Richard I of England
Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death. He ruled as Duke of Normandy and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou and Nantes, was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period, he was the third of five sons of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior, he was known in Occitan as: Oc e No, because of his reputation for terseness. By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, although he did not retake Jerusalem from Saladin. Richard spoke both Occitan, he was born in England. Following his accession, he spent little time as little as six months, in England. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France.
Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he has been perceived as preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects, he remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. Richard was born on 8 September 1157 at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was a younger brother of Count William IX of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Duchess Matilda of Saxony. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II, he was not expected to ascend to the throne, he was an elder brother of Duke Geoffrey II of Brittany. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Countess Marie of Champagne and Countess Alix of Blois; the eldest son of Henry II and Eleanor, died in 1156, before Richard's birth. Richard is depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, his father was great-grandson of William the Conqueror.
Contemporary historian Ralph of Diceto traced his family's lineage through Matilda of Scotland to the Anglo-Saxon kings of England and Alfred the Great, from there legend linked them to Noah and Woden. According to Angevin family tradition, there was even'infernal blood' in their ancestry, with a claimed descent from the fairy, or female demon, Melusine. While his father visited his lands from Scotland to France, Richard spent his childhood in England, his first recorded visit to the European continent was in May 1165, when his mother took him to Normandy. His wet nurse was Hodierna of St Albans. Little is known about Richard's education. Although he was born in Oxford and brought up in England up to his eighth year, it is not known to what extent he used or understood English. During his captivity, English prejudice against foreigners was used in a calculated way by his brother John to help destroy the authority of Richard's chancellor, William Longchamp, a Norman. One of the specific charges laid against Longchamp, by John's supporter Hugh, Bishop of Coventry, was that he could not speak English.
This indicates that by the late 12th century a knowledge of English was expected of those in positions of authority in England. Richard was said to be attractive. According to Clifford Brewer, he was 6 feet 5 inches, though, unverifiable since his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution. John, his youngest brother, was known to be 5 feet 5 inches; the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi, a Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusade, states that: "He was tall, of elegant build. He had long arms suited to wielding a sword, his long legs matched the rest of his body". From an early age, Richard showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime. Marriage alliances were common among medieval royalty: they led to political alliances and peace treaties and allowed families to stake claims of succession on each other's lands.
In March 1159 it was arranged that Richard would marry one of the daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. Henry the Young King was married to Margaret, daughter of Louis VII of France, on 2 November 1160. Despite this alliance between the Plantagenets and the Capetians, the dynasty on the French throne, the two houses were sometimes in conflict. In 1168, the intercession of Pope Alexander III was necessary to secure a truce between them. Henry II had conquered Brittany and taken control of Gisors and the Vexin, part of Margaret's dowry. Early in the 1160s there had been suggestions Richard should marry Alys, Countess of the Vexin, fourth daughter of Louis VII
Middle High German
Middle High German is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New High German. High German is defined as those varieties of German. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect; this historical interpretation is complicated by the tendency of modern editions of MHG texts to use normalised spellings based on this variety, which make the written language appear more consistent than is the case in the manuscripts. Scholars are uncertain as to whether the literary language reflected a supra-regional spoken language of the courts. An important development in this period was the Ostsiedlung, the eastward expansion of German settlement beyond the Elbe–Saale line which marked the limit of Old High German; this process started in the 11th century, all the East Central German dialects are a result of this expansion.
"Judeo-German", the precursor of the Yiddish language, sees attestation in the 13th–14th centuries, as a variety of Middle High German written in Hebrew characters. The Middle High German period is dated from 1050 to 1350. An older view puts the boundary with New High German around 1500. There are several phonological criteria which separate MHG from the preceding Old High German period: the weakening of unstressed vowels to ⟨e⟩: OHG taga, MHG tage the full development of Umlaut and its use to mark a number of morphological categories the devoicing of final stops: OHG tag > MHG tac Culturally, the two periods are distinguished by the transition from a predominantly clerical written culture, in which the dominant language was Latin, to one centred on the courts of the great nobles, with German expanding its range of use. The rise of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in Swabia makes the South West the dominant region in both political and cultural terms. Demographically, the MHG period is characterised by a massive rise in population, terminated by the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death.
Along with the rise in population comes a territorial expansion eastwards, which saw German-speaking settlers colonise land under Slav control. Linguistically, the transition to Early New High German is marked by four vowel changes which together produce the phonemic system of modern German, though not all dialects participated in these changes: Diphthongisation of the long high vowels /iː yː uː/ > /aɪ̯ ɔʏ̯ aʊ̯/: MHG hût > NHG Haut Monophthongisation of the high centering diphthongs /iə yə uə/ > /iː yː uː/: MHG huot > NHG Hut lengthening of stressed short vowels in open syllables: MHG sagen /zaɡən/ > NHG sagen /zaːɡən/ The loss of unstressed vowels in many circumstances: MHG vrouwe > NHG Frau The centres of culture in the ENHG period are no longer the courts but the towns. The dialect map of Germany by the end of the Middle High German period was much the same as that at the start of the 20th century, though the boundary with Low German was further south than it now is: With the exception of Thuringian, the East Central German dialects are new dialects resulting from the Ostsiedlung.
Middle High German texts are written in the Latin alphabet. There was no standardised spelling, but modern editions standardise according to a set of conventions established by Karl Lachmann in the 19th century. There are several important features in this standardised orthography which are not characteristics of the original manuscripts: the marking of vowel length is entirely absent from MHG manuscripts; the marking of umlauted vowels is absent or inconsistent in the manuscripts. A curly-tailed z is used in modern handbooks and grammars to indicate the /s/ or /s/-like sound which arose from Germanic /t/ in the High German consonant shift; this character has no counterpart in the original manuscripts, which use ⟨s⟩ or ⟨z⟩ to indicate this sound. The original texts use ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ for the semi-vowels /j/ and /w/. A particular problem is that many manuscripts are of much date than the works they contain. In addition, there is considerable regional variation in the spellings that appear in the original texts, which modern editions conceal.
The standardised orthography of MHG editions uses the following vowel spellings: Short vowels: ⟨a e i o u⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨ä ö ü⟩ Long vowels: ⟨â ê î ô û⟩ and the umlauted vowels ⟨æ œ iu⟩ Closing diphthongs: ⟨ei ou⟩. No such orthographic distinction is made in MHG manuscripts; the standardised orthography of MHG editions uses the following consonant spellings: Stops: ⟨p t k/c/q b d g⟩ Affricates: ⟨pf/ph tz/z⟩ Fricatives: ⟨v f s ȥ sch ch h⟩ Nasals: ⟨m n⟩ Liquids: ⟨l r⟩ Semivowels: ⟨w j⟩ The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of classical MHG. The spellings indicated are the standard spellings
Hartmann von Aue
Hartmann von Aue known as Hartmann von Ouwe, was a Middle High German knight and poet. He introduced the courtly romance into German literature and, with Wolfram von Eschenbach and Gottfried von Strassburg, was one of the three great epic poets of Middle High German literature, he was a Minnesänger, 18 of his songs survive. He belonged to the lower nobility of Swabia. After receiving a monastic education, he became retainer of a nobleman whose domain, has been identified with Obernau on the River Neckar, he took part in the Crusade of 1196–97. The date of his death is as uncertain as that of his birth. Hartmann produced four narrative poems which are of importance for the evolution of the Middle High German court epic; the first of these, which may have been written as early as 1191 or 1192, the last, belong to the Arthurian cycle and are based on epics by Chrétien de Troyes. While the story of Chretien's Yvain refers to events in Chretien's Lancelot, to explain that Arthur is not present to help because Guinevere has been kidnapped, Hartmann did not adapt Chretien's Lancelot.
The result is that Hartmann's Erec introduces different explanations for Guinevere's kidnapping, which do not correspond to what occurred in the shared literary tradition of Chretien's Arthurian romances. His other two narrative poems are Gregorius an adaptation of a French epic, Der arme Heinrich, which tells the story of a leper cured by a young girl, willing to sacrifice her life for him; the source of this tale evidently came from the lore of the noble family. Gregorius, Der arme Heinrich and Hartmann's lyrics, which are all fervidly religious in tone, imply a tendency towards asceticism, but, on the whole, Hartmann's striving seems rather to have been to reconcile the extremes of life. Translations have been made into modern German of all Hartmann's poems, while Der arme Heinrich has attracted the attention of modern poets, both English and German. Tobin, Kim Vivian, Richard H. Lawson, trans. Arthurian Romances and Lyric Poetry: The Complete Works of Hartmann von Aue, Penn State Press, 2001 ISBN 0-271-02112-8 Hartmann Von Aue, "Iwein: The Knight with the Lion", translated by J.
W. Thomas, 1979, ISBN 0-8032-7331-2. Hartmann Von Aue, "Erec," translated by J. W. Thomas, 2001, ISBN 0-8032-7329-0; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hartmann von Aue". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Neumann, Friedrich, "Hartmann von Aue", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 7, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 728–731. New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Aue, Hartmann von". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
King Arthur was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians; the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain; the legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.
How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Although the themes and characters of the Arthurian legend varied from text to text, there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey's version of events served as the starting point for stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established a vast empire. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, final rest in Avalon; the 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.
Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but in adaptations for theatre, television and other media; the historical basis for King Arthur has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century; the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon. Recent studies, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum; the other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.
The Annales date this battle to 516–518, mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur did fight at Badon. Problems have been identified, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account; the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it that early, they were more added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Badon entry derived from the Historia Brittonum; this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him".
These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. So, he found little to say about a historical Arthur. In reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820, he is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. The historian David Dumville wrote: "I think.
He owes his place in our history books to a'no smoke without fire' school of thought... The f
German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, to make them available to the public; the German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards; the cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt. Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas.
A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving. Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library; the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek. After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting January 1, 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director. In 1946 Dr. Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Professor Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.
The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources; the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation; as a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues identical in content were published annually. With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library; the "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.
The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek". In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration; the 210,000 works of printed music held by GEMA were transferred to DMA. One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945; the German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main.
Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets and other materials produced or in part by German-speaking exiles. In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the “Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany” collection of 30,000 pages, which were published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages; these collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most visited sites of the German National Library. In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons; the digitised versions are since available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused harsh criticism. The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the owners
Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven after 1194. It is the first treatment of the Lancelot tradition in German, contains the earliest known account of the hero's childhood with the Lady of the Lake-like figure in any language; the poem consists of about 9,400 lines arranged in 4-stressed Middle High German couplets. It survives complete in fragmentary form in three others; the author is identified with a Swiss cleric named in a document from 1214, though little else is known of him. He claims he translated Lanzelet from a welschez book brought to Germany by Hugo de Morville, one of the Crusaders who replaced Richard the Lionhearted as a hostage when the king had been arrested by Leopold V, Duke of Austria in 1194; the poem features a version of the hero's childhood, including the death of his father Pant and his upbringing by a water fay, similar to that contained in the Prose Lancelot and mentioned in Chrétien de Troyes' Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, but it deviates strikingly from the familiar version of Lancelot's life in other respects.
The most notable among these is the absence of the hero's famous love affair with Arthur's wife Guinevere. It has been suggested that Lancelot, mentioned for the first time by Chrétien de Troyes in his first romance Erec and Enide, was the hero of a story independent of the adulterous love triangle and very similar to Ulrich's version. If this is true the adultury facet would have been added either by Chrétien in Knight of the Cart or the source provided him by his patron, Marie de Champagne. Though Lanzelet has never received the attention garnered by the romances of Hartmann von Aue, Gottfried von Strassburg, or Wolfram von Eschenbach, it was not forgotten by subsequent German authors. Heinrich von dem Türlin included elements of Lanzelet into his Grail romance Diu Crône, Rudolf von Ems praised Ulrich in two of his works and the Alexanderroman; the text starts off with a prologue. King Ban, Lanzelet’s father, reigns as a tyrant over Genewis, which René Pérennec equates to the Kingdom of Gaunnes.
He treats the noblemen in the hierarchy as he would the common people, his vassals cannot accept this. They rise against King Ban, killing everyone in the castle, they nonetheless allow King Ban's wife, to live as she is known for her kindness. She escapes, while the queen of the sea-fairies, takes Lanzelet away to raise him on an island inhabited by women. There, he learns how to use weapons just as well as he learns song. Lanzelet yearns to know his own name but the fairy refuses to reveal it to him until he has defeated her worst enemy, Iweret. On his journey, Lanzelet meets a dwarf, who whips him, a knight named Johfrit de Liez, who teaches him the rudiments of chivalry. In verses 667 to 1356, Lanzelet meets two knights named Orphilet; the following night, Lanzelet sleeps with Galandreiz's daughter. Galandreiz, upon finding her in Lanzelet’s bed becomes enraged, he and Lanzelet engage in a battle ending in Galandreiz's death. Lanzelet marries the woodsman’s daughter and becomes a lord. In verses 1357 to 2249 Lanzelet embarks on the adventure of Lord Linier of Limors, whom he unwittingly provokes.
Lanzelet is thrown in the dungeon before he is brought out onto the battlefield, where he is confronted with a giant and Linier, whom he kills. He marries Linier's niece, without having divorced his previous wife and once again becomes a lord, he repeats this same pattern with his other wives. In the verses leading up to 3474, he fights Walwein, a knight of the Round Table, wins the tournament in Djofle, but refuses King Arthur's invitation to the court. In verses 3475 to 4673, Lanzelet goes to the Castle of the Dead, which belongs to Mabuz, the fairy queen's son; the castle holds a strange power. Mabuz forces Lanzelet to kill Iweret. Lanzelet marries Iweret's daughter, Iblis. In verse 4674 a messenger of the Queen Fairy appears, reveals to Lanzelet his origins and his name. Lanzelet learns that he is King Arthur's nephew, who he decides to visit. Valerin tries to kidnap Queen Guinevere, however Lanzelet challenges him to a duel in which Valerin yields. Arthur's court celebrates his victory. Lanzelet rushes to seek vengeance on the dwarf who whipped him in front of the Pluris fortress.
He is made prisoner by the Queen of Pluris. Meanwhile, one of the Queen Fairy's messengers makes the women of the court try on an enchanted coat in order to prove their fidelity toward their husbands. Lanzelet's wife, Iblis, is the only person. At the end of a tournament in which Lanzelet proves himself cunning, Karjet and Tristant manage to free him. In verses 6563 to 7444, Guinevere is taken by Valerin. To be able to rescue the queen, King Arthur"s court calls upon the services of Malduc the magician who, in exchange, requests that Eric and Walwein be given back, which the king reluctantly accepts. Valerin's castle is seized, he is killed and the queen is released. Up until verse 8468, Erec and Walmein are tortured by Malduc. Lanzelet sets out on a mission to rescue them. Malduc is killed but his daughter is kept safe as she prevented the knights from being killed by the magician. A celebration in King Arthur's court follows. Lanzelet kisses a dragon wh