Hunedoara is a city in Hunedoara County, Romania. It is located in southwestern Transylvania near the Poiana Ruscă Mountains, the city includes the most important Gothic-style secular building in Transylvania, the Hunyad Castle, which is closely connected with the Hunyadi family. The castle was destroyed by fire five times, but underwent many reconstructions from Austro-Hungarian, besides the castle, the town developed as a production center for iron and a market for the mountain regions nearby. During the 20th century, Hunedoaras population increased to 86,000 inhabitants, the city contained the largest steel works in Romania, but activity gradually diminished after the fall of the Iron Curtain due to the loss of the market. This was a blow to the prosperity of the town. The population consists of a majority of Romanians, with Romani, the city contains numerous parks, with poplars and chestnut trees flanking the streets. There are many tourist attractions, including a dam, with tourist facilities, located a few kilometers from the city.
The name of the town seems inexorably linked to the name of the Hunyadi family, the most probable explanation for the Romanian name Hunedoara is the transliteration of the Hungarian name Hunyadvár meaning Castle of Hunyad, as many Hungarian towns have this suffix. Historically, the names were recorded, Huniad, Hwnyadwar. The latter Hungarian name Vajdahunyad is a referral to John Hunyadi. The etymology of the Hunyadi family implies a Vlach origin, stone Age tools were discovered in the Sânpetru hill near the castle and in the surrounding villages. The region was rich in iron, which had been extracted in the area since the Iron Age by Thracian tribes. The remains of eight Dacian iron furnaces have been found at the Sânpetru hill near the castle, the discovery of important monetary treasures of Dacian coins and Roman imperial coins testifies to the importance of the site. After Dacia was conquered around 106 AD and turned into a Roman province, the region attracted the attention of the Romans.
A Villa Rustica emerged in Teliuc, a Roman fortification on Sanpetru hill, Other Roman artifacts were discovered in the city area, and in Pestis, where the remains of a Roman village were discovered. The new capital city of the Roman province of Dacia, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, was situated in the proximity. After the Roman military and administrative retreat during the Migration Period the region had no significant historic sites, the ethnic structure of the region changed significantly, most notably with Goths, Slavs, Pechenegs and Cumans. There is a scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvanias population before the Hungarian conquest
Micia was a large Roman fort for auxiliary troops and an important part of the western Dacian limes. The archaeological site is located near the municipality of Vețel, Hunedoara county in Transylvania and this Roman garrison monitored and secured the road and the river route to Partiscum, today Szeged in Hungary. In addition, there was an important river port In the civil settlement, there were large baths. Significant is the number of ancient inscriptions. In the southeast of the military bath, at a distance of about hundred meters. Possessed in a circle around an arena, the foundation of the walls had a circumference of 104 meters. The arena consisted of 31 ×29 meters, list of castra Media related to Micia at Wikimedia Commons Roman castra from Romania - Google Maps / Earth
The Danube is Europes second-longest river, after the Volga River, and the longest river in the European Union region. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe, the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries, the Latin name Dānuvius is one of a number of Old European river names derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the root include the Dunajec, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means fluid, drop, in Avestan, in the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra. Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning strong, in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube, the Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, the bringer of luck. The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, the German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe wetland.
Classified as a waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach. The Danube flows southeast for about 2,800 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and its drainage basin extends into nine more. The highest point of the basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border. The land drained by the Danube extends into other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges, from its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tributaries are, The Danube flows through many cities, including four national capitals, more than any other river in the world. Danube remains a mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0. 0012%. Middle Section, From Devín Gate to Iron Gate, at the border of Serbia and Romania, the riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0. 00006%.
Lower Section, From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0. 00003%, about 60 of its tributaries are navigable. In 1994 the Danube was declared one of ten Pan-European transport corridors, routes in Central, the amount of goods transported on the Danube increased to about 100 million tons in 1987. In 1999, transport on the river was difficult by the NATO bombing of three bridges in Serbia during the Kosovo War
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Legio V Macedonica
Legio quinta Macedonica was a Roman legion. It was probably levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus. It was based in the Balkan provinces of Macedonia and Dacia, in the Notitia Dignitatum records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt. The last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it and its symbol was the bull, but the eagle was used as well. The Legio V was one of the original twenty-eight legions raised by Octavian, there are two fifth legions recorded, the V Gallica and the V Urbana. It is possible that both were early names for the V Macedonica. The legion probably participated in the Battle of Actium and it moved to Macedonia, where it stayed from 30 BC to AD6, gaining its cognomen, before moving to Oescus. In 62, some vexillationes of the Fifth fought under Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia against the Parthian Empire, the Fifth was probably still in the East when the Great Jewish Revolt in Iudaea Province began in 66.
