Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Elements of Lees army beat the Union army to the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House and began entrenching. Fighting occurred on and off from May 8 through May 21,1864, in the end, the battle was tactically inconclusive, but with almost 32,000 casualties on both sides, it was the costliest battle of the campaign. On May 8, Union Maj. Gens, on May 10, Grant ordered attacks across the Confederate line of earthworks, which by now extended over 4 miles, including a prominent salient known as the Mule Shoe. Although the Union troops failed again at Laurel Hill, an innovative assault attempt by Col. Emory Upton against the Mule Shoe showed promise. Grant used Uptons assault technique on a larger scale on May 12 when he ordered the 15,000 men of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancocks corps to assault the Mule Shoe. Hancock was initially successful, but the Confederate leadership rallied and repulsed his incursion, supporting attacks by Warren and by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside were unsuccessful. Grant repositioned his lines in another attempt to engage Lee under more favorable conditions and launched an attack by Hancock on May 18.
A reconnaissance in force by Confederate Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell at Harris farm on May 19 was a costly and pointless failure. On May 21, Grant disengaged from the Confederate Army and started southeast on another maneuver to turn Lees right flank, in March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, and given command of all Union armies. He chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and he left Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. This was the first time the Union armies would have an offensive strategy across a number of theaters. Grants campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would certainly fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also, although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition.
Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had far greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment. On May 5, after Grants army crossed the Rapidan and entered the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, although Lee was outnumbered, about 60,000 to 100,000, his men fought fiercely and the dense foliage provided a terrain advantage. After two days of fighting and almost 29,000 casualties, the results were inconclusive and neither army was able to obtain an advantage, Lee had stopped Grant, but had not turned him back, and Grant had not destroyed Lees army. As of May 7, Grants Union forces totaled approximately 100,000 men and they consisted of the Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and the IX Corps. The five corps were, II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, John Gibbon, and Gershom Mott
Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6,1863, in Spotsylvania County, two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers Army of the Potomac against a less than half its size. Chancellorsville is known as Lees perfect battle because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The Chancellorsville Campaign began with the crossing of the Rappahannock River by the Union army on the morning of April 27,1863, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lees supply lines at about the same time. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Elys Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30, combined with the Union force facing Fredericksburg, Hooker planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear.
Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the lines around Chancellorsville. On May 2, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jacksons entire corps on a march that routed the Union XI Corps. While performing a reconnaissance in advance of his line, Jackson was wounded by fire from his own men. Stuart temporarily replaced him as corps commander and that same day, Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Maryes Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, and moved to the west. The Confederates fought a delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church and by May 4 had driven back Sedgwicks men to Banks Ford. Sedgwick withdrew across the early on May 5, and Hooker withdrew the remainder of his army across U. S. Ford the night of May 5–6, the campaign ended on May 7 when Stonemans cavalry reached Union lines east of Richmond. In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the objective of the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Virginia.
In the first two years of the war, four attempts had failed, the first foundered just miles away from Washington. Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles and that summer, Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In January 1863, the Army of the Potomac, following the Battle of Fredericksburg, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomacs leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. In reality, he had no power to anyone without the approval of Congress
Battle of Philippi (West Virginia)
The Battle of Philippi formed part of the Western Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War, and was fought in and around Philippi, Virginia on June 3,1861. A Union victory, it was the first organized land action of the war, the Northern press celebrated it as an epic triumph, and this encouraged Congress to call for the drive on Richmond that ended with the Union defeat at First Bull Run in July. It brought overnight fame to Maj. Gen. George B, McClellan, and was notable for the first battlefield amputations. It encouraged the western counties of Virginia to form their own Union state, as the largely-untrained Confederates had fled the battlefield with barely any resistance, the Union jokingly referred to the engagement as the Philippi Races. McClellan planned an offensive into what is now the State of West Virginia which he hoped would lead to a campaign against the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. After securing Fairmont, the 1st Virginia advanced again and seized the important railroad junction of Grafton, about 15 miles southeast of Fairmont, the 14th Ohio Infantry Regiment, under Col.
James B. Steedman, was ordered to occupy Parkersburg and proceed to Grafton, about 90 miles to the east. By May 28, McClellan had ordered a total of about 3,000 troops into Western Virginia and placed them under the command of Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Morris. On May 4 Confederate Col. George A. Porterfield had been assigned command of the forces in northwestern Virginia. As the Union columns advanced, Porterfields poorly armed 800 recruits retreated to Philippi, at Philippi, a covered bridge spanned the Tygart Valley River and was an important segment of the vital Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike. Col. Kelley devised a two-prong attack against the Confederate force in Philippi, in order to deceive the enemy into thinking the objective was Harpers Ferry, they departed by train to the east. They disembarked at the village of Thornton and marched south on a back road on the same side of the river as Philippi. Meanwhile, the 7th Indiana under Col. Ebenezer Dumont were sent to Webster and they would unite with the 6th Indiana under Col.
Thomas T. Crittenden and the 14th Ohio under Col. Steedman. The column, with a total of 1,400 men under Col. Dumont, in this way, the Union force would execute a double envelopment of the outnumbered Confederates. On June 2, the Union columns set off to converge on Philippi, after an overnight march in rainy weather, both arrived at Philippi before dawn the following morning. Morris had planned an assault to be signaled by a pistol shot. The green Confederate volunteers had failed to establish picket lines for perimeter security, choosing instead to escape the cold rain, a Confederate sympathizer, Mrs. Thomas Humphreys, saw the approaching Union troops and sent her young son on horseback to warn the Confederates. As Mrs. Humphreys watched, she saw Union pickets capture her son and she missed, but her shots began the attack prematurely
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30,1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge, on August 28,1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawners Farm, resulting in a stalemate but successfully getting Popes attention. On that same day, the wing of Lees army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jacksons position along a railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap, on August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. The Union left flank was crushed and the army was back to Bull Run.
Only an effective Union rear guard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas defeat, Popes retreat to Centreville was nonetheless precipitous. Success in this battle emboldened Lee to initiate the ensuing Maryland Campaign, after the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellans Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. Popes mission was to two basic objectives, protect Washington and the Shenandoah Valley, and draw Confederate forces away from McClellan by moving in the direction of Gordonsville. This allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope, Lee had larger plans in mind. Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were separated, Lee saw an opportunity to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan. He committed Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men, on August 3, General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck directed McClellan to begin his final withdrawal from the Peninsula and to return to Northern Virginia to support Pope.
McClellan protested and did not begin his redeployment until August 14, on August 9, Nathaniel Bankss corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage, but a Confederate counterattack led by A. P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek. Jacksons advance was stopped, however, by the Union division of Brig. Gen. James B, by now Jackson had learned that Popes corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions. He remained in position until August 12, withdrew to Gordonsville, on August 13, Lee sent Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. From August 22 to 25, the two fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River
Battle of Chickamauga
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20,1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and it was the first major battle of the war that was fought in Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga, in early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Daviss Cross Roads, Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat it, and move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps, as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles.
Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19, Braggs men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault, in late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. Longstreets attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight, Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move quickly to take Chattanooga, seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke.
Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringers Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, into Braggs Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Braggs army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Braggs command who had little or no respect for him, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had already made their animosity well known. Buckners attitude was colored by Braggs unsuccessful invasion of Buckners native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardees request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia. The Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi and he demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.
He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside that was threatening Knoxville, Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River
Real-time tactics or RTT is a subgenre of tactical wargames played in real-time simulating the considerations and circumstances of operational warfare and military tactics. This contrasts with other current strategy game genres, for instance, in large-scale turn-based strategy games battles are generally abstracted and the gameplay close to that of related board games. As suggested by the name, fundamental to real-time tactics is real-time gameplay. The genre has its roots in tactical and miniature wargaming, where battle scenarios are recreated using miniatures or even simple paper chits and these board and table-top games were out of necessity turn-based. Only with computer support was turn-based play and strategy successfully transposed into real-time, while some publications do refer to RTT as a distinct subgenre of real-time strategy or strategy, not all publications do so. Nonetheless, efforts have made to distinguish RTT games from RTSs. For instance, GameSpy described Axis & Allies as a true RTS, a developer for Close Combat said their game never aspired to be an RTS in the classic sense, but was rather a real time tactical simulation, lacking such features as resource collection.
In the context of video games, the difference often comes down to the more limited criteria of either a presence or absence of base building. Real-time strategy games have been criticized for an overabundance of tactical considerations when compared to the amount of gameplay found in such games. Taylor went on to say that his own game featured added elements of a strategic level. In an article for GameSpy, Mark Walker said that developers need to begin looking outside the genre for new ideas in order for strategy games to continue to be successful in the future. In an article for Gamasutra, Nathan Toronto criticizes real-time strategy games for too often having only one means of victory—attrition—comparing them unfavorably to real-time tactics games. He says that building and managing armies is the definition of real-time strategy. Wargaming with items or figurines representing soldiers or units for training or entertainment has been common for as long as organised conflicts, miniature wargaming, where players mount armies of miniature figurines to battle each other, has become popular.
Since most established rule sets were for turn-based table-top games, the leap to translate these categories to real time was a problem that needed to be overcome. Likewise, Free Fall Associates 1983 title Archon can be considered an early real-time tactics game, built upon Chess but including real-time battle sequences. Another predecessor was Bits of Magics Centurion, Defender of Rome, in which, similar to the recent Rome, Total War game, though the battles were in real-time they were of small scope and player interaction was limited to deciding the initial troop disposition. Lords of the Realm, released in 1994 by Impressions Games, around 1995, computer hardware and developer support systems had developed enough to facilitate the requirements of large-scale real-time tactical games
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
A turn-based strategy game is a strategy game where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real time strategy where all players play simultaneously, many board games are turn based. For example, chess is one of the oldest and most competitive games of its kind, but many other games such as Reversi, Hare games and Go are turn based. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre, examples include Fire Emblem, The Battle for Wesnoth, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers, World at War. Kings Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, XCOM2, after a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on completely original properties or concepts. The presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity which is not feasible in a board game. Some well known turn-based strategy games are Sid Meiers Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer General series, a further market trend is the rise of Indie TBS games.
These games often extend or refine already existing TBS strategy games, examples include Freeciv or Golden Age of Civilizations. Since turn-based strategy games do not typically require vast amounts of art or modeling, directories like Freecode provide large lists of open-source, turn-based strategy projects. Because they do not require users to install files and are often free, all that they require is any device with a web browser and Internet connection. Many will work just as well on a smartphone as they do on a desktop computer, chronology of turn-based strategy video games Time-keeping systems in games
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3,1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the war and is often described as the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meades Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lees attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1,1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig.
Gen. John Buford, on the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched an assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devils Den. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culps Hill, all across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army, Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the battle, the most costly in US history. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Such a move would upset U. S. plans for the campaigning season. The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest, in addition, Lees 72, 000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.
Thus, on June 3, Lees army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven corps, a cavalry corps. The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia
Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought from May 31 to June 12,1864, with the most significant fighting occurring on June 3. It was one of the battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grants Overland Campaign during the American Civil War. Thousands of Union soldiers were killed or wounded in a frontal assault against the fortified positions of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees army. Both Grant and Lee, whose armies had suffered casualties in the Overland Campaign. On the evening of June 1, the Union VI Corps, on June 2, the remainder of both armies arrived and the Confederates built an elaborate series of fortifications 7 miles long. At dawn on June 3, three Union corps attacked the Confederate works on the end of the line and were easily repulsed with heavy casualties. Attempts to assault the northern end of the line and to resume the assaults on the southern were unsuccessful, Grant said of the battle in his memoirs, I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. No advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the loss we sustained.
The armies confronted each other on these lines until the night of June 12 and it was an impressive defensive victory for Lee, but it was his last in the war. In the final stage, he alternated between digging into the trenches at Petersburg and fleeing westward across Virginia, Grants Overland Campaign was one of a series of simultaneous offensives the newly appointed general in chief launched against the Confederacy. Grants campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, President Abraham Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would certainly fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also, although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers, on May 5, after Grants army crossed the Rapidan River and entered the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, it was attacked by Lees Army of Northern Virginia.
Although Lee was outnumbered, about 60,000 to 100,000, his men fought fiercely, after two days of fighting and almost 29,000 casualties, the results were inconclusive and neither army was able to obtain an advantage. Lee had stopped Grant, but had not turned him back, elements of Lees army beat the Union army to the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House and began entrenching, a tactic that became increasingly essential for the outnumbered defenders. Near Spotsylvania Court House, fighting occurred on and off from May 8 through May 21, on May 8, Union Maj. Gens. On May 10, Grant ordered attacks across the Confederate line of earthworks, although the Union troops failed again at Laurel Hill, an innovative assault attempt by Col. Emory Upton against the Mule Shoe showed promise. Grant used Uptons assault technique on a larger scale on May 12 when he ordered the 15,000 men of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancocks corps to assault the Mule Shoe