Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Toyota iQ is a transverse engined, front-wheel-drive city car, manufactured by Toyota and marketed in a single generation for Japan and North America where it was marketed as the Scion iQ. A rebadged variant was marketed in Europe as the Aston Martin Cygnet. Designed at the Toyota European Design and Development studio in Nice, the iQ is noted for its specialized engineering to maximize passenger space, while minimizing exterior length; the design accommodates three passengers—and provisionally a fourth, under tight conditions. Following a concept presented at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show, the production iQ debuted at the March 2008 Geneva Motor Show. Japanese sales began in November 2008 and European sales in January 2009. In 2008, the iQ was named the Japanese Car of the Year; the name iQ, an initialism of the term intelligence quotient, recalls a competitor, the Smart Fortwo. The letters "iQ" stand for "individuality", "innovation", "quality", a hint at its "cubic form" and a "cue" for owners to embrace new types of vehicles and lifestyles.
The iQ reached the end of production in December 2015, it was discontinued in Japan on 4 April 2016. The IQ design emphasizes low fuel consumption, environmental friendliness, maximized interior space. Six specific design factors contribute to IQ's minimal overhangs, forward windscreen location, maximized cabin space and overall compactness: A newly developed differential mounted further forward than usual A centre take-off steering gear A flat fuel tank positioned underneath the cabin floor Rear-angled shock absorbers to encroach less on rear passenger space A smaller heater/air conditioning unit mounted centrally behind the asymmetric dashboard A slimmer seat design; the iQ features a transmissions differential housing located ahead of, rather than behind, the engine. The arrangement allows the front passenger to sit forward of the driver, giving increased rear passenger legroom. A shallow under-floor fuel tank reduces rear overhang; because of its overall width and engine displacement, the iQ is classified in its home market as a supermini, though its length complies with kei car dimensional regulations.
Production of the Scion iQ EV was to be limited to 100 units for special fleet use in Japan and carsharing demonstration projects in the U. S. Deliveries of the all-electric version with a range of 80 km began in the U. S. in March 2013. The two seat version was only sold in Japan; the 1.0L engine is similar to the engine in Toyota Aygo. The iQ achieves 65.69 mpg‑imp by European standards. UK models include only petrol engines. Early Japan models include only 1.0L three-cylinder engine. 1.33L engine option was added beginning in 2009. The car is capable of fitting 1.6L four-cylinder engine. Models with the 1.33L engine include start and stop system, only with the manual transmission. Japan models include only CVT transmission; the iQ includes nine airbags, dual frontal airbags, front seat-mounted side torso airbags, side curtain airbags, front passenger seat cushion airbag, a driver's knee airbag and a newly developed rear curtain airbag to protect backseat passengers' heads from rear-end collisions.
Vehicle Stability Control, traction control, anti-lock brakes, brake assist, electronic brakeforce distribution come standard. In 2013, the UK's Vehicle and Operator Services Agency voted the Toyota iQ as top three-year-old car most to pass its first Ministry of Transport road worthiness test; the Toyota FT-EV concept was unveiled at the January 2009 North American International Auto Show. It is a battery electric concept vehicle with an estimated capacity of 50 miles. Toyota plans to launch the production version of FT-EV in 2012. A modified version was shown as the FT-EV II at the October 2009 Tokyo Motor Show; this is a family of Toyota iQ custom body kits in Japanese market. MODELLISTA MAXI includes side skirt, rear bumper. MODELLISTA MIXTURE includes mirror cover, back window panel, side door trim. MODELLISTA MIXTURE side make set only includes side door trim; this is a limited version for Japanese market. It included a 1,329 cubic centimetres I4 engine, 6-speed manual transmission, stiffer sport suspension that lowers its ride height by 30 mm, rear disk brakes, RAYS 16x5.5-in aluminium wheels with 175/60R16 tires, enhanced brakes, stiffening brace, aluminium pedals, rear spoiler, GRMN emblem and a sport exhaust system.
The GAZOO Racing package adds a front bumper spoiler, side mudguards, rear bumper spoiler centre muffler, Toyota front fog lamps, original decal, front sport seat covers. The vehicle was unveiled at the January 2009 Tokyo Auto Salon; the GAZOO Racing cars were sold through Toyota's Netz dealer channel. It has MSRP of ¥1,972,000; these are show cars. IQ for Sports reflects modern urban chic through a purpose-made body kit emphasizing the iQ's broad stance, powerful geometry and clean sweeping lines. IQ Collection focuses on interior customisation; the vehicles were unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The Scion iQ Concept car was built by Five Axis based on the Toyota iQ and displayed in April 2009 at the New York Auto Show. Based on the production Toyota iQ, the concept was equipped with a 94 hp and 89 lb⋅ft 1.3-liter, 1,329 cc DOHC Inline-4 engine, 18-inch wheels and widened wheel arches, with eleven airbags. T
The Daewoo Leganza is a mid-size sedan produced by Daewoo in South Korea between 1997 and 2002. Its internal development name was V100, under which it and its platform are known. Daewoo explained that the name Leganza originated from the combination of two Italian words – elegante and forza; the Leganza was a part of Daewoo's effort to develop a lineup of proprietary vehicles to replace previous GM-licensed models. Sister projects to the V100 are J100 Daewoo Nubira; the development of "x100" cars involved the work of many suppliers. This involved, among others, ZF with regard to transmissions, Holden concerning the engines and Dr. Ulrich Bez supervising design efforts. Leganza was styled by the famous Italian designer Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign, it is believed that this design was inspired by Giugiaro's 1990 Jaguar Kensington concept car, a pedigree Leganza's body shares with the 1991 Toyota Aristo. In case of Leganza, Giugiaro had to deal with a shorter vehicle with front-wheel rather than rear-wheel drive, combined with Daewoo styling cues, resulted in a controversial appearance although contemporary reviews praised the styling.
Daewoo expanded their distribution network with the inception of new models, which made the Leganza present in the markets of most countries, albeit not with sales success. Daewoo placed special emphasis on developing markets, which involved the assembly of Leganzas in countries like Poland, Ukraine and Uzbekistan, in plants owned by Daewoo or under license agreements; this concerned CKD or SKD assembly only, as all Leganzas were made at Daewoo's Bupyong plant in Korea. It is worth noting that, contrary to many Korean cars sold worldwide, the Leganza was invariably sold under the Daewoo Leganza name, the only exception being the Doninvest Kondor, a short-lived version assembled by the Russian Doninvest corporation on Taganrog's TagAZ. At the time it was launched, the Leganza was a bit longer than most mid-size European or Asian cars, why it was marketed as an inexpensive executive car in some markets; the base Leganza was offered with a 2.0L 4-cylinder engine, 5-speed manual, cloth trim and all the standard power options.
It had an optional 4-speed, hydraulically operated transmission, said to be rough operating, tended to hunt between gears, do unnecessary downshifts to second gear. Ride quality was poor. In 1999, Daewoo made revisions to the model; the rough-operating hydraulic auto was replaced by an electronically controlled automatic transmission, which stopped the hunting between gears and random downshifts. The engine was upgraded to the 2.2 l, which boosted power from 98 kW to 99 kW, giving better performance, but increasing fuel consumption. The Leganza gained standard 15-inch alloy wheels, anti-theft alarm, remote central locking; the suspension was fixed and improved, but sacrificed the smooth ride from the before model and the ability to soak up the bumps. In 2001 the Leganza gained leather upholstery, woodgrain trim, an electric driver's seat; this was called the "Limited Edition". In 2002 the Nubira gained a leather interior, anti-theft alarm, alloy wheels and remote locking; the Leganza was a front-wheel-drive car, available with a four-door sedan body only.
The Leganza was powered by Holden-sourced D-TEC DOHC 16V I4 engines: 2.0 l – 131 hp at 5,400 rpm, 185 N⋅m at 4,600 rpm of torque – used in models sold in Europe. 2.2 l – 133 hp at 5,200 rpm, 200 N⋅m at 2,800 rpm of torque – used for the American and Australian market. Both engines came with either a 4-speed automatic. Contrary to Matiz or Nubira, the Leganza was not afforded a mid-life facelift, so there was no "V150" model. Rather than that, Daewoo increased the wheelbase of the V100 platform by 30 mm to develop a new model, called Daewoo Magnus, launched in 2000. Both models were sold side by side in Korea, the Leganza got a small update in 2001 – but the Magnus has not been launched internationally until Leganza's demise in 2002 replacing it. Daewoo ceased North American sales by so the V200 was released as the Suzuki Verona in the United States and Canada. There was no successor in the United Kingdom or Ireland until the launch of the Daewoo Tosca under the nameplate of Chevrolet Epica in 2007
Aston Martin V12 Zagato
The Aston Martin V12 Zagato is a British sports car/endurace racer made by Aston Martin in collaboration with Zagato to celebrate a fifty-year partnership since the Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato. Introduced in Lake Como, Italy at the Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este on 21 May 2011, the Zagato was awarded with the competition's "Design Award for Concept Cars and Prototypes", won by the One-77 in 2009. Like the Aston Martin V12 Vantage on which it is based, the V12 Zagato is powered by a 5.9-litre AM11 V12 engine first used in the DBS which produces 510 bhp, 570 N⋅m of torque. Designed at the Aston Martin Design Studios in Gaydon, the chassis - engineered by a Chris Porritt-led team including veterans of Astons Martins's One-77 project - features a retuned version of the regular V12 Vantage’s double-wishbone suspension; the design features a new handcrafted aluminium body with the front similar to the Vantage with differences in the roof and rear section. Another difference is the endurance racing fuel tank carrying up to 120 litres of fuel.
Following a large interest by customers, Aston Martin announced they would produce a homologated version of the car, producing only a limited run of 150 at the Aston Martin headquarters in Gaydon. Starting delivery in the second half of 2012, the Zagato was priced at around £330,000 excluding local taxes; the Aston Martin V12 Zagato made its racing debut at the 53rd ADAC ACAS H&R-Cup VLN round at the Nürburgring on 28 May, the event for the car being a preparation and development experience ahead of the Nürburgring 24-hour race, to be held on 25–26 June. Two V12 Zagatos competed in the 51st ADAC Reinoldus-Langstreckenrennen VLN four-hour race on 11 June. Again as a test session ahead of the Nürburgring 24-hour race. Aston Martin Chief Executive, Dr. Ulrich Bez lead the driver team joined by the company's Nürburgring Test Centre Director, Wolfgang Schuhbauer plus experienced amateur racer Peter Cate in the first of the two V12 Zagato's; the sister car was driven by One-77 Chief Engineer Chris Porritt, experienced sports car driver Oliver Mathai and automotive journalist Richard Meaden.
Competing in the SP8 category, the V12 Zagatos. The two V12 Zagatos affectionately nicknamed "Zig" and "Zag" competed in the 39th ADAC Nürburgring 24-hour race, held on 25–26 June; the two factory backed cars both completed the race, finishing 6th in the SP8 class. The red car raced at the 2011 Goodwood Festival of Speed on 1–3 July. Driven by Aston Martin head designer, Marek Reichman, the car recorded a best time of 61.21 to finish 15th in the overall shootout. On 17 October "Zig" was part of a collaboration between Aston Martin and Toyota at the VLN9 DMV 250-Meilen-Rennen. During the race drivers of both the V12 Zagato and Lexus LFA, which included the CEO of Aston Martin and President of Toyota, had an opportunity to drive both cars.'Zig' attended VLN3 as a test for the Nurburgring 24 hours, during which the car sustained a puncture on the first lap, however went on the finish the race without any further problems. Running in green livery'Zig' was re-painted Gulf blue and black for the Nurburgring 24hours to match its GT3 teammates.
The car had an excellent race and ran faultlessly throughout driven by Aston Martin CEO Dr Ulrich Bez, chief engineer Chris Porritt, Nürburgring Test Centre Director Wolfgang Schuhbauer and journalist Richard Meaden and finished 26th overall and 2nd in class. The same car attended the Aston Martin Le Mans Festival, a support race for the Le Mans 24 hours. During the first stint had battled up to an impressive fourth position, having started from tenth, before handing over to his teammate Dr Ulrich Bez. AMOC.org Aston Martin Unveils New V12 Zagato Official car site Aston Martin V12 Zagato
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Bad Cannstatt just "Cannstatt" or "Kannstadt", is one of the outer stadtbezirke, or city districts, of Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Bad Cannstatt is the oldest and most populous of Stuttgart's districts, one of the most significant towns in the area of Stuttgart; the town is home to the Cannstatter Wasen and Cannstatter Volksfest beer festivals, the Mercedes-Benz Arena, the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle, the Porsche-Arena. Bad Cannstatt's name originates from a Castra stativa, Cannstatt Castrum, the massive Roman Castra, erected on the hilly ridge in AD 90 to protect the valuable river crossing and local trade. In the past, Bad Cannstatt has been known as Cannstatt or Kannstatt, Canstatt and Condistat, its name was changed to include "Bad" to mention the town's spas on 23 July 1933. Bad Cannstatt lies on the Neckar at the convergence of various regional trails, it was founded during the Roman period, although the area was inhabited by the Seelberg mammoth hunters during the last glacial period.
The nearby Sielberg is notable for its fossils. Records survive of Roman knowledge of the area's springs; the present name first appeared as the seat of a court held by Charlemagne in the 8th century while trying the rebellious dukes of Alemannia and Bavaria. Cannstatt was the capital of the county of Württemberg into the 15th century. Cannstatt subsequently formed part of the duchy and kingdom of Württemberg, it lay about 2.5 miles from Stuttgart proper. In the 13th or 14th century, Louis the Bavarian expanded its rights and privileges to equality with Esslingen, its 15th-century cathedral was dedicated to St Uffo. In 1755, the Great Lisbon earthquake caused the town hall to subside about 3 feet. During the wars which followed the French Revolution, the town was the site on 21 July 1796 of a French victory over the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century, it boasted an attractive town hall, a royal theater, a market house, the Wilhelma and Rosenstein palaces, extensive industry including wool-spinning, dyeing and construction of machinery.
There were about 40 mineral springs, which were considered beneficial for "dyspepsia and weakness of the nervous system", as well as "diseases of the throat". Cannstatt was the site of Gottlieb Daimler's invention of the motorcycle and housed an automotive factory before the First World War. Around that time, it had notable railway and chemical works and a brewery. Cannstatt was incorporated into Stuttgart in 1904. Of the 19 surviving mineral springs, 11 are recognized as state wells. In the world, it is now second to only Újbuda in Hungary, in scale; the Mombach spring is the only one. Famous people associated with Bad-Cannstatt include: Gottlieb Daimler, inventor of the motorcycle and part-founder of Daimler-Benz. Baynes, T. S. ed. "Canstatt", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 26–27. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Cannstatt", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5, Cambridge University Press, p. 189