Nero gave the V Macedonica, the X Fretensis and the XV Apollinaris to Titus Flavius Vespasianus to counter the revolt. In 67, in Galilee, the city of Sepphoris surrendered peacefully to the Roman army, and the V Macedonica conquered Mount Gerizim, the chief sanctuary of the Samaritans. In the Year of the Four Emperors,68, the legion stayed inactive in Emmaus, after the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor and the end of the war under his son Titus, the V Macedonica left Iudaea and returned to Oescus. In 96, the emperor Hadrian served the legion as tribunus militum, in 101, the legion moved to Dacia, to fight in Emperor Trajans campaign against the king Decebalus. The legate of the V Macedonica was future emperor Hadrian, after the war ended in 106, the legion remained in Troesmis, near the Danube Delta since 107. A centurion of the legion, Calventius Viator, rose to prominence under Hadrian and he was eventually promoted to commander of the emperors horse guards, the equites singulares Augusti.
When Emperor Lucius Verus started his campaign against the Parthians, the moved to the east. The northern frontier was a hot border of the Empire, when emperor Marcus Aurelius had to fight against the Marcomanni, the Iazyges, and the Quadi, the V Macedonica was involved in these fights. At the beginning of the reign of Commodus, the V Macedonica, the Fifth supported Septimius Severus, in his fight for the purple. In 185 or 187, the legion was awarded of the title Pia Constans or Pia Fidelis, while staying in Potaissa for most of the 3rd century, V Macedonica fought several times, earning honors
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and it was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000, the conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan after two major campaigns against Decebalus Dacian kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș. In 119, the Roman province was divided two departments, Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior. In 124, Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces, Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis, the Roman authorities undertook a massive and organized colonization of Dacia. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but to the rest of the Balkan area.
It became a province, with about 10 cities known,8 of which held the highest rank of colonia. All the cities developed from old military camps, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator for all the three subdivisions was the financial and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacias existence, Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Romes long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus, but they report that it was Aurelian who relinquished Dacia Traiana.
He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia, the fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula, the Dacians and the Getae frequently interacted with the Romans prior to Dacias incorporation into the Roman Empire. However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista unified the native tribes and his kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans. By 74 BC, the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube, Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics. As part of Caesars planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesars assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae, which were specifically a branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus Mons, Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river, in Greek sources the Istros, or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons. Moesia, a region south of the Danube, was an area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus and the river Danastris, but several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis, and the Tisia to the west. At times Dacia included areas between the Tisa and the Middle Danube, the Carpathian Mountains were located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as parts of Bulgaria, Hungary. Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with neighboring tribes, such as Sarmatians, Scythians.
A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in AD106, the Dacians are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks, in Herodotus and Thucydides. The extent and location of Dacia varied in its three historical periods, The Dacia of King Burebista, stretched from the Black Sea to the river Tisa. During that period, the Geto-Dacians conquered a territory and Dacia extended from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea littoral. In 53 BC, Julius Caesar stated that the lands of the Dacians started on the edge of the Hercynian Forest. After Burebistas death, his kingdom split in four states, the hold of the Dacians between the Danube and Tisza was tenuous. However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisa dating from the time of Burebista, according to Tacitus Dacians bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east. Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of parts of Dacia in AD 105–106, according to the scholars interpretation of Ptolemy Dacia was the region between the rivers Tisza, upper Dniester, and Siret.
Mainstream historians accept this interpretation, Avery Berenger Fol Mountain, Waldman Mason, Ptolemy provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland in the Upper Vistula river basin and Setidava. This could have been an echo of Burebistas expansion and it seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170–180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group. This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci/Lipiţa culture, is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language ending dava i. e. Setidava. In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana as far east as the Hierasus river, after the Marcomannic Wars, Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia had been set in motion
Leptis Magna was a prominent city in Roman Libya. Originally a Punic foundation, it was expanded under emperor Septimius Severus. Diocletian re-instated the city as capital, and the city grew again in prosperity until it fell to the Vandals in 439. It was re-incorporated into the Eastern Empire in 533, but continued to be plagued by Berber raids and it fell to the Muslim invasion in c.647 and was abandoned. The ruins of Leptis Magna are located in Khoms, Libya,130 km east of Tripoli, the site is one of best preserved Roman ruins in the Mediterranean. The Latin name was Lepcis Magna The Greek name was Λέπτις μεγάλη Leptis megale or Νεάπολις Neapolis, the city was called Greater in contrast with Leptis Parva in modern-day Tunisia. The Neo-Punic name is recorded as lpqy, the name appears to be Semitic in origin, tentatively connected to the Arabic root lfq to fabricate, piece together, taken to refer to the foundation or construction of the city. The modern Arabic name is لَبْدَة Labdah, the Punic city was founded in the second half of the 7th century BC.
Little is known about the old city, but it appears to have been enough to repel Dorieus attempt to establish a Greek colony nearby in c.515 BC. A 4th to 3rd century BC necropolis was found under the Roman theatre, during the reign of Augustus, Leptis Magna was classified as a Civitas libera et immunis, or a free community, over which the governor had an absolute minimum of control. As such Leptis retain its two suphetes at the head of its government, with the mhzm, similar to the Roman aediles, in addition there were such sacred officials as the addir ararim or praefectus sacrorum, the nēquim ēlīm, and probably a sacred college of fifteen members. These offices were still in operation when Leptis was made a Municipium with a certain degree of Roman rights. The city depended primarily on the fertility of its surrounding farmland, as early as 46 BC, its olive oil production was of such an extent that the city was levied by Caesar with a tax of three million pounds of oil annually. The Roman Republic sent some colonists together with a garrison in order to control the city.
Since the city started to grow and was allowed to create its own money. Soon Italian merchants settled in the city and started a profitable commerce with the Libyan interior, Leptis Magna remained as such until the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius, when the city and the surrounding area were formally incorporated into the empire as part of the province of Africa. It soon became one of the cities of Roman Africa. The city grew rapidly under Roman administration and it was elevated to municipium in AD 64/5 and to colonia under Trajan Leptis achieved its greatest prominence beginning in AD193, as the hometown of emperor Septimius Severus
The Goths were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe. In the Gothic language they were called the Gut-þiuda, most commonly translated as Gothic people, gut-þiudai, or Gutans Inferred from gen. pl. gutani in Pietroassa inscription. In Old Norse they were known as the Gutar or Gotar, in Latin as the Gothi, the exact origin of the ancient Goths is unknown. Evidence of them before they interacted with the Romans is limited, Modern academics have generally abandoned this theory. Today, the Wielbark culture is thought to have developed from earlier cultures in the same area, archaeological finds show close contacts between southern Sweden and the Baltic coastal area on the continent, and further towards the south-east, evidenced by pottery, house types and graves. Rather than a migration, similarities in the material cultures may be products of long-term regular contacts.
However, the record could indicate that while his work is thought to be unreliable. Sometime around the 1st century AD, Germanic peoples may have migrated from Scandinavia to Gothiscandza, early archaeological evidence in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland suggests a general depopulation during this period. However, there is no evidence for a substantial emigration from Scandinavia. Upon their arrival on the Pontic Steppe, the Germanic tribes adopted the ways of the Eurasian nomads, the first Greek references to the Goths call them Scythians, since this area along the Black Sea historically had been occupied by an unrelated people of that name. The earliest known material culture associated with the Goths on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea is the Wielbark culture, centered on the modern region of Pomerania in northern Poland. This culture replaced the local Oxhöft or Oksywie culture in the 1st century, the culture of this area was influenced by southern Scandinavian culture beginning as early as the late Nordic Bronze Age and early Pre-Roman Iron Age.
In Eastern Europe they formed part of the Chernyakhov culture and it has been suggested that the Goths maintained contact with southern Sweden during their migration. In the first attested incursion in Thrace, the Goths were mentioned as Boranoi by Zosimus, the first incursion of the Roman Empire that can be attributed to Goths is the sack of Histria in 238. Several such raids followed in subsequent decades, in particular the Battle of Abrittus in 251, led by Cniva, at the time, there were at least two groups of Goths, the Thervingi and the Greuthungs. Goths were subsequently recruited into the Roman Army to fight in the Roman-Persian Wars. The Moesogoths settled in Thrace and Moesia, the first seaborne raids took place in three subsequent years, probably 255-257. An unsuccessful attack on Pityus was followed in the year by another
Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood