Cessna 182 Skylane
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engined light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area. Introduced in 1956, the 182 has been produced in a number of variants, including a version with retractable landing gear, is the second most popular Cessna model, after the 172; the Cessna 182 was introduced in 1956 as a tricycle gear variant of the 180. In 1957, the 182A variant was introduced along with the name Skylane; as production continued models were improved with features such as a wider fuselage, swept tailfin with rear "omni-vision" window, enlarged baggage compartment, higher gross weights, landing gear changes, etc. The "restart" aircraft built after 1996 were different in many other details including a different engine, new seating design, etc. By mid-2013 Cessna planned to introduce the next model of the 182T, the JT-A, using the 227 hp SMA SR305-230 diesel engine running on Jet-A with a burn rate of 11 U.
S. gallons per hour and cruise at 155 kn. Cessna has no timeline for the JT-A and the diesel 172; the aspirated, avgas fueled 182 went out of production in 2012, but came back in 2015. Cessna 182s were built in Argentina by DINFIA, by Reims Aviation, France, as the F182; the Cessna 182 is an all-metal aircraft, although some parts – such as engine cowling nosebowl and wingtips – are made of fiberglass or thermoplastic material. Its wing has the same planform as the larger 205/206 series; the retractable gear R182 and TR182 were offered from 1978 to 1986, without and with engine turbocharging respectively. The model designation nomenclature differs from some other Cessna models with optional retractable gear. For instance the retractable version of the Cessna 172 was designated as the 172RG, whereas the retractable gear version of the Cessna 182 is the R182. Cessna gave the R182 the marketing name of "Skylane RG"; the R182 and TR182 offer 10-15% improvement in climb and cruise speeds over their fixed gear counterparts or, alternatively, 10-15% better fuel economy at the same speeds at the expense of increased maintenance costs and decreased gear robustness.
The 1978 R182 has a sea level climb rate of 1140 fpm and cruising speed at 7,500 feet of 156 KTAS at standard temperature. The landing gear retraction system in the Skylane RG uses hydraulic actuators powered by an electrically driven pump; the system includes a gear position warning that emits an intermittent tone through the cabin speaker when the gear is in the retracted position and either the throttle is reduced below 12" MAP or the flaps are extended beyond 20 degrees. In the event of a hydraulic pump failure, the landing gear may be lowered using a hand pump to pressurize the hydraulic system; the system does not, allow the landing gear to be manually retracted. 182 Initial production version with fixed landing gear, four-seat light aircraft, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,550 lb and certified on 2 March 1956. 182A Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 7 December 1956.
182B Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 22 August 1958. 182C Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 8 July 1959. 182D Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 14 June 1960. 182E Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 27 June 1961. 182F Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 1 August 1962. 182G Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 July 1963.
182H Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 17 September 1964. 182J Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 20 October 1965. 182K Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 3 August 1966. 182L Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 28 July 1967. 182M Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 September 1968. There was an experimental version of this model with a full cantilever wing. 182N Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S piston engine, gross weight 2,950 l
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
Nickel–metal hydride battery
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery. The chemical reaction at the positive electrode is similar to that of the nickel–cadmium cell, with both using nickel oxide hydroxide. However, the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an equivalent size NiCd, its energy density can approach that of a lithium-ion battery. Work on NiMH batteries began at the Battelle-Geneva Research Center following the technology's invention in 1967, it was based on sintered Ti2Ni + TiNi + x NiOOH electrodes. Development was sponsored over nearly two decades by Daimler-Benz and by Volkswagen AG within Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, now a subsidiary of Daimler AG; the batteries' specific energy reached 50 W·h/kg, power density up to 1000 W/kg and a life of 500 charge cycles. Patent applications were filed in European countries, the United States, Japan; the patents transferred to Daimler-Benz.
Interest grew in the 1970s with the commercialisation of the nickel–hydrogen battery for satellite applications. Hydride technology promised less bulky way to store the hydrogen. Research carried out by Philips Laboratories and France's CNRS developed new high-energy hybrid alloys incorporating rare-earth metals for the negative electrode. However, these suffered from alloy instability in alkaline electrolyte and insufficient cycle life. In 1987, Willems and Buschow demonstrated a successful battery based on this approach, which kept 84% of its charge capacity after 4000 charge–discharge cycles. More economically viable alloys using mischmetal instead of lanthanum were soon developed. Modern NiMH cells were based on this design; the first consumer-grade NiMH cells became commercially available in 1989. In 1998, Ovonic Battery Co. improved the Ti–Ni alloy structure and composition and patented its innovations. In 2008, more than two million hybrid cars worldwide were manufactured with NiMH batteries.
In the European Union and due to its Battery Directive, nickel metal hydride batteries replaced Ni–Cd batteries for portable consumer use. About 22% of portable rechargeable batteries sold in Japan in 2010 were NiMH. In Switzerland in 2009, the equivalent statistic was 60%; this percentage has fallen over time due to the increase in manufacture of lithium-ion batteries: in 2000 half of all portable rechargeable batteries sold in Japan were NiMH. In 2015 BASF produced a modified microstructure that helped make NiMH batteries more durable, in turn allowing changes to the cell design that saved considerable weight, allowing the gravimetric energy density to reach 140 watt-hours per kilogram; the negative electrode reaction occurring in a NiMH cell is H2O + M + e− ⇌ OH− + MHThe charge reaction is read left-to-right and the discharge reaction is read right-to-left. On the positive electrode, nickel oxyhydroxide, NiO, is formed: Ni2 + OH− ⇌ NiO + H2O + e−The metal M in the negative electrode of a NiMH cell is an intermetallic compound.
Many different compounds have been developed for this application, but those in current use fall into two classes. The most common is AB5, where A is a rare-earth mixