Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength shortened to tensile strength, ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size. In other words, tensile strength resists tension. Ultimate tensile strength is measured by the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength can be analyzed independently; some materials break sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, experience some plastic deformation and necking before fracture; the UTS is found by performing a tensile test and recording the engineering stress versus strain. The highest point of the stress–strain curve is the UTS, it is an intensive property. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, the temperature of the test environment and material.
Tensile strengths are used in the design of ductile members, but they are important in brittle members. They are tabulated for common materials such as alloys, composite materials, ceramics and wood. Tensile strength can be defined for liquids as well as solids under certain conditions. For example, when a tree draws water from its roots to its upper leaves by transpiration, the column of water is pulled upwards from the top by the cohesion of the water in the xylem, this force is transmitted down the column by its tensile strength. Air pressure, osmotic pressure, capillary tension plays a small part in a tree's ability to draw up water, but this alone would only be sufficient to push the column of water to a height of less than ten metres, trees can grow much higher than that. Tensile strength is defined as a stress, measured as force per unit area. For some non-homogeneous materials it can be reported just as a force per unit width. In the International System of Units, the unit is the pascal.
A United States customary unit is pounds per square inch, or kilo-pounds per square inch, equal to 1000 psi. Many materials can display linear elastic behavior, defined by a linear stress–strain relationship, as shown in figure 1 up to point 3; the elastic behavior of materials extends into a non-linear region, represented in figure 1 by point 2, up to which deformations are recoverable upon removal of the load. Beyond this elastic region, for ductile materials, such as steel, deformations are plastic. A plastically deformed specimen does not return to its original size and shape when unloaded. For many applications, plastic deformation is unacceptable, is used as the design limitation. After the yield point, ductile metals undergo a period of strain hardening, in which the stress increases again with increasing strain, they begin to neck, as the cross-sectional area of the specimen decreases due to plastic flow. In a sufficiently ductile material, when necking becomes substantial, it causes a reversal of the engineering stress–strain curve.
The reversal point is the maximum stress on the engineering stress–strain curve, the engineering stress coordinate of this point is the ultimate tensile strength, given by point 1. UTS is not used in the design of ductile static members because design practices dictate the use of the yield stress, it is, used for quality control, because of the ease of testing. It is used to determine material types for unknown samples; the UTS is a common engineering parameter to design members made of brittle material because such materials have no yield point. The testing involves taking a small sample with a fixed cross-sectional area, pulling it with a tensometer at a constant strain rate until the sample breaks; when testing some metals, indentation hardness correlates linearly with tensile strength. This important relation permits economically important nondestructive testing of bulk metal deliveries with lightweight portable equipment, such as hand-held Rockwell hardness testers; this practical correlation helps quality assurance in metalworking industries to extend well beyond the laboratory and universal testing machines.
^ a Many of the values depend on purity or composition. ^b Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have the highest tensile strength of any material yet measured, with labs producing them at a tensile strength of 63 GPa, still well below their theoretical limit of 300 GPa. The first nanotube ropes whose tensile strength was published had a strength of 3.6 GPa. The density depends on the manufacturing method, the lowest value is 0.037 or 0.55. ^c The strength of spider silk i
USA Baseball is the national governing body for amateur baseball in the United States and is a member of the United States Olympic Committee and the World Baseball Softball Confederation. The organization selects and trains the World Baseball Classic, Premier12 and Pan American Games teams. In addition, USA Baseball selects players for the 14U, 16U and 17U National Team Development Programs; the organization is responsible for the continued proliferation and health of the sport, leads a number of amateur initiatives through its Sport Development department, including Play Ball and Pitch Smart. USA Baseball presents the Golden Spikes Award annually to the top amateur baseball player in the country and is responsible for creating the USABat standard. In 1978, the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 established the United States Olympic Committee and provided for national governing bodies to be created for each Olympic sport. Since USA Baseball has been the national governing body for amateur baseball, it represents the sport in the United States as a member of the USOC and internationally as a member federation of the World Baseball Softball Confederation.
Nearly every major national amateur baseball organization in America is united as a USA Baseball national member organization. As a result, USA Baseball governs more than 15.6 million amateur players in ballparks and playgrounds across the country. As the commissioner's office for amateur baseball, USA Baseball is a resource center for its various membership groups and players. USA Baseball is responsible for promoting and developing the game of baseball on the grassroots level, both nationally and internationally. Based in New Jersey, USA Baseball moved to Arizona in November 1997 where it spent five years before moving one more time to its current home in Cary, North Carolina, in March 2003. With its family friendly environment, already-rapid growth and proximity to such huge sports cities as Chapel Hill, Durham and Charlotte, the town of Cary was the perfect destination for the national governing body of Our Pastime's Future. An agreement was reached with the town to create a complex and headquarters there and the USA Baseball National Training Complex opened its doors in June 2007.
The first event held at the facility was the 2007 USA Baseball Tournament of Stars, which served as the primary identification event for the organization's 18U National Team from 2007 to 2018. The USA Baseball National Training Complex at Thomas Brooks Park in Cary, North Carolina, opened its doors in 2007. Located within the 221-acre Thomas Brooks Park, the National Training Complex includes four baseball fields – a stadium field and three training fields – all with dimensions of 330 feet down the lines and 400 feet in centerfield. All fields are maintained at Major League Baseball standards. In recognition of more than 30 years of public service and countless accomplishments for the citizens of Cary, the Cary Town Council named the stadium field in honor of former Town Manager William B. Coleman, Jr. upon his retirement on October 17, 2008. Coleman Field has a press box that includes two suites, an official scorer's room, a sound room and a press row. Spectator seating is for 1,754 people, including handicapped accessible seating, additional grass seating for 250 people.
All fields have access to a concession building. The National Training Complex is home to the flagship USA Baseball Team Store, open during all USA Baseball events at the complex. From 1997–2011, USA Baseball fielded a 16U National Team that participated in the International Baseball Federation World Youth Championships, as well as other tournaments, including the COPABE Pan American Youth Championships and the 1999 PAL World Series. In its 15-year history, the USA Baseball 16U National Team experienced unparalleled success on the international stage. Team USA made it to the championship game of every international tournament it appeared in, taking home 11 gold medals – including nine in World Championships – and three silvers. In addition, eight of those teams went undefeated in international play; the program holds an overall historical record of 99–10 against international opponents, including going 54–2 in World Championships. The 14U National Team was created in 2007 and fielded teams for the COPABE Pan American Championships and Pan American Championships Qualifiers until 2011.
In that time, the program went undefeated five times in six international tournaments, earning five gold medals and one bronze in its history and finishing with a 39–2 overall record. In 2011, the two teams were discontinued after the World Baseball Softball Confederation changed its youth championships age discipline to 15U; the programs were replaced with the 14U National Team Development Program. Baseball was first introduced to the Olympic Games as an exhibition sport at the Los Angeles 1984 Games and returned as a demonstration sport in the Seoul 1988 Games. In 1984, the United States came in second, falling to Japan in the final, 6–3. Four years though, Team USA got Olympic redemption as it won the gold medal over Japan with a 5–3 victory. Baseball became an official Summer Olympics sport with its addition to the Barcelona 1992 Games program; the tournament consisted of eight teams and featured a round-robin format in which each team played each other before advancing to the semi-final and final rounds.
The USA Baseball Collegiate National Team represented the U. S. in the games fro
Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it. Instead, a new blood supply grows in. A similar technique where tissue is transferred with the blood supply intact is called a flap. In some instances a graft can be an artificially manufactured device. Examples of this are a tube to carry blood flow across a defect or from an artery to a vein for use in hemodialysis. Autografts and isografts are not considered as foreign and, therefore, do not elicit rejection. Allografts and xenografts may be rejected. Autograft: graft taken from one part of the body of an individual and transplanted onto another site in the same individual, e.g. skin graft. Isograft: graft taken from one individual and placed on another individual of the same genetic constitution, e.g. grafts between identical twins. Allograft: graft taken from one individual placed on genetically non-identical member of the same species.
Xenograft: graft taken from one individual placed on an individual belonging to another species, e.g. animal to man. The term grafting is most applied to skin grafting, however many tissues can be grafted: skin, nerves, neurons, blood vessels and cornea are tissues grafted today. Specific types include: Skin grafting is used to treat skin loss due to a wound, infection, or surgery. In the case of damaged skin, it is removed, new skin is grafted in its place. Skin grafting can reduce the course of treatment and hospitalization needed, can improve function and appearance. There are two types of skin grafts:Split-thickness skin grafts Full-thickness skin grafts Bone grafting is used in dental implants, as well as other instances; the bone may be autologous harvested from the iliac crest of the pelvis, or banked bone. Vascular grafting is the use of prosthetic blood vessels in surgical procedures. Ligament grafting repair, as with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.
Large amount of skin loss due to infections Burns Skin cancer surgery Hematoma development when the graft is placed over an active bleed Infection Seroma development Shear force disrupting growth of new blood supply Inappropriate bed for new blood supply to grow from, such as cartilage, tendons, or bone
Los Angeles Dodgers
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. Established in 1883 in Brooklyn, New York, the team moved to Los Angeles before the 1958 season, they played for four seasons at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving to their current home of Dodger Stadium in 1962. The Dodgers as a franchise have won 23 National League pennants. 11 NL MVP award winners have played for the Dodgers. The team has produced 18 Rookie of the Year Award winners, twice as many as the next closest team, including four consecutive from 1979 to 1982 and five consecutive from 1992 to 1996. In the early 20th century, the team known as the Robins, won league pennants in 1916 and 1920, losing the World Series both times, first to Boston and Cleveland. In the 1930s, the team changed its name to the Dodgers, named after the Brooklyn pedestrians who dodged the streetcars in the city.
In 1941, the Dodgers captured their third National League pennant, only to lose to the New York Yankees. This marked the onset of the Dodgers–Yankees rivalry, as the Dodgers would face them in their next six World Series appearances. Led by Jackie Robinson, the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era. Following the 1957 season the team left Brooklyn. In just their second season in Los Angeles, the Dodgers won their second World Series title, beating the Chicago White Sox in six games in 1959. Spearheaded by the dominant pitching style of Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale, the Dodgers captured three pennants in the 1960s and won two more World Series titles, sweeping the Yankees in four games in 1963, edging the Minnesota Twins in seven in 1965; the 1963 sweep was their second victory against the Yankees, their first against them as a Los Angeles team. The Dodgers won four more pennants in 1966, 1974, 1977 and 1978, but lost in each World Series appearance, they went on to win the World Series again in 1981, thanks in part to pitching sensation Fernando Valenzuela.
The early 1980s were affectionately dubbed "Fernandomania." In 1988, another pitching hero, Orel Hershiser, again led them to a World Series victory, aided by one of the most memorable home runs of all time, by their injured star outfielder Kirk Gibson coming off the bench to pinch hit with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of game 1, in his only appearance of the series. The Dodgers won the pennant in 2017 and 2018, but lost the World Series to the Houston Astros and Boston Red Sox respectively; the Dodgers share a fierce rivalry with the San Francisco Giants, the oldest rivalry in baseball, dating back to when the two franchises played in New York City. Both teams moved west for the 1958 season; the Brooklyn Dodgers and Los Angeles Dodgers have collectively appeared in the World Series 20 times, while the New York Giants and San Francisco Giants have collectively appeared 20 times. The Giants have won two more World Series. Although the two franchises have enjoyed near equal success, the city rivalries are rather lopsided and in both cases, a team's championships have predated to the other's first one in that particular location.
When the two teams were based in New York, the Giants won five World Series championships, the Dodgers one. After the move to California, the Dodgers have won five in Los Angeles, the Giants have won three in San Francisco; the Dodgers were founded in 1883 as the Brooklyn Atlantics, taking the name of a defunct team that had played in Brooklyn before them. The team joined the American Association in 1884 and won the AA championship in 1889 before joining the National League in 1890, they promptly won the NL Championship their first year in the League. The team was known alternatively as the Bridegrooms, Superbas and Trolley Dodgers before becoming the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1930s. In Brooklyn, the Dodgers won the NL pennant several times and the World Series in 1955. After moving to Los Angeles, the team won National League pennants in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1974, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1988, 2017, 2018, with World Series championships in 1959, 1963, 1965, 1981 and 1988. In all, the Dodgers have appeared in 11 in Los Angeles.
For most of the first half of the 20th century, no Major League Baseball team employed an African American player. Jackie Robinson became the first African American to play for a Major League Baseball team when he played his first major league game on April 15, 1947, as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers; this was due to general manager Branch Rickey's efforts. The religious Rickey's motivation appears to have been moral, although business considerations were a factor. Rickey was a member of The Methodist Church, the antecedent denomination to The United Methodist Church of today, a strong advocate for social justice and active in the American Civil Rights Movement; this event was the harbinger of the integration of professional sports in the United States, the concomitant demise of the Negro Leagues, is regarded as a key moment in the history of the American Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was an exceptional player, a speed
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1; the pitcher is considered the most important player on the defensive side of the game, as such is situated at the right end of the defensive spectrum. There are many different types of pitchers, such as the starting pitcher, relief pitcher, middle reliever, lefty specialist, setup man, the closer. Traditionally, the pitcher bats. Starting in 1973 with the American League and spreading to further leagues throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the hitting duties of the pitcher have been given over to the position of designated hitter, a cause of some controversy; the National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the remaining leagues that have not adopted the designated hitter position.
In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the strike zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it, or hits the ball poorly. If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part of the ball passes through the strike zone and a ball when no part of the ball passes through the strike zone. A check swing is when the batter begins to swing, but stops the swing short. If the batter checks the swing and the pitch is out of the strike zone, it is called a ball. There are the windup and the set position or stretch. Either position may be used at any time; each position has certain procedures. A balk can be called on a pitcher from either position. A power pitcher is one. Power pitchers record a high percentage of strikeouts. A control pitcher thus records few walks. Nearly all action during a game is centered on the pitcher for the defensive team.
A pitcher's particular style, time taken between pitches, skill influence the dynamics of the game and can determine the victor. Starting with the pivot foot on the pitcher's rubber at the center of the pitcher's mound, 60 feet 6 inches from home plate, the pitcher throws the baseball to the catcher, positioned behind home plate and catches the ball. Meanwhile, a batter stands in the batter's box at one side of the plate, attempts to bat the ball safely into fair play; the type and sequence of pitches chosen depend upon the particular situation in a game. Because pitchers and catchers must coordinate each pitch, a system of hand signals is used by the catcher to communicate choices to the pitcher, who either vetoes or accepts by shaking his head or nodding; the relationship between pitcher and catcher is so important that some teams select the starting catcher for a particular game based on the starting pitcher. Together, the pitcher and catcher are known as the battery. Although the object and mechanics of pitching remain the same, pitchers may be classified according to their roles and effectiveness.
The starting pitcher begins the game, he may be followed by various relief pitchers, such as the long reliever, the left-handed specialist, the middle reliever, the setup man, and/or the closer. In Major League Baseball, every team uses Baseball Rubbing Mud to rub game balls in before their pitchers use them in games. A skilled pitcher throws a variety of different pitches to prevent the batter from hitting the ball well; the most basic pitch is a fastball. Some pitchers are able to throw a fastball at a speed over 100 miles per ex. Aroldis Chapman. Other common types of pitches are the curveball, changeup, sinker, forkball, split-fingered fastball and knuckleball; these are intended to have unusual movement or to deceive the batter as to the rotation or velocity of the ball, making it more difficult to hit. Few pitchers throw all of these pitches, but most use a subset or blend of the basic types; some pitchers release pitches from different arm angles, making it harder for the batter to pick up the flight of the ball.
