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Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden

Ulrika Eleonora or Ulrica Eleanor known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was Queen of Sweden, reigning in her own right from 5 December 1718 until her abdication on 29 February 1720 in favour of her husband King Frederick, as his consort until her death. She was the youngest child of King Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark and named after her mother. After the death of her brother King Charles XII in 1718, she claimed the throne, her deceased older sister, Hedvig Sophia, had left a son, Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, who had the better claim by primogeniture. Ulrika Eleonora asserted that she was the closest surviving relative of the late king and cited the precedent of Queen Christina, she was recognized as successor by the Riksdag after she had agreed to renounce the powers of absolute monarchy established by her father. She abdicated in 1720 in favor of Landgrave Frederick I of Hesse-Kassel. After their mother's death in 1693, Ulrika Eleonora and her siblings were placed in the care of their grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora.

However, her grandmother was known to favor her elder sister. During her childhood, Eleonora was somewhat overlooked in favor of this elder, more extroverted and talented sister, princess Hedvig Sophia, her elder siblings enjoyed riding and dancing and somewhat looked down upon her as she did not have the courage to participate in their games and was brought to tears. She was described as friendly and dignified, with good posture and beautiful hands, but she was not regarded as either intelligent or attractive, her grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora, described her as stubborn, she was known to demonstrate her dislike of others or of events by simulating illness. She was a talented musician, when performing with her sister at court concerts, she would play the clavier while her sister sang. Ulrika Eleonora lived most of her life in the shadow of others, outshone by her brother the king, by her attractive sister. From 1700, she took care of her dominating grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, during her brother's absence in the Great Northern War.

Her older sister, Hedvig Sophia, was the heir presumptive to the throne. As their brother Charles XII was unmarried and childless, Ulrika Eleonora was regarded as a future heir to the throne, was thereby attractive on the marriage market. In 1698, a marriage alliance was suggested by marrying her to Prince Charles of Denmark and her brother to Princess Sophia Hedwig of Denmark, but in 1700 this plan was discarded. In 1700, there were negotiations of a marriage to Frederick William I of Prussia, but nothing came of them; these plans were about to be put into effect when they were disrupted, without motivation, by her brother. She was made the god-mother of Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, named Ulrika after her. In 1702, a marriage to the future King George II of Great Britain was suggested, but was postponed, in the end nothing came of it. Duke John William of Saxe-Gotha was given permission by her brother to court her, but the marriage plans were interrupted after he engaged in a duel with Anders Lagercrona in the presence of the monarch.

In 1710, she received a proposal from Prince Frederick of Hesse. The negotiations were handled by confidante Emerentia von Düben; the marriage was supported by her grandmother Hedwig Eleonora, as the Queen Dowager thought this would force Ulrika Eleonora to leave Sweden for Hesse, increasing the chances for the son of Ulrika Eleonora's elder sister, Charles of Holstein-Gottorp, to become heir to the throne. The engagement was announced on 23 January 1714, the wedding took place 24 March 1715. During the wedding, her brother Charles XII remarked: "Tonight my sister is dancing away the crown". After her grandmother's death in 1715, she became the center of the court, this was one of the happiest periods of her life. In 1715, she married Landgrave Frederick I of Hesse-Kassel; the marriage, which on her side was a love-match, became another attempt to use her as a political puppet. Frederick had married her with the intent of reaching the throne, began plotting to have her named heir in place of her nephew.

The "Hesse Party" and the "Holstein Party" stood against each other in the struggle for the throne. Ulrika Eleonora's situation began to change after the death of her older sister, Hedvig Sophia, in 1708. Ulrika Eleonora became the only adult member of the royal house present in Sweden, aside from her grandmother, Queen Dowager Hedwig Eleonora. In late 1712, Charles XII had thoughts of making her regent during his absence; the royal council convinced her to give them her support. On 2 November 1713, she appeared at her first session, a decision was made to assemble the Riksdag to declare her regent in her capacity as the closest heir to the throne. In 1713, the government and her grandmother named her regent during the king's absence and thus she became a pawn of the many powers struggling for influence in a country without an official heir presumptive or heir apparent; the choice now stood between her nephew. Her accession as regent and president of the parliament was treated with great enthusiasm.

The Riksdag had opposed her brother as they wanted to abolish the absolute monarchy and reinstate their own power. As regent, she kept herself informed of state affairs and urged her brother to return, warning him of the effects if he did not. With his permission she signed all documents of state affairs except those written to him personally. However, she regarded herself only as her brother's representative, therefore made no suggestions of her own; as his sister, many times during the war, she had aske

1985 in animation

1985 in animation events. January 23: The first episode of Thundercats airs. March 1: Will Vinton's The Adventures of Mark Twain is released, which will become a cult classic. March 4: The first episode of The World of David the Gnome airs. March 22: He-Man and She-Ra: The Secret of the Sword is released, the first animated feature based on a toy line. March 24: The Care Bears Movie premiers in theaters. March 25: 57th Academy Awards: Charade by Jon Minnis wins the Academy Award for Best Animated Short. May 8-19: 1986 Cannes Film Festival: Jiří Barta's The Pied Piper premiers. June: Studio Ghibli is founded. Richard Condie's The Big Snit is released. July 4: The first episode of The Raccoons airs. July 24: The Walt Disney Company releases The Black Cauldron. September 7: The first episode of Ewoks airs and Star Wars: Droids, the first animated TV series based on Star Wars air. September 14: The first episode of Hulk Hogan's Rock'n' Wrestling airs, based on the popularity of wrestler Hulk Hogan; the first episodes of The Wuzzles and Gummi Bears air.

Both mark the first time. The first episode of The Care Bears airs. October 3: The first episode of Seabert airs. November 15: Rainbow Brite and the Star Stealer is first released. November 22: Starchaser: The Legend of Orin premiers, the first animated feature film released in 3-D. December 10: Bugs Bunny receives a star at the Hollywood Walk of Fame. December 11: The third Astérix film Asterix Versus Caesar is released. December 14: The film Peter-No-Tail in Americat is released; the computer animation company H. K. Screen Art is established in Hong Kong. June 18: Alex Hirsch, American animator and voice actor. January 25: Paul Smith, American composer dies at age 78. February 20: Clarence Nash, American voice actor, dies at age 80. February 27: J. Pat O'Malley, British actor, dies at age 80. March 21: Michael Redgrave, British actor and director, dies at age 77. March 24: Dick Kinney, American animator and comics writer, dies at age 68. April 25: Richard Haydn, British comic actor, dies at age 80. May 22: Wolfgang Reitherman, American animator and director, passes away at age 75.

August 2: Bob Holt, American voice actor, dies at age 56. August 25: Pino Zac, Italian illustrator, comics artist and animator, dies at age 55. October 10: Orson Welles, American theatre director, film director and voice actor, dies at age 70. November 29: Bill Scott, American voice actor, dies at age 65 from a heart attack. December 19: Jean Ache/Jean Huet, French animator and comics artist, passes away at age 62. December 25: Joe Oriolo, American animated film director, animated film producer and writer, passes away at age 72. Antoine Payen, French animator and illustrator, dies at age 82 or 83. 1985 in anime

Colombia–Indonesia relations

Colombia–Indonesia relations refers to international relations between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Indonesia. Both countries are members of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, the Cairns Group, the CIVETS block. Indonesia has an embassy in Bogota. Colombia has an embassy in Jakarta. Diplomatic relations between Colombia and Indonesia were established on 15 September 1980, with diplomatic relations handled at the time by the Embassy of Indonesia in Brasilia and the Embassy of Colombia in New Delhi, India respectively. In 1983 Colombia elevated its consulate in Jakarta to embassy, remained in the country until 29 November 2002 when the embassy closed due to budget reasons as part of a wider restructuring by the Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Indonesia opened its embassy in Bogotá on May 1989 and the first ambassador of Indonesia to Colombia, Dr. Trenggono, presented his letter of credence to President Virgilio Barco Vargas on 16 June 1989 and has maintained an ambassadorial presence in Colombia since.

On 7 March 2011 President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón announced the reopening of the Colombian Embassy in Jakarta as part of a campaign to promote the CIVETS economic block, of which Colombia and Indonesia are part of as emerging markets with similar economic background, in an effort to strengthen ties with Indonesia and Asia in general. Foreign relations of Colombia Foreign relations of Indonesia Embassy of Indonesia in Colombia Embassy of Colombia in India