Wales electoral region.

For Westminster purposes, the new constituency boundaries will become effective for the 2010 United Kingdom general election. In general elections for the National Assembly for Wales, each voter has two votes; the first vote may be used to vote for a candidate to become the Assembly Member for the voter's constituency, elected by the first past the post system. The second vote may be used to vote for a regional closed party list of candidates. Additional member seats are allocated from the lists by the d'Hondt method, with constituency results being taken into account in the allocation. North Wales National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions

Electric Citizen

Electric Citizen are an American rock band from Cincinnati, Ohio formed in 2012. The group's current lineup consists of Laura Dolan, Ross Dolan, Nick Vogelpohl, Nate Wagner. Vogelpohl and Wagner had performed in the indie rock band the Lions Rampant before moving in 2012 to Cincinnati, where they met Ross Dolan and his wife Laura. Together the four formed Electric Citizen, named after the Edgar Broughton Band song, "Death of an Electric Citizen". Yusef Quota joined the group on keyboards, but lost interest within a few months of his involvement for reasons uncertain. On September 21, 2013, the group performed at Doomslang Festival in Kentucky; the group would be signed to RidingEasy Records, releasing their debut album, Sateen, on June 1, 2014. To promote the album, a music video for the track "Light Years Beyond" was produced; the group toured following the album's release, performing alongside such acts as The Budos Band and Fu Manchu. In the spring of 2015 the group toured California as a lead-up to their performance at Psycho California in Santa Ana on May 25, 2015.

Shortly afterward, Vogelpohl left the group, Randy Proctor was brought in on bass. The group embarked on two national tours with Pentagram; the group's second album, Higher Time, was released on May 6, 2016. The album was recorded at Mt. Saturn Studios in Cincinnati and was produced by former member of The Greenhornes Brian Olive. Throughout 2016, Electric Citizen would embark on two tours of Europe, their first performances overseas; the group first appeared with Wolfmother, before touring with Horisont in the fall of 2016, a tour which culminated in their performance at Desertfest Belgium in Antwerp. The group toured in February 2017 with The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, before beginning work on their next record. During this period, Vogelpohl returned to the group on bass for another national tour; the group's third album, was released on September 28, 2018. To promote the album, a music video for the track "Hide it in the Night" was released; the group subsequently toured with Monster Magnet before appearing at Psycho Smokeout Los Angeles on April 20, 2019.

The group made a headlining tour of Europe in May 2019, making appearances at Desertfest in Berlin and London. On August 16, 2019, the group appeared at Psycho Las Vegas. Laura Dolan – vocals Ross Dolan – guitar Nick Vogelpohl – bass Nate Wagner – drums Randy Proctor – bass Yusef Quota – keyboardsTimeline Sateen Higher Time Helltown Electric Citizen

Midnight Wind

Midnight Wind is the ninth studio album by Charlie Daniels and the fifth as The Charlie Daniels Band, released on October 7, 1977. All songs composed by the Charlie Daniels Band, except where indicated: Side one "Midnight Wind" - 4:20 "Sugar Hill Saturday Night" - 3:41 "Heaven Can Be Anywhere" - 3:15 "Maria Teresa" - 4:39 "Indian Man - 3:12Side two "Grapes of Wrath" - 3:10 "Redneck Fiddlin' Man" - 5:12 "Ode To Sweet Smoky" - 3:29 "Good Ole Boy" - 4:10 "Black Bayou" - 2:40 The Charlie Daniels Band Charlie Daniels - guitar, vocals Tom Crain - guitar, vocals Taz DiGregorio - keyboards, vocals Fred Edwards - drums, percussion Charlie Hayward: bass Don Murray - drums, percussionAdditional musicians: Paul Riddle - congas on "Heaven Can Be Anywhere".

Charles Clarke (Canadian politician)

Charles Clarke was speaker of the Legislature of Ontario in 1880-1883 and served as Liberal MLA for Wellington Centre from 1871 to 1886 and for Wellington East from 1886 to 1891. He was born in Lincoln, England, in 1826, studied there with George Boole, was apprenticed as a draper and came to Canada West in 1844, he joined his mother and stepfather on a farm in the Niagara District and moved with them to Elora. He opened a store with his stepfather there, he was editor for the Journal and Express newspapers in Hamilton and helped establish the Elora Backwoodsman. He served on the town council for Elora and was reeve from 1859 to 1864 and from 1867 to 1868, he commanded a local militia unit during the Fenian raids. In 1874, he helped introduce legislation that established the secret ballot for elections in the province, he became clerk of the legislature in January 1892 and served until 1907. He died in Elora in 1909. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history J A Gemmill, The Canadian Parliamentary Companion, 1891, page 214.

Dewar, Kenneth C.. "Clarke, Charles". In Cook, Ramsay. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XIII. University of Toronto Press. Charles Clarke fonds, Archives of Ontario

Napier Express

The Napier Express was a passenger express train operated by the New Zealand Railways Department between Napier and Palmerston North and between Napier and Wellington. It ran from 1891 until 1954. On 13 October 1874, the first section of the Palmerston North - Gisborne Line opened between Napier and Hastings. Over the following 17 years the line extended into the Hawkes Bay interior, on 9 March 1891 it opened through the Manawatu Gorge to Palmerston North. Construction of the Wairarapa Line from Wellington was advancing towards its junction with the Palmerston North - Gisborne Line at Woodville, at the eastern, Hawkes Bay, end of the Manawatu Gorge, but the only rail access to Wellington at the time was via the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company's line up the west coast between Wellington and Longburn, just south of Palmerston North; the Railways Department introduced the Napier Express as a dedicated passenger service between Napier and Palmerston North, with connections to the WMR for passengers to Horowhenua, the Kapiti Coast, Wellington.

This was a significant upgrade for passengers on the Napier line, as services had just been slow mixed trains, carrying both passengers and freight. The Napier Express commenced just after the railway opened to Palmerston North in 1891 and ran once each way daily hauled by a J class steam locomotive. Despite its'express' name and superiority over mixed services, it was quite slow by modern standards; the southbound service left Napier at 10.45am and the WMR connection arrived in Wellington at 9.50pm. Today the same journey takes less than half the time; the service was soon to take longer. On 11 December 1897 the Wairarapa Line reached Woodville, creating a Railways Department line between Wellington and Napier; the Napier Express was diverted from Palmerston North, running to Wellington via the Wairarapa. This route included the Rimutaka Incline, which caused the journey time to increase by an hour, a move unpopular with passengers. Two Rogers K class locomotives were transferred from the South Island to operate the trains, in 1899 they were joined by two more South Island locomotives, of the N class, allowing the timetable to be accelerated to 10.5 hours.

N class engines were sometimes assisted by M class tank locomotives, this combination was referred to as the'en and chicken. In 1908, the WMR was incorporated into the national network. In 1909 the Napier Express was diverted from the Wairarapa Line, through the Manawatu Gorge to Palmerston North, to Wellington over the former WMR track. Resulting in a substantial improvement in running time. On 20 February 1911 when the express was approaching Paekakariki from the south, a large boulder dislodged from above on the Paekakariki Escarpment rolled down onto a second class carriage, killing Miss Alice Power from Greymouth, travelling with two friends. By 1914 the travel time was 9 hours 4 minutes with track improvements in 1914 which allowed the speed limit in some places to be raised to 73 km/h and the more powerful A class locomotives was introduced about 1917-18. By 1925, it was down to 7 hours 31 minutes due to the new AB class locomotives, a further improvement in 1939 was 7 hours 17 minutes when the Tawa Flat Deviation eliminated the torturous, winding route via Johnsonville into Wellington and the K class began operating the expresses.

By 1949 the travel time between Wellington and Napier was seven hours. The Railways Department had been experimenting with railcars for provincial and rural services since 1912, in the 1930s they started to become successful. In the 1940s they proved popular on other Hawkes Bay services, due to their greater efficiency and lower running costs the Railways Department began considering replacing the Napier Express with a railcar service. In 1954, due to a severe shortage of crews, coal, the Express was withdrawn just days before Christmas, replaced by an RM class Standard railcar service; the railcars were a considerable improvement over the Express, operating twice daily in each direction and covering the journey in just 5.5 hours. The Standard railcars were augmented and replaced by the new, higher capacity RM 88-seater railcars the following year. Carriage expresses returned to the route in 1972 with the introduction of the Endeavour, replaced by the Bay Express in 1989; when the Australian company West Coast Railways took over passenger services in 2002, this was one of the services, withdrawn before sale.

Graham Hutchins. "A Year Before the Quake: The Napier Express, 1930." Last Train to Paradise: Journeys from the Golden Age of New Zealand Railways. Exisle Publishing, Jun 1, 2011