Sponheim or Spanheim was a medieval German noble family, which originated in Rhenish Franconia. They were immediate Counts of Sponheim until 1437 and Dukes of Carinthia from 1122 until 1269. A cadet branch ruled in the Imperial County of Ortenburg-Neuortenburg until 1806; the family took its name from their ancestral seat at Sponheim Castle in the Hunsrück range, in present-day Burgsponheim near Bad Kreuznach, Rhineland-Palatinate. From the 11th century the family was divided in two related branches. One of these branches the senior one, retained the Duchy of Carinthia and originated the County of Ortenburg in Bavaria; the other one remained in Rhenish Franconia. The founder of the ducal branch was Count Siegfried I, a Ripuarian Frank by birth and retainer of the Salian emperor Conrad II. For this reason the family is sometimes termed the Siegfrieding. Siegfried followed Conrad in his 1035 campaign against Duke Adalbero of Carinthia, who for unknown reasons had fallen out of favour with the emperor.
By his marriage to Richgard, daughter of one Count Engelbert of the Bavarian Sieghardinger noble family, he became heir to large territories in Carinthia and Tyrol. In 1045 Siegfried received the title of a margrave in the Hungarian March by Emperor Henry III, his sons Engelbert, Margrave in Istria from 1090, Hartwig founded Saint Paul's Abbey, Lavanttal on their mother's estates in 1091. When the ducal House of Eppenstein became extinct in 1122, Siegfried's grandson Henry inherited the title and became the first Sponheim Duke of Carinthia as well as Margrave in the Italian March of Verona. Upon his death only one year he was succeeded by his brother Engelbert, whose descendants ruled in Carinthia until the death of Duke Ulrich III in 1269. Engelbert's younger son; the Spanheim dukes tried to consolidate their possessions by being loyal liensmen of the Imperial House of Hohenstaufen, they had to struggle with reluctant local nobles like the Carinthian Ortenburger. The margravial title in Verona was lost to Herman III of Baden in 1151.
Under Bernhard of Sponheim, Carinthian duke from 1202 until 1256, the dynasty reached the height of its power. In 1213 he married Judith, a daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia, which affiliated the ducal line with the Czech royal Přemyslid dynasty. Bernhard's son Ulrich III by marriage with Agnes of Merania in 1248 inherited the title of a margrave in the adjacent March of Carniola. However, as he outlived his children, he bequested his Carinthian and Carniolan lands to his Přemyslid cousin King Ottokar II of Bohemia according to a secret inheritance agreement of 1268; these estates were among the territories which Rudolph of Habsburg after his election as King of the Romans in 1273 seized due to their acquisition in suspicious circumstances. The founder of the Rhenish branch was Count Stephan I of Sponheim, who may have been a 1st cousin, a son or a nephew of Siegfried. One of his successors Gottfried III married Adelheid of Sayn and heiress of the last Count of Sayn, Henry II. In 1437 this branch's ruling male line in Sponheim died out, female line descendants, namely the Margraves of Baden and the Counts Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, took on the title of Count to Sponheim, along with the Elector of the Palatinate, who had received a small part as dowry.
The branch of the Counts of Ortenburg is still living today in Tambach. A lateral line of the Rhenish branch survives with the Princes of Sayn-Wittgenstein. Siegfried I, Count in the Puster Valley, Margrave of the Hungarian March Hartwig, Archbishop of Magdeburg Engelbert I von Sponheim, Margrave of Istria Bernhard of Trixen Richardis, married to Margrave Poppo II of Carniola Henry IV, Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona Engelbert II, Margrave of Carniola and Istria, Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona Ulrich I, Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona Henry V, Duke of Carinthia, Margrave of Verona until 1151 Herman II, Duke of Carinthia Ulrich II, Duke of Carinthia Bernhard, Duke of Carinthia Ulrich III, Margrave of Carniola since 1248, Duke of Carinthia, married to Agnes of Merania and secondly to Agnes of Baden Philip Archbishop-elect of Salzburg, Patriarch of Aquileia Engelbert III, Margrave of Istria, Margrave of Tuscany Henry, Bishop of Troyes Rapoto, Count of Ortenburg, founder of the House of Ortenburg Adelheid, Abbess at Göss Hartwig II, Bishop of Regensburg Matilda, married to Count Theobald II of Champagne Siegfried II, Count at Lebenau Hartwig I, Bishop of Regensburg Frederick Eberhard Stephan I a cousin or brother of Siegfried I Stephan II married to Sophia of Formbach, widow of Count Hermann of Salm, German anti-king from 1081 Meginhard I, married to Mechtild, daughter of Count Adalbert II of Nellenburg Godfrey I married to Matilda, daughter of Duke Simon I of Lorraine Godfrey II married to a daughter of Count Gerlach of Veldenz Godfrey III, married to Adelheid, sister of Count Henry III of Sayn, died in the Fifth Crusade John I of Sponheim-Starkenburg, Count of Sayn from 1263 married to a daughter of Count Frederick of Isenberg, see Sponheim-Starkenburg below Henry, married to Agnes of Heinsberg Simon I of Sponheim-Kreuznach, married to Margaret of Heimbach, see Sponheim-Kreuznach below Gerhard I married to a daughter of Coun
Béla III of Hungary
Béla III was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196. He was the second son of Géza's wife, Euphrosyne of Kiev. Around 1161, Euphrosyne granted Béla a duchy, which included Croatia, central Dalmatia and Sirmium. In accordance with a peace treaty between his elder brother, Stephen III, who succeeded their father in 1162, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, Béla moved to Constantinople in 1163, he was renamed to Alexios, the emperor granted him the newly created senior court title of despotes. He was betrothed to Maria. Béla's patrimony caused armed conflicts between the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary between 1164 and 1167, because Stephen III attempted to hinder the Byzantines from taking control of Croatia and Sirmium. Béla-Alexios, designated as Emperor Manuel's heir in 1165, took part in three Byzantine campaigns against Hungary, his betrothal to the emperor's daughter was dissolved after her brother, was born in 1169. The emperor deprived Béla of his high title. Stephen III died on 4 March 1172, Béla decided to return to Hungary.
Before his departure, he pledged. Although the Hungarian prelates and lords unanimously proclaimed Béla king, Archbishop of Esztergom opposed his coronation because of Béla's alleged simony; the Archbishop of Kalocsa crowned him king on 18 January 1173, with Pope Alexander III's approval. Béla fought with Géza, whom he held in captivity for more than a decade. Taking advantage of the internal conflicts in the Byzantine Empire after Emperor Manuel's death, Béla reoccupied Croatia and Sirmium between 1180 and 1181, he occupied the Principality of Halych in 1188. Béla promoted the use of written records during his reign. Hungarian chronicles from the 14th century state that he was responsible for the establishment of the Royal Chancery; the royal palace built in Esztergom during his reign was the first example of Gothic architecture in Central Europe. He was the wealthiest European monarch of his time, according to a list of his revenues, but the reliability of the list is questioned. Béla was the second son of Géza's wife, Euphrosyne of Kiev.
The date of his birth was not recorded. Studies of his bones show that Béla died in 1196 at around 49 years old, so he must have been born around 1148, his DNA was demonstrated to belong to Y-haplogroup R1a. The contemporaneous John Kinnamos's reference to "the territory which his father, while still alive, had apportioned" to Béla shows that Géza II granted a distinct territory as an appanage to his younger son. Béla's patrimony included the central parts of Dalmatia, because Kinnamos mentioned the province "as Béla's heritage". Historians Ferenc Makk and Gyula Moravcsik agree that Béla received Croatia from his father. Whether Syrmium was part of Béla's patrimony, or if he only acquired it after his father's death is subject to scholarly debates. According to historian Warren Treadgold, Béla's patrimony included Bosnia; the exact date of Géza II's grant cannot be determined, but according to Makk, Béla seems to have received his duchy around 1161. Géza II, who died on 31 May 1162, was succeeded by his first-born son, Stephen III.
Stephen III seems to have confirmed Béla's possession of the duchy, because Kinnamos referred to the land, "long before granted" to Béla by Géza and Stephen. Shortly after his ascension to the throne, Stephen III was expelled by his uncles, Ladislaus II and Stephen IV; the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel I Komnenos, supported the uncles' takeover, but Stephen III returned to Hungary and regained his crown by force in the middle of 1163. Béla remained neutral during his brother's conflict with their uncles, because there is no report of Béla's activities in 1162 and 1163. In 1163, Emperor Manuel signed a peace treaty with Stephen III, in which he renounced his support of Stephen's opponents. In exchange, Stephen III agreed to send Béla to Constantinople, to allow the Byzantines to take possession of Béla's duchy; the Emperor promised that he would betroth his daughter, Maria, to Béla. "When came and realized that it was impossible for to rule the Hungarians' land, he turned to something else. As stated, he desired with all his might to lay claim to Hungary, situated in the midst of the western nations.
He therefore intended to unite in marriage Béla, who was's son after, to his own daughter Maria." Emperor Manuel dispatched. Béla arrived in Constantinople around the end of 1163, he was renamed to Alexios, received the title of despotes, which only emperors had used before that time. Béla's betrothal to the emperor's daughter was officially announced. Stephen III invaded Syrmium in the summer of 1164. Emperor Manuel led his armies against Stephen, stating that he arrived "not to wage war on the Hungarians but to recover his land for Béla", according to Kinnamos. Béla-Alexios—along with his uncle, Stephen IV, their distant relative, Stephanos Kalamanos—accompanied the emperor during the campaign. Before long, a new peace treaty was signed. A Byzantine army occupied Syrmium, organized into a Byzantine theme, or district. Stephe
The Poděbrady Castle is a castle in the town of Poděbrady, in the Czech Republic. A wooden Fortress stood at the site of the present castle. King Ottokar II of Bohemia replaced it by a stone castle, which became the seat of the Lordship of Poděbrady. King John of Bohemia pledged the Lordship and the Castle to Hynek of Lichtenburg in 1345; when in 1350, Hynek's daughter Elizabeth (Czech: Eliska z Lichtemburka married Boček I of Poděbrady, the castle came into the possession of the Kunštát family. After Emperor Charles IV gave Poděbrady to Boček as a hereditary possession, Boček called himself Boček of Poděbrady, thereby founding the Poděbrady line of the Kunštát family. According to legend, King George of Poděbrady, Boček's grandson, was born in the castle. After George's death in 1471, the Castle and Lordship of Poděbrady were inherited by his son, Henry the Younger of Poděbrady, whose heirs had to transfer ownership of both the castle and the lordship to King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary in 1495.
Both were pledged several times before the loan was repaid by King Ferdinand I. They remained in the possession of the Bohemian Crown until 1839; the castle was rebuilt several times. Between 1548 and 1580, it was reconstructed to a Renaissance style, after a design by Giovanni and Ulrico Aostalli and Hans Vienna. After the Thirty Years' War, the castle lost most of its importance. In 1723 and 1724, it was reconstructed in a Baroque style under the direction of the builder Franz Maximilian Kanka. Further modifications were made after 1750. Maria Theresa, in her capacity as Queen of Bohemia, stayed at the castle on several occasions. Under her son Joseph II, the castle was the residence of retired Imperial Army officers. In 1839, the Crown sold the Lordship to the Viennese banker Georg Simon Sina. Through marriage, the castle came into the possession of the Counts of Ypsilanti in 1884. Joachim Bahlcke et al.: Handbuch der historischen Stätten — Böhmen und Mähren, Stuttgart, 1998, ISBN 3-520-32901-8, p. 459–461.
Hrady.cz: Poděbrady zámek
Leopold III, Margrave of Austria
Saint Leopold III, known as Leopold the Good, was the Margrave of Austria from 1095 to his death in 1136. He was a member of the House of Babenberg, he was canonized on 6 January 1485 and became the patron saint of Austria, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Vienna. His feast day is 15 November. Leopold was born at Babenberg castle in Gars am Kamp, the son of Margrave Leopold II and Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg; the Babenbergs had come to Austria from Bavaria where the family had risen to prominence in the 10th Century. He grew up in the diocese of Passau under the influence of the reformer Bishop Altmann of Passau. In 1096 Leopold succeeded his father as margrave of Austria at the age of 23, he married twice. His first wife, who died in 1105, may have been one of the von Perg family; the following year he married Agnes, the widowed sister of Emperor Henry V whom he had supported against her father Henry IV. This connection to the Salians raised the importance of the House of Babenberg, to which important royal rights over the margravate of Austria were granted.
Agnes had influential connections through her previous marriage to Frederick of Hohenstaufen, one of her sons being Conrad III of Germany. Leopold called himself "Princeps Terræ", a reflection of his sense of territorial independence, he was considered a candidate in the election of the Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire in 1125, but declined this honour. He is remembered for the development of the country and, in particular, the founding of several monasteries, his most important foundation is Klosterneuburg. According to legend, the Virgin Mary appeared to him and led him to a place where he found the veil of his wife Agnes, who had lost it years earlier, he established the Klosterneuburg Monastery there. He subsequently expanded the settlement to become his residence. Leopold founded the monasteries of Heiligenkreuz and Seitenstetten which developed a territory still covered by forest. All of these induced the church to canonize him in 1485. Leopold fostered the development of cities, such as Klosterneuburg and Krems.
The last one was never attained great importance. The writings of Henry of Melk and Ava of Göttweig, which are the first literary texts from Austria, date back to Leopold's time, he is buried in the Klosterneuburg Monastery. His skull is kept in an embroidered reliquary. In 1663, under the rule of his namesake Emperor Leopold I, he was declared patron saint of Austria instead of Saint Koloman; the brothers Joseph and Michael Haydn, each of whom sang in the choir of St. Stephen's Cathedral, both sang in that capacity at Klosterneuburg on this day. Joseph Haydn became the more famous composer of the two. Michael Haydn wrote a Mass in honour of Leopold, the Missa sub titulo Sancti Leopoldi. Since the death of King Leopold I, the King's Feast is celebrated in Belgium on Leopold's feast day. By his first marriage to a lady of the Perg family: Adalbert or Albert II The Devout, Markgraf, d. 1137By his second wife, Agnes of Germany, widow of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia: Leopold IV Henry II Jasomirgott. Berta, m. Henry III, Burggraf of Regensburg.
Agnes, m. Władysław II of Poland. Ernst. Otto of Freising and biographer of his nephew, Emperor Frederick I "Barbarossa". Conrad, Bishop of Passau and Archbishop of Salzburg. Elizabeth, m. Hermann II of Winzenburg. Judith, m. William V of Montferrat. Gertrude, m. King Vladislaus II of Bohemia. According to the Continuation of the Chronicles of Klosterneuburg, there may have been up to seven others stillborn or died in infancy. List of rulers of Austria Citations Bibliography Leopold III. Heiliger, Babenberger-Markgraf at AEIOU Leopold at Patron Saints Index
Ladislaus of Salzburg
Władysław of Salzburg known as Władysław of Wrocław or Władysław of Silesia, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was co-ruler in the Duchy of Wroclaw since 1248. He served as chancellor of King Ottokar II of Bohemia from 1255 and was elected Bishop of Bamberg in 1257 and Bishop of Passau in 1265. Władysław became Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in the same year, from 1268 served as administrator of the Wrocław diocese. Władysław was the fifth and youngest son of the Silesian duke Henry II the Pious, by his wife Anna, daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia; the Silesian Piasts, elder line of the Polish ruling Piast dynasty, had been restored into their Silesian heritage by the aid of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1163. Władysław's grandfather, Duke Henry the Bearded regained the Seniorate Province and the Polish Crown as High Duke in 1232. Duke Henry II became co-ruler of his father in 1226 and was able to succeed him as Silesian duke and High Duke of Poland in 1238; when he was killed during the Mongol invasion in the Battle of Legnica on 9 April 1241, Władysław's eldest brother Bolesław II the Bald assumed the rule over the Lower Silesian lands and the guardianship of his minor siblings.
Stuck in internal conflicts with his brothers Henry III the White and Mieszko, he was not able to secure the Polish throne, which he had to cede to his Piast cousin Konrad of Masovia. With the approval of their mother Anna of Bohemia and with the purpose to not further divide the paternal lands, the younger sons of late Henry II, Władysław and Konrad I, were sent to study at the Italian university of Padua, with the idea that both prepare for an ecclesiastical career. In 1248, their rivalling elder brothers Henry III and Bolesław II came to terms: Henry assumed the government over the Lower Silesian lands around Wrocław, after he made a land division with Bolesław II, he chose Władysław as co-ruler, while Konrad I became co-ruler in the newly established Duchy of Legnica under Bolesław. However, the Duke of Legnica refused to share the power with anybody. Konrad fled to Greater Poland and, backed by his brother-in-law Duke Przemysł I obtained the Duchy of Głogów as his own share in 1251. In the case of Henry III and Władysław, the cooperation between the brothers was a mutual agreement with few opportunities to frictions, as Władysław stayed in the Bohemian capital Prague at the court of his maternal cousin King Ottokar II.
His role in the undivided Duchy of Wrocław was limited to receive his rents. Władysław too issued numerous deeds and in 1261 he and his brother jointly vested the Wrocław citizens with Magdeburg rights. With the support of the Bohemian king, Władysław continued his spiritual career: about 1255 he became a provost at the cathedral chapter of the St Peter and Paul collegiate church in Vyšehrad and thus was appointed Bohemian Royal Chancellor, a post reserved for the Vyšehrad provosts; the close alliance between the Silesian Piasts and the Přemyslid dynasty strengthened the ties between the lands of Silesia and Bohemia. Władysław joined the cathedral chapter in Bamberg in 1256 and was elected bishop in the following year, however, he had to resign, as he received no dispensation by Pope Alexander IV due to his young age. Backed by King Ottokar II, he became a member of the Wrocław chapter and in April 1265 he was elected Bishop of Passau. In October he was elected Archbishop of Salzburg. Władysław arrived in Salzburg in Spring 1266.
He had to return to Silesia upon the death of his brother Duke Henry III the White on 3 December 1266. In his will, he left Władysław the guardianship of his infant son Henry IV Probus and with this, the regency of the whole Silesian duchy of Wrocław. Henry III's government had not been too beneficial to the church; the bishop-regent was an advocate, with his late brother Henry III, for the canonization of their paternal grandmother, Duchess Hedwig of Silesia. The process was completed, when Saint Hedwig was canonized by Pope Clement on 26 March 1267; this was Władysław's great personal success and gave much prestige to the whole family. The final chord of his great church's career was his nomination in 1268 to the Bishopric of Wrocław. Władysław had no intention to sacrifice the Archbishopric of Salzburg, but thanks to his influence in Prague and Rome he was appointed an apostolic administrator with all the rights of a bishop. Władysław fulfilled all his duties a quite uncommon attitude among the medieval princes.
When he was Archbishop of Salzburg and shortly afterwards received the title of an administrator in the Diocese of Wroclaw, he was able to combine the two positions so that no one can say that these features overwhelm them. The last four years of life he was in constant travels between Wrocław. Władysław was buried in Salzburg Cathedral. In his will, he left his rights over the half of the Duchy of Wroclaw to his nephew Henry IV Probus. There were some rumours that the cause of death of the young bishop, with not more than thirty-three years, was poisoning. Guilty of this crime have to be among the nobility, who four years earlier killed Duke Henry III the White, twenty years his nephew Henry IV shared the same fate; the mere fact of mentioning the same source stated that the subsequent death of
Frederick II, Duke of Austria
Frederick II, known as Frederick the Quarrelsome, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 until his death. He was the fifth and last Austrian duke from the House of Babenberg, since the former margraviate was elevated to a duchy by the 1156 Privilegium Minus, he was killed in the Battle of the Leitha River. Born in Wiener Neustadt, Frederick was the second surviving son of the Babenberg duke Leopold VI of Austria and Theodora Angelina, a Byzantine princess; the death of his elder brother Henry in 1228 made him the only heir to the Austrian and Styrian duchies. His first wife was Byzantine princess Sophia Laskarina a daughter of Theodore I Laskaris and his first wife Anna Komnene Angelina, who died in 1222. Frederick secondly married Agnes of Merania in 1229, a member of the noble House of Andechs whose dowry included large possessions in Carniola and the Windic March. From 1232 Frederick called himself Dominus Carniolae, the couple divorced due to childlessness in 1243. Frederick succeeded his father in 1230.
Proud of his Byzantine descent, the young duke soon was known as the Quarrelsome because of his harsh rule and frequent wars against his neighbors with Hungary and Bohemia. The Austrian Kuenring ministeriales, which had so far been faithful to the ruling house, started an insurgency as soon as his reign began. According to the Weltchronik of Jans der Enikel, Frederick had gone to the court of Emperor Frederick II by his summon, leading a procession of 200 knights wearing the triband colors of Austria; when he approached the Emperor, he was enthusiastically invited—by both command and request of Emperor Frederick—to eat bread with him. The Duke refused, but the Emperor insisted without prevailing. Thus instead he ordered. Duke Frederick instead sought a house to buy and when the Emperor learned of this, forbade it. Duke Frederick instructed his marshal to go out late at night and buy some nuts so that his food could be prepared. Duke Frederick had impressed the Emperor so much that he allowed him the sale of firewood and whatever he wishes.
Afterwards, the Duke asked to be shown the Emperor's assassins. They moved onto the town's tower, which stood 50 cubics tall, brought out two of his assassins; the Emperor told one to jump down and without a thought, the man leapt and fell to his death. Duke Frederick was impressed by the sheer loyalty of these men and the Emperor stopped the other man from jumping; the experience convinced the Duke of the Emperor's power. Most dangerous were his disputes with the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II in the course of the rebellion of the emperor's son Henry, husband of Frederick's sister Margaret. Not only had the duke refused to appear at the 1232 Reichstag diet in Aquileia, appealing to the Austrian Privilegium Minus privileges, displeased the emperor by picking quarrels with King Béla IV of Hungary, he furthermore seemed to be involved in his brother-in-law Henry's conspiracy; when he again refused to attend the 1235 diet in Mainz, Emperor Frederick II ostracized him and gave permission to King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia to invade the Austrian lands.
Vienna opened its gates for the united Bohemian and Bavarian forces and during the years of Frederick's ban became an imperial free city, where the emperor had his son Conrad IV elected King of the Romans in 1237. However, the expelled duke managed to maintain his position as the ruler of an Austrian rump state at his Wiener Neustadt residence. In the same year, Frederick enacted the Landrecht Law, which required all subjects to defend the country in the case of invasion. In 1239, in a spectacular change in imperial politics, Duke Frederick became one of the emperor's most important allies. In 1241, Duke Frederick was one of the few Western European commanders who faced the Mongols during their invasion of Europe; when the Mongols started pillaging Hungary and Croatia, King Bela IV asked the papacy and the Western European rulers for help. Duke Frederick sent a small expeditionary force of knights to assist the Hungarians, he and his knights managed to defeat a small Mongolian raiding party during the initial stages of the Battle of Mohi, but they soon left after inter-conflicts with King Bela IV and the Cumans in the region.
He would meet the Mongols again, this time in his own country. After the defeat of Hungary, the Mongols now set their sights on Vienna. A minor raiding squadron started pillaging Wiener Neustadt in Southern Vienna, but Duke Frederick together with his knights and foreign allies, defeated them and drove them out; the Austrians would again defeat the Mongols in the River March in Theben. Afterwards, the Mongols never again try to invade Austria; the conflict with Bohemia was settled by the engagement of his niece Gertrude of Babenberg with King Wenceslaus' eldest son Margrave Vladislaus of Moravia. Negotiations with the emperor about the elevation of Vienna to a bishopric and of Austria to a kingdom were initiated, however, on condition that the duke's niece Gertrude now would have to marry the fifty-year-old emperor, who moreover had been banned by Pope Gregory IX and needed allies. In 1245 the terms were arranged, but the willful young girl in her late teens, refused to appear in the consummation ceremony at the diet of Verona.
In the year before his death, Duke Frederick succeeded in gaining the rule over the March of Carniola from the Patriarchate of Aquileia, but upon his death it fell to the Carinthian duke Bernhard von Spanheim. Duke Frederick's ambitious plans were dashed when he died at the Bat
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies. Carinthia remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, though from 1335 it was ruled within the Austrian dominions of the Habsburg dynasty. A constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire, it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920, the main area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia. In the seventh century the area was part of the Slavic principality of Carantania, which fell under the suzerainty of Duke Odilo of Bavaria in about 743; the Bavarian stem duchy was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire when Charlemagne deposed Odilo's son Duke Tassilo III in 788. In the 843 partition by the Treaty of Verdun, Carinthia became part of East Francia under King Louis the German.
From 889 to 976 it was the Carinthian March of the renewed Bavarian duchy, though in 927 the local Count Berthold of the Luitpolding dynasty was vested with ducal rights by the German king Henry the Fowler. After Berthold became Duke of Bavaria in 938, both territories were ruled by him. Upon his death in 948 the Luitpoldings, though heirs of the royal Ottonian dynasty, were not able to retain their possessions, as King Otto I bought the loyalty of his younger brother Henry I with the Bavarian lands. Duke Henry's son Henry II "the Quarreller" from 974 onwards, revolted against his cousin Emperor Otto II, whereupon he was deposed as Duke of Bavaria in favour of Otto's nephew Duke Otto I of Swabia. At the same time Emperor Otto II created a sixth duchy in addition to the original stem duchies, the new Duchy of Carinthia, he reverted the possession of the territories to the Luitpoldings, when he split Carinthia from the Bavarian lands and installed the former Duke Berthold's son Henry the Younger as duke in 976.
Over the centuries, the name'Carinthia' replaced former'Carantania'. The realm of the Carinthian dukes comprised a vast territory including the marches of Styria and Istria, they ruled over the Italian March of Verona in the south. Henry the Younger was the first and the last Luitpolding duke. Though Henry once again managed to regain the ducal title in 985, Carinthia upon his death in 989 fell back to the Imperial Ottonian dynasty in Bavaria. Carinthia however remained a separate entity, in 1012 Count Adalbero I of Eppenstein, Margrave of Styria since about 1000, was vested with the duchy by the last Ottonian emperor Henry II, while the Istrian march was separated and given to Count Poppo of Weimar. Adalbero was removed from office in 1035 after he had fallen out of favour with the Salian Emperor Conrad II. In 1039 Carinthia was inherited by Emperor Henry III himself, who split off the Carniolan march the following year and granted it to Margrave Poppo of Istria. In 1077, the duchy was given to Luitpold, again a member of the Eppensteiner family, however, became extinct with the death of Luitpold's younger brother Henry III of Carinthia in 1122.
Upon his death the duchy was further reduced in area: a large part of the Eppenstein lands in what is today Upper Styria passed to Margrave Ottokar II of Styria. The remainder of Carinthia passed from Duke Henry III to his godchild Henry from the House of Sponheim, who ruled as Henry IV, from 1122 to his early death the following year; the most outstanding of the Spanheim dukes was Bernhard, the first Carinthian duke, described and honoured in documents as "prince of the land". The last Spanheim duke was Ulrich III. In spite of being supported by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, who defeated Ottokar II at the Battle on the Marchfeld in 1278, Philip never gained actual power; the duchy was seized by Rudolph and Philip died a year in 1279. Rudolf, after being elected King of the Romans and defeating King Ottokar II, at first gave Carinthia to Count Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol. In 1335, after the death of Henry, the last male of this line, Emperor Louis the Bavarian gave Carinthia and the southern part of the Tyrol as an imperial fief to the Habsburg family on 2 May in Linz.
The Habsburgs would continue to rule Carinthia until 1918. As with the other component parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, Carinthia remained a semi-autonomous state with its own constitutional structure for a long time; the Habsburgs divided up their territories within the family twice, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg and again in 1564. Each time, the Duchy of Carinthia became part of Inner Austria and was ruled jointly with the adjacent duchies of Styria and Carniola. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her son Joseph II attempted to create a more unitary Habsburg state, in 1804 Carinthia was integrated into the newly established Austrian Empire under Francis II/I. According to the 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn, the Upper Carinthian territories around Villach formed part of the short-lived Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces. In 1867, the duchy became a crown land of the western part of Austria-Hungary. Over the centuries, the German language, which carried more prest