A pitcher, throwing well on a particular day is said to have brought his "good stuff." There are a number of distinct throwing styles used by pitchers. The most common style is a three-quarters delivery in which the pitcher's arm snaps downward with the release of the ball; some pitchers use a sidearm delivery. Some pitchers use a submarine style in which the pitcher's body tilts downward on delivery, creating an exaggerated sidearm motion in which the pitcher's knuckles come close to the mound. Effective pitching is vitally important in baseball. In baseball statistics, for each game, one pitcher will be credited with winning the game, one pitcher will be charged with losing it; this is not the starting pitchers for each team, however, as a reliever can get a win and the starter would get a no-decision. Pitching is physically demanding if the pitcher is throwing with maximum effort. A full game involves 120–170 pitches thrown by each team, most pitchers begin to tire before they re
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass i.e. to accelerate. Force can be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both direction, making it a vector quantity, it is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Concepts related to force include: thrust. In an extended body, each part applies forces on the adjacent parts; such internal mechanical stresses cause no acceleration of that body as the forces balance one another. Pressure, the distribution of many small forces applied over an area of a body, is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate.
Stress causes deformation of solid materials, or flow in fluids. Philosophers in antiquity used the concept of force in the study of stationary and moving objects and simple machines, but thinkers such as Aristotle and Archimedes retained fundamental errors in understanding force. In part this was due to an incomplete understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction, a inadequate view of the nature of natural motion. A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion at a constant velocity. Most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton. With his mathematical insight, Sir Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion that were not improved for nearly three hundred years. By the early 20th century, Einstein developed a theory of relativity that predicted the action of forces on objects with increasing momenta near the speed of light, provided insight into the forces produced by gravitation and inertia.
With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms. The Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic and gravitational. High-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction. Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines; the mechanical advantage given by a simple machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work. Analysis of the characteristics of forces culminated in the work of Archimedes, famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids.
Aristotle provided a philosophical discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of Aristotelian cosmology. In Aristotle's view, the terrestrial sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different "natural places" therein. Aristotle believed that motionless objects on Earth, those composed of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground and that they will stay that way if left alone, he distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their "natural place", which led to "natural motion", unnatural or forced motion, which required continued application of a force. This theory, based on the everyday experience of how objects move, such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving, had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles, such as the flight of arrows; the place where the archer moves the projectile was at the start of the flight, while the projectile sailed through the air, no discernible efficient cause acts on it.
Aristotle was aware of this problem and proposed that the air displaced through the projectile's path carries the projectile to its target. This explanation demands a continuum like air for change of place in general. Aristotelian physics began facing criticism in medieval science, first by John Philoponus in the 6th century; the shortcomings of Aristotelian physics would not be corrected until the 17th century work of Galileo Galilei, influenced by the late medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus. Galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion, he showed that the bodies were accelerated by gravity to an extent, independent of their mass and argued that objects retain their velocity unless acted on by a force, for example friction. Sir Isaac Newton described the motion of all objects using the concepts of inertia and force, in doing so he found they obey certain conservation laws.
In 1687, Newton published his thesis Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In this work Newton set out three laws of motion that to this day are t
Ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint
The ulnar collateral ligament is a thick triangular band at the medial aspect of the elbow uniting the distal aspect of the humerus to the proximal aspect of the ulna. It consists of an anterior and posterior united by a thinner intermediate portion. Note that this ligament is referred to as the medial collateral ligament and should not be confused with the lateral ulnar collateral ligament; the anterior portion, directed obliquely forward, is attached, above, by its apex, to the front part of the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The posterior portion of triangular form, is attached, above, by its apex, to the lower and back part of the medial epicondyle. Between these two bands a few intermediate fibers descend from the medial epicondyle to blend with a transverse band which bridges across the notch between the olecranon and the coronoid process; this ligament is in relation with the triceps brachii and flexor carpi ulnaris and the ulnar nerve, gives origin to part of the flexor digitorum superficialis.
During activities such as overhand baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to extreme tension, which places the overhand-throwing athlete at risk for injury. Acute or chronic disruption and/or attenuation of the ulnar collateral ligament result in medial elbow pain, valgus instability, neurologic deficiency, impaired throwing performance. There are both surgical treatment options. Tommy John surgery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 322 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy