Republic of Ireland
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
County Donegal is a county of Ireland. It is part of the Border Region of the Republic of Ireland and is in the province of Ulster and it is named after the town of Donegal in the south of the county. Donegal County Council is the council for the county and Lifford serves as the county town. The population of the county is 158,755 according to the 2016 census and it has also been known as Tyrconnell, after the historic territory of the same name. In terms of size and area, it is the largest county in Ulster, uniquely, County Donegal shares a small border with only one other county in the Republic of Ireland – County Leitrim. The greater part of its border is shared with three counties of Northern Ireland, County Londonderry, County Tyrone and County Fermanagh. While Lifford is the county town, Letterkenny is by far the largest town in the county with a population of 19,588, Letterkenny and the nearby city of Derry form the main economic axis of the northwest of Ireland. Indeed, what became the City of Derry was officially part of County Donegal up until 1610, there are two Gaeltacht districts in the west, The Rosses, centred on the town of Dungloe, and Gweedore. Another Gaeltacht district is located in the north-west, Cloughaneely, centred on the town of Falcarragh, the most northerly part of the island of Ireland is the location for three peninsulas of outstanding natural beauty, Inishowen, Fanad and Rosguill. The main population centre of Inishowen, Irelands largest peninsula, is Buncrana, in the east of the county lies the Finn Valley. The Laggan district is centred on the town of Raphoe, according to the 1841 Census, County Donegal had a population of 296,000 people. As a result of famine and emigration, the population had reduced by 41,000 by 1851, by the time of the 1951 Census the population was only 44% of what it had been in 1841. The 2006 Census, undertaken by the States Central Statistics Office, had County Donegals population standing at 147,264, according to the 2011 Census, the countys population had grown to 161,137. It has an indented coastline forming natural sea loughs, of which both Lough Swilly and Lough Foyle are the most notable. The Slieve League cliffs are the sixth-highest sea cliffs in Europe, the climate is temperate and dominated by the Gulf Stream, with warm, damp summers and mild wet winters. Two permanently inhabited islands, Arranmore and Tory Island, lie off the coast, Irelands second longest river, the Erne, enters Donegal Bay near the town of Ballyshannon. The River Erne, along with other Donegal waterways, has been dammed to produce hydroelectric power, the River Foyle separates part of County Donegal from parts of both counties Londonderry and Tyrone. A survey of the marine algae of County Donegal was published in 2003
Ulster is a province in the north of the island of Ireland. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a rí ruirech, the definition of the province was fluid from early to medieval times. It took a shape in the reign of King James I of England when all the counties of Ireland were eventually shired. This process of evolving conquest had been under way since the Norman invasion of Ireland, particularly as advanced by the Cambro-Norman magnates Hugh de Lacy, Ulster was a central topic role in the parliamentary debates that eventually resulted in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Under the terms of the Act, Ireland was divided into two territories, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, with the passing through the province. While these six counties and two boroughs were all in the province of Ulster, three other counties of the province – Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan – were assigned to the Irish Free State. Ulster has no function for local government purposes in either country. However, for the purposes of ISO-3166-2, Ulster is used to refer to the three counties of Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan only, which are given country sub-division code IE-U. It has also suggested to have derived from Uladh plus the Norse suffix ster. The Irish name, Cúige Uladh, means the province of the Ulaid, the Ulaidh were a group of tribes who dwelt in the region. Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia, the latter two have yielded the terms Ulidian and Ultonian. Words that have used in English are Ullish and Ulsterman/Ulsterwoman. Northern Ireland is often referred to as Ulster, despite including only six of Ulsters nine counties and this usage is most common amongst people in Northern Ireland who are unionist, although it is also used by the media throughout the United Kingdom. Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context, Ulster has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres. About 62% of the area of Ulster is in the UK while the remaining 38% is in the Republic of Ireland. Ulsters biggest city, Belfast, has an population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland. Three Ulster counties – Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland, about half of Ulsters population lives in counties Antrim and Down. 8% to 42. 7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of government in the Republic of Ireland
Letterkenny, nicknamed the Cathedral Town, is the largest and most populous town in County Donegal, Ireland. It lies on the River Swilly in east Donegal and has a population of 19,588, along with the nearby city of Derry, Letterkenny forms the major economic core of the islands north-west. Letterkenny began as a town at the start of the 17th century. A castle once stood near where the Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columba, Donegals only Roman Catholic cathedral, Letterkenny Castle, built in 1625, was located south of Mt Southwell on Castle Street. The Aura Complex, near ODonnell Park, includes an Olympic-standard swimming pool, the Danny McDaid Athletic Track, the town also boasts the location of rebel Theobald Wolfe Tones 1798 landing and subsequent arrest at Lairds Hotel. In 2015 it was awarded the accolade of being judged to be the tidiest town in Ireland, Letterkenny takes its name from the Irish Leitirceanainn, meaning Hillside of the OCannons – the OCannons being the last of the ancient chieftains of Tír Conaill. Although the OCannons were the last ruling chieftains in Tír Conaill, the OCannons are allegedly descended from Conn of the Hundred Battles and Niall of the Nine Hostages, two of Irelands most famous Kings. The OCannons have been described as Ancient Princes of Tír Connaill, however, their 350-year dynasty in Tír Connaill ended in 1250. Their ancient territory would seem to have been Tír Aeda, after the deaths of Ruairí Ó Canannain and his son Niall Ó Canannain in 1250, the sept declined greatly in power. Brian Ó Néill died ten years later in 1260, he had supported an Ó Canannain claimant to Tír Conaill, however, the OCannon Clan remained subserviant to the ODonnell Clan, the Kings of Tír Chonaill from the early thirteenth century onwards. The personal name Canannain is a diminutive of Cano meaning wolf cub, by the early 17th century the name Uí Canannain had been anglicised to OCannon. Further anglicisation took place during the Penal Laws in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in the early 1880s, there were just 200 families bearing the Cannon surname living in Co. Donegal, who were tenant farmers. The site of the ancient seat of the Ó Canannain was near Letterkenny, Letterkenny is County Donegals largest and most important town. Hundreds of people travel to and from Letterkenny every day for work, whether in the towns many I. T. companies, General Hospital, schools, Letterkenny is around 25 km from Derry across the border in Northern Ireland. It may have established on the site of an earlier Gaelic settlement. It was the first crossing point of the River Swilly, Rory OCannon, the last chieftain of the OCannon Clan, was killed in 1248. Godfrey ODonnell succeeded Rory OCannon as King of Tír Conaill, Godfrey retired to a crannóg in Lough Beag
Buncrana is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. It is beside Lough Swilly on the Inishowen peninsula,23 kilometres northwest of Derry and 43 kilometres north of Letterkenny. In the 2011 census, the population was 6,839 making it the second most populous town in County Donegal, after Letterkenny, and the largest in Inishowen. Buncrana is the home of the ODoherty clan and originally developed around the defensive tower known as ODohertys Keep at the mouth of the River Crana. The town moved to its present location just south of the River Crana when George Vaughan built the street in 1718. The town was a centre for the textile industry in County Donegal from the 19th century until the mid-2000s. On the northern bank of the River Crana as it enters Lough Swilly sits the three-story ODohertys Keep, the first two levels of the keep were built after 1333. In 1601 the ODohertys Keep was described as being a small, two-story castle, in 1602 the third level was added and it was upgraded by Hugh Boy ODoherty as an intended base for Spanish military aid that hoped to land at Inch. The keep was burned by Crown forces in 1608 in reprisal for the rebellion of Sir Cahir ODoherty, after Sir Cahir ODoherty was killed at the Battle of Kilmacrennan, he was attaindered and his land seized. The keep was granted to Sir Arthur Chichester, who leased it to Englishman Henry Vaughan. It was erected on the site of Buncrana, which had grown up in the shadow of the keep. Vaughan moved the town to its present location, where he founded the current main street and his nephews inherited the castles, and they later became known as the Thornton-Todds. The castle remains as a home today. In the forecourt there is a rock in honour of Sir Cahir ODoherty. When John Newton and his shipmates on The Greyhound found a haven in Lough Swilly on 8 April 1748 after a devastating Atlantic storm, he saw his survival as divine intervention, the refuge of the Swilly and Buncrana area laid a spiritual foundation for a reformed later life. In 1764 he became a Church of England clergyman and subsequently, as curate at Olney in Buckinghamshire, one of the oldest remaining inhabited residences in Buncrana is a Georgian property called Westbrook House, situated at the entrance to Swan Park just north of the town center of Buncrana. The house was built in 1807 by Judge Wilson, who built the single-arch stone bridge leading to the house. In October 1905, Buncrana was the first town in County Donegal to receive electricity and it was generated at Swan Mill which continued to provide electricity for the town until September 1954 when Buncrana was brought under the ESB Rural Electrification Scheme
Derry City F.C.
Derry City Football Club is a professional football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. It plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division and it was reinstated a few weeks later but demoted to the First Division, the second tier. The club are the League of Irelands only participant from Northern Ireland, the clubs home ground is the Brandywell Stadium and the players wear red and white striped shirts from which its nickname, the Candystripes, derives. Others refer to the club as the Red and White Army or abbreviate the name to Derry or City, the club, founded in 1928, initially played in the Irish League, the domestic league in Northern Ireland, and won a title in 1964–65. In 1971, security concerns related to the Troubles meant matches could not be played at the Brandywell, the team played home fixtures 30 miles away in Coleraine. After 13 years in football, it joined the League of Irelands new First Division for 1985–86. Derry won the First Division title and achieved promotion to the Premier Division in 1987, the club won a domestic treble in 1988–89, the only League of Ireland club so far to do so. Derry City was granted entry into the Irish League in 1929 as professionals and was given permission by the Londonderry Corporation to use the municipal Brandywell Stadium, the clubs first significant success came in 1935 when it lifted the City Cup. It repeated the feat in 1937, but did not win major trophy until 1949. This led to the clubs first entry into European competition, in the 1964–65 UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in which it was beaten by Steaua Bucharest 5–0 on aggregate. The club won the 1964–65 Irish League and subsequently became the first Irish League team to win a European tie over two legs, beating FK Lyn 8–6 on aggregate in the 1965–66 European Cup. Derry did not complete the round, as the Irish Football Association declared its ground was not up to standard. Derry suspected sectarian motives, as it played in a mainly nationalist city, the IFA, Belfast-based, was dominated by Protestants and it was widely suspected that it would rather have been represented by a traditionally unionist team. Relations between the club and IFA quickly deteriorated, despite the social and political unrest, Derry reached the Irish Cup final in 1971, in which it was beaten 3–0 by Distillery. As the republican locality surrounding the Brandywell saw some of the worst violence and this situation lasted from September 1971 until October 1972 when, faced with dwindling crowds and dire finances, the club formally requested permission to return to the Brandywell. Continuing without a ground was seen as unsustainable and on 13 October 1972 Derry withdrew from the league amidst a perception that it was forced out. The club continued as a team during the 13-year-long flim flam years, playing in the local Saturday morning league. Each time, the club nominated the Brandywell as its home ground
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland. The name Derry is an anglicisation of the Old Irish name Daire meaning oak grove, in 1613, the city was granted a Royal Charter by King James I and gained the London prefix to reflect the funding of its construction by the London guilds. While the city is usually known colloquially as Derry, Londonderry is also commonly used. The old walled city lies on the west bank of the River Foyle, the city now covers both banks. The population of the city was 83,652 at the 2001 Census, the district administered by Derry City and Strabane District Council contains both Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport. Derry is close to the border with County Donegal, with which it has had a link for many centuries. In 2013, Derry was the inaugural UK City of Culture, according to the citys Royal Charter of 10 April 1662, the official name is Londonderry. This was reaffirmed in a High Court decision in 2007 when Derry City Council sought guidance on the procedure for effecting a name change. The council had changed its name from Londonderry City Council to Derry City Council in 1984, the decision of the court was that it had not but it was clarified that the correct procedure to do so was via a petition to the Privy Council. Derry City Council since started this process and were involved in conducting an equality impact assessment report, then the EQIA held two consultative forums, and solicited comments from the general public on whether or not the city should have its name changed to Derry. A total of 12,136 comments were received, of which 3,108 were broadly in favour of the proposal, and 9,028 opposed to it. Despite the official name, the city is usually known as Derry, which is an anglicisation of the Irish Daire or Doire. The name derives from the settlements earliest references, Daire Calgaich, the name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the city by the London guilds. In McCaffertys survey of language use in the city, only very few interviewees—all Protestants—use the official form, apart from the name of Derry City Council, the city is usually known as Londonderry in official use within the UK. In the Republic of Ireland, the city and county are almost always referred to as Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation. Whereas official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, usage varies among local organisations, with both names being used. Most companies within the city choose local area such as Pennyburn. Londonderry railway station is referred to as Waterside railway station within the city but is called Derry/Londonderry at other stations
The Brandywell Stadium is a municipal dual-use football and greyhound racing stadium located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the ground of League of Ireland team Derry City F. C. The football team play on Friday evenings usually at 7. 45pm, the stadium is situated on the Lone Moor Road just south-west of the Bogside in the Brandywell area and shares the road with another sports-ground, Celtic Park, the headquarters of the Derry GAA. The ground, which is within walking distance of the city centre, is commonly referred to as simply, the Brandywell. Previously it was the home of St Columbs Court and Derry Celtic. The ground, as well as the stadium, features a large training area, a club shop, a club house, from which the club and ticket offices operate. This began an association between the club and the ground which has survived until the present day, the club are still operating under the constraints of the Honourable the Irish Society charter limitations which declare that the Brandywell must be available for the recreation of the community. In effect, the club do not have private ownership over the ground and, thus, Derry Citys first game at the Brandywell was against Glentoran on 22 August 1929. The stadium has played host to many matches, such as Derry Citys 1-0 victory IFK Göteborg on 27 July 2006 in the UEFA Cup first qualifying round. However, current facilities for spectators and media simply cannot cope with the demand for some matches, the ground also hosted the FAI League Cup final in 2006 between Derry City and Dublin rivals, Shelbourne FC. Derry won the game after it went to a penalty shoot-out. The dimensions of the pitch itself measure 111 yards in length by 72 yards in width. The area surrounding the stadium was considered to be too dangerous by the Irish League for the visit of a number of opposing teams, especially those with unionist support, due to the Troubles. 1985 saw Derry admitted into the Republics league, the League of Ireland, unusually, The Brandywell do not usually have a police presence inside it during Derry City games however the PSNI do have the ability to enter the stadium in an emergency. The Brandywell Stadium also hosts the games of the Foyle Cup tournament. In 2002, the stadium was voted the tenth favourite sporting venue in the UK by BBCs Radio Five Live, the Brandywell has undergone large-scale redevelopment is recent years with the curved cantilever New Stand being constructed in 1991 and the terraced Jungle being demolished in 2004. The Jungle section was the home of Derrys noisier hardcore element of fans, many of these fanatics now occupy the area of and surrounding Block J in the New Stand. The quieter blocks of the New Stand, where the remainder of the spectators sit, are sometimes referred to as the Library in jest by the louder group
Ballybofey is a town located on the south bank of the River Finn, County Donegal, Ireland. Along with the town of Stranorlar on the north side of the River Finn. The town grew rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries, Ballybofey also plays host to the Twin Towns Festival which takes place annually. The centrepiece of the festival is a parade on the Sunday, the last of these took place on 19 August 2007. There are no schools or churches in the town of Ballybofey itself, just a few miles west of Ballybofey, on the main road to Fintown, is the Glenmore Estate, located at Welchtown. The estate formerly included Glenmore Lodge, a house that stood on the opposite, southern bank of the River Finn. The house was built in the Georgian-style in the mid-to-late-18th-century. It was re-worked for Sir William Styles in the neo-Tudor-style in the early 20th-century, the house was demolished in the 1990s. The private estate is now famous for its fishing and hunting, the Balor Arts Centre is a state of the art theatre complex, based in the heart of Ballybofey. The main auditorium holds 300 seats, incorporating 56 seats in the balcony, the Butt Drama Circle celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2009, having started out in the Butt Hall in 1959. The BDC is basically a drama club which has expanded its remit considerably. Apart from its own amateur drama productions, and participating in regional and national drama festivals, Ballybofey is home to Finn Park where League of Ireland side Finn Harps play their home games. Seán MacCumhail Park is also located in Ballybofey, where the Donegal senior football team play most of their home games, the Isaac Butt Memorial Hall is named after him. Ballybofey railway station opened on 3 June 1895, but finally closed on 15 December 1947, list of populated places in Ireland Market Houses in the Republic of Ireland Ballybofey/Stranorlar Fiach Arts Twin Town Oils
Letterkenny Rovers F.C.
Letterkenny Rovers Football Club is an association football club from Ireland, currently competing in the Ulster Senior League. The club is based in Letterkenny and the play their home games at Leckview Park. The club work closely with League of Ireland First Division side Finn Harps, Letterkenny Rovers also compete in the FAI Cup. The club was formed in 1936 as Letterkenny Crusaders before being given its current name in 1954, however, in 2010, the club erected a new 200 seater stand at Leckview Park in phase one of the re-development of the venue. The 2015/2016 season saw Rovers, under the guidance of Eamon McConigley, having overcome Derry City Reserves to win the Knockalla Caravans Cup, the first-team went on to reach the final of the FAI Intermediate Cup at the Aviva Stadium, going down 5-0 to Crumlin United. Letterkenny Rovers home kit is white jersey, black shorts, red socks, the away kit are black jersey, white shorts and yellow socks. The club crest is divided into four panels which feature St. Eunans Cathedral, Conwal Parish Church, a fish, there is a football in the centre of the crest. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Association football in the Republic of Ireland
Association football, more usually known as soccer or football, is the team sport with the highest level of participation in the Republic of Ireland. It is also the third most popular spectator sport overall with 16% of total attendances at events, behind only Gaelic football. The national governing body for the sport is the Football Association of Ireland, which runs the national team and the League of Ireland. The term football is used interchangeably in Ireland between association football, Gaelic football and Rugby union, for spectators in Ireland, English soccer is extremely popular compared with the domestic league, with up to 120,000 Irish fans travelling to watch games in the UK each year. Irish school children are seen wearing replica shirts of English league teams. In its earliest days, association football was largely confined to the city of Dublin, gradually it became more widespread throughout the country, to the point where in the modern day there are clubs in all of the counties of Ireland. Currently, average attendances at matches in the League of Ireland is around 2,000. Having said that, the best Irish players have followed the best wages. This did not stop the game entering into a period after the second world war when grounds would be full every weekend to watch a league game. It was the start of televised football in England, and the setup in Ireland, that led to a decrease in attendances. The sport is played at all levels in the country, the national teams performance in the 1990 FIFA World Cup, where they reached the quarter-finals is their best to date. Although the sport was being played in Ireland in the 1860s, it was based in Ulster. The Leinster Football Association was formed in 1892 as the game became popular in the area. The League of Ireland was established in 1921, with eight taking part. St. Jamess Gate F. C. won the first title, on 28 May at the Stade Olympique, they beat Bulgaria 1–0, with Paddy Duncan scoring the teams first ever goal. As a result of this they qualified for the quarter-finals, on 14 June 1924, the Irish Free State made their home debut against the United States, who had embarked on a brief European tour after competing in the same Olympics. Ed Brookes scored a hat-trick in a 3–1 home win at Dalymount Park, the Irish Free State did not play their next game until 21 March 1926. This was a game against Italy which they lost 3–0