Robert R. Blacker House
The Robert Roe Blacker House referred to as the Blacker House or Robert R. Blacker House, is a residence in Pasadena, now on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places, it was built in 1907 for Nellie Canfield Blacker. It was designed by Charles Greene of the renowned Pasadena firm of Greene and Greene; this house was a lavish project for the Greene brothers, costing in excess of US$100,000.00. Everything for the house was custom designed, down to the teak escutcheon plates of the upstairs mahogany panel doors to the linen closets with their ebony cloud adorned keys. Robert R. Blacker was a retired Michigan lumberman. Nellie Canfield Blacker was the daughter of John Canfield, owner-operator of Canfield & Wheeler, a lumber mill based in Manistee, Michigan. Blacker was a member of several lumbering firms in Manistee, including R. R. Blacker & Company. Among other interests, he was president of the Michigan Steamship Company, original owners of the ill-fated SS Eastland. Robert Blacker preceded his wife in death in 1931.
Upon Nellie's death in 1946, the property went into probate as the Blackers did not identify any heirs. In her Last Will and Testament, Nellie specified the house and its furnishings were to be sold as a whole and not parceled off; the representative of Nellie Blacker's estate decided to maximize the value of the assets instead. As a result, the seven acre estate was sold sans its furnishings subdivided by the purchaser into smaller parcels, destroying the gardens in the process; the main residence ended up on just one acre. The garage became a separate residence; the remainder of the gardens were subdivided into separate lots. More notable, was the infamous "yard sale" conducted shortly after the sale in probate where the furnishing were sold off, in a yard sale fashion. Furniture built for the Blacker House is now in museums and in the hands of wealthy collectors and Hollywood luminaries. One family, the Andersons, were able to buy a large lot of furniture. In 1990, an Anderson family member offered the then-owners of the Blacker House the ability to purchase the breakfast room table for the remarkable sum of $390,000.00.
On 19 June 2007, the following Greene items. The house was purchased by Mrs. Max Hill in the 1950s. In 1985 widowed, Mrs. Hill sold the property to Barton English, a Princeton graduate and rancher from Texas, Michael Carey, a prominent dealer of Arts and Crafts era antiques from New York City. Shortly after the close of escrow, Mr. English hired a well known local antique dealer to remove more than forty-eight original lighting fixtures for him, he removed some of the leaded art glass doors and transom panels, after commissioning a well known local studio to produce exact reproductions of the doors and windows that were to be removed. Many of the original pieces were sold on the art market; this incident has been referred to as the "Rape of the Blacker House". National media attention to this sequence of events was facilitated through the efforts of Pasadena Heritage executive director Claire Bogaard. Articles appeared in Washington Post and New York Times. Pasadena enacted an emergency ordinance, known as the Blacker Ordinance, which attempted to limit the ability of people owning homes designed by Greene and Greene to dismantle or otherwise destroy artifacts therein.
Although not a direct prohibition, the ordinance delayed for up to one year any changes or alterations, subject to review of a committee of the Planning Commission. Conservation-minded citizens guarded the Blacker house day and night to keep further fixtures from being removed. Several of the chandeliers sold for $250,000 and many of the lamps fetched $100,000 each; as Mr. English paid only $1 million for the home, he recouped his investment on the sale of the fixtures, he sold the home for 1.2 million, having never lived in it. When the home was offered for sale in 1994 it was purchased by Ellen Knell. At the time the couple were in escrow on another Greene and Greene house, they backed out of that purchase in order to obtain the Blacker house; the Knells worked with Randall Makinson, a restoration architect with a specialty in Greene and Greene, James Ipekjian, a master craftsman, along with an entire team of like minded mastercraftsmen that were specialists in their fields. The building was restored out.
Ipekjian was responsible for re-creating the wood work of other fixtures. The house was re-wired and re-plumbed, the structure upgraded to withstand earthquakes, discreet ventilation ducts were installed; every shingle was removed and either restored or replaced, all timbers were stripped and refinished, nearly all the tail rafters cantilevering beyond the roof line needed to be replaced. After four years of restoration, a benefit dinner hosted by actor Brad Pitt celebrated the completion of the project. In the movie Back to the Future, interior shots of Dr. Brown's house were taken inside the Blacker House. Williams, Janette. Pasadena Star News, June 20, 20
Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas and part of the pantropical chinaberry family, Meliaceae. The three species are: Honduran or big-leaf mahogany, with a range from Mexico to southern Amazonia in Brazil, the most widespread species of mahogany and the only true mahogany species commercially grown today. Illegal logging of S. macrophylla, its destructive environmental effects, led to the species' placement in 2003 on Appendix II of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the first time that a high-volume, high-value tree was listed on Appendix II. West Indian or Cuban mahogany, native to southern Florida and the Caribbean dominant in the mahogany trade, but not in widespread commercial use since World War II. Swietenia humilis, a small and twisted mahogany tree limited to seasonally dry forests in Pacific Central America, of limited commercial utility; some botanists believe.
While the three Swietenia species are classified as "genuine mahogany", other Meliaceae species with timber uses are classified as "true mahogany." Some may not have the word mahogany in their trade or common name. Some of these true mahoganies include the African genera Entandrophragma; some members of the genus Shorea of the family Dipterocarpaceae are sometimes sold as Philippine mahogany, although the name is more properly applied to another species of Toona, Toona calantas. Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty and color, used for paneling and to make furniture, musical instruments and other items; the leading importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain. It is estimated that some 80 or 90 percent of Peruvian mahogany exported to the United States is illegally harvested, with the economic cost of illegal logging in Peru placed conservatively at $40–70 million USD annually, it was estimated that in 2000, some 57,000 mahogany trees were harvested to supply the U.
S. furniture trade alone. Mahogany is the national tree of Belize. A mahogany tree with two woodcutters bearing an axe and a paddle appears on the Belizean national coat of arms, under the national motto, Sub umbra floreo, Latin for "under the shade I flourish."Specific gravity of mahogany is 0.55. The natural distribution of these species within the Americas is geographically distinct. S. mahagoni grows on the West Indian islands as far north as the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and parts of Florida. In the 20th century various botanists attempted to further define S. macrophylla in South America as a new species, such as S. candollei Pittier and S. tessmannii Harms. But many authorities consider these spurious. According to Record and Hess, all of the mahogany of continental North and South America can be considered as one botanical species, Swietenia macrophylla King; the name mahogany was associated only with those islands in the West Indies under British control. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it could be a corruption of'm'oganwo', the name used by the Yoruba and Ibo people of West Africa to describe trees of the genus Khaya, related to Swietenia.
When transported to Jamaica as slaves, they gave the same name to the similar trees. Though this interpretation has been disputed, no one has suggested a more plausible origin; the indigenous Arawak name for the tree is not known. In 1671 the word mahogany appeared in print in John Ogilby's America. Among botanists and naturalists, the tree was considered a type of cedar, in 1759 was classified by Carl Linnaeus as Cedrela mahagoni; the following year it was assigned to a new genus by Nicholas Joseph Jacquin, named Swietenia mahagoni. Until the 19th century all of the mahogany was regarded as one species, although varying in quality and character according to soil and climate. In 1836 the German botanist Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini identified a second species while working on specimens collected on the Pacific coast of Mexico, named it Swietenia humilis. In 1886 a third species, Swietenia macrophylla, was named by Sir George King after studying specimens of Honduras mahogany planted in the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta, India.
Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, are therefore protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asian countries at the time of the restrictions imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now grown and harvested in plantations in those countries. A small percentage of global supply of genuine mahogany comes from these Asian plantati
Julia Morgan was an American architect. She designed more than 700 buildings in California during a prolific career, she is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in California. Morgan was the first woman to be admitted to the architecture program at l'École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the first woman architect licensed in California, she designed many buildings for institutions serving women and girls, including YWCA buildings and buildings for Mills College. Morgan embraced the Arts and Crafts Movement and used various producers of California pottery to adorn her buildings, she sought to reconcile classical and Craftsman and innovation, formalism and whimsy. Julia Morgan was the first woman to receive the AIA Gold Medal, posthumously in 2014. Morgan's father, Charles Bill Morgan, was born into a prominent East Coast family that included successful military men and influential businessmen, he studied to be a mining engineer. He returned the next year to marry Eliza Woodland Parmelee, the favored daughter of Albert O. Parmelee, a cotton trader and self-made millionaire.
The wedding was in New York, where she had grown up. As a wedding present, Parmelee gave his daughter an envelope full of money so that she could raise a family in comfort, he indicated. The newlyweds traveled to San Francisco and settled downtown in a family-oriented but luxurious residential hotel. In April 1870, a son was named Parmelee Morgan. On January 20, 1872, Julia Morgan was born. Two years the Morgans moved across the San Francisco Bay to Oakland, to live in a large house they had built in the Stick-Eastlake style at 754 14th Street at its intersection with Brush Street at the downtown edge of what is now known as West Oakland. Three more children were born to the family in Oakland. At every new birth, grandfather Parmelee paid for the Morgans to travel to the East Coast by transcontinental train so that the grandchild could be christened in the traditional family church in New York. Charles Morgan was not successful in any of his business ventures, so the family relied upon money from grandfather Parmelee.
Eliza Morgan ran the household with a strong hand, providing young Julia with a role model of womanly competence and independence. In mid-1878, Eliza took the children to live near the Parmelees in New York for a year while Charles worked in San Francisco. In New York, Julia was introduced to her older cousin Lucy Thornton, married to successful architect Pierre Le Brun. After returning to Oakland, Julia kept in contact with Le Brun. In New York, Julia got sick with scarlet fever and was kept in bed for a few weeks; as a result of this illness, throughout her adult life she was prone to ear infections. In July 1880, grandfather Parmelee died. Soon, grandmother Parmelee moved into the Oakland house; this reinforced Julia's impression. Morgan resisted her mother's suggestion that she have a debutante party to celebrate her availability for marriage, she argued. Her parents were supportive of this wish. Morgan graduated from Oakland High School in 1890 and enrolled in the University of California, in nearby Berkeley.
At university, she was a member of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority. After her graduation, Morgan became a member of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, now the American Association of University Women. One of the engineering lecturers of her senior year was Bernard Maybeck, an eccentrically dressed architect who designed buildings that Morgan admired for their respect for the surrounding topography and environment. Maybeck mentored Morgan, along with her classmates Arthur Brown, Jr. Edward H. Bennett and Lewis P. Hobart, in architecture at his Berkeley home, he encouraged Morgan to continue her studies at the prestigious École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris where he had distinguished himself. She graduated from Cal in 1894 with a degree in civil engineering. Morgan gained a year of work experience building with Maybeck traveled to Paris in 1896 to prepare for the Beaux-Arts entrance exam; the school had never before allowed a woman to study architecture, but in 1897, it opened its entry process to women applicants because of pressure from a union of French women artists, whom Morgan characterized as "bohemians".
Morgan was exposed to their feminist views. In principle, the school admitted the top 30 candidates, it took Morgan three tries to get in: on the first try, she placed too low, while on her second try, in 1898, although she placed well into the top 30, the examiners "arbitrarily lowered" her marks. After more than a year of further study, tutored by François-Benjamin Chaussemiche, a winner of the Prix de Rome, she passed the entrance exams in the Architecture Program, placing 13th out of 376 applicants, was duly admitted. However, she could study only until her 30th birthday. In early 1902, as her birthday approached, Morgan submitted an outstanding design for a palatial theatre; this earned her a certificate in architecture, making her the first woman to receive one from the school. She stayed in Paris long enough to collaborate with Chaussemiche on
A bungalow is a type of building developed in the Bengal region of the subcontinent. The meaning of the word bungalow varies internationally. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow associated with the United States was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom, a bungalow today is a house detached, that may contain a small loft, it is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof with dormer windows. The term originated in the Indian subcontinent, deriving from the Hindi word "बंगला", meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style"; this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent. Such houses were traditionally small, of one story and detached, had a wide veranda; the term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe "bungales or hovells" in India for English sailors of the East India Company.
It became used for the spacious homes or official lodgings of officials of the British India, was so known in Britain and America, where it had high status and exotic connotations. The style began to be used in the late 19th century for large country or suburban residential buildings built in an Arts and Crafts or other Western vernacular style—essentially as large cottages, a term sometimes used. Developers began to use the term for smaller buildings. Bungalows are convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story and there are no stairs between living areas. A bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs. Neighborhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighborhoods with two-story houses; as bungalows are one or one and a half stories, strategically planted trees and shrubs are sufficient to block the view of neighbors. With two-story houses, the extra height requires much taller trees to accomplish the same, it may not be practical to place such tall trees close to the building to obscure the view from the second floor of the next door neighbor.
Bungalows provide cost-effective residences. On the other hand closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighborhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas to shade the interior from intense sun, but as a result they are excessively dark inside, requiring artificial light in daytime. On a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area; the larger foundation will translate into larger lot size requirements, as well. Due to this, bungalows are fully detached from other buildings and do not share a common foundation or party wall: if the homeowner can afford the extra expense of a bungalow relative to a two-story house, they can afford a detached property as well. Although the'footprint' of a bungalow is a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high, are close to the roof.
This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the brick wall above the windows. However, in two-story houses, there is no choice but to continue the brick wall above the window In rural Bangladesh, the concept is called Bangla ghar and remain popular. Today's main construction material is corrugated steel sheets or red clay tiles, while past generations used wood and khar straw; this straw was used keeping the house cooler during hot summer days. From 1891 the Federation Bungalow style swept across Australia, first in Camberwell and through Sydney's northern suburbs after 1895; the developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, in Rosebery, New South Wales. Beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia and New Zealand; the style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and spread throughout the Australian states and New Zealand.
In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments. The first two bungalows in England were built in Westgate-on-Sea in 1869 or 1870. A bungalow was a prefabricated single-story building used as a seaside holiday home. Manufacturers included Boulton & Paul Ltd, who made corrugated iron bungalows as advertised in their 1889 catalogue, which were erected by their men on the purchaser's light brickwork foundation. Examples include Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum, Castle Bungalow at Peppercombe, North Devon, owned by the Landmark Trust. Construction of this type of bungalow peaked towards the end of the decade, to be replaced by brick construction. Bungalows became popular in the United Kingdom between the two World Wars and large numbers were built in coastal resorts, giving rise to the pejorative adjective, "bungaloid", first found in the Daily Express from 1927: "Hideous allotments and bungaloid growth make the approaches to any city repulsive".
Many villages and seaside resorts have large estates of 1960s bungalows occupied by retired people. The typical 1930s bungalow is square
Charles M. Pratt House
The Charles M. Pratt House near Ojai, California is a historic Arts and Crafts-style house, built in 1909 as a winter home for industrialist Charles Millard Pratt. Known as Casa Barranca, it is one of the "ultimate bungalows" designed by architects Charles and Henry Greene of Greene and Greene, it is a unique house, built for a client with "unlimited resources" in a rural location that allowed the architects to place the house "in a natural setting". With the building site chosen within the original 14 acre parcel, an adjacent 38-acre parcel was purchased to preserve "the all important viewshed to which the house is directed." The combination of factors allowed the work to be created consistently with intended principles of the Arts and Crafts movement. The structure and cladding of the building are completely honest and devoid of mannered veneers and false beams contained in the other "ultimate bungalows", it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. As of the listing, the house and views are preserved.
The Pratts owned the nearby Foothills Hotel, which they could use for entertaining, so "they only needed the house to serve as “sleeping quarters” and family relaxation." National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California Ventura County Historic Landmarks & Points of Interest
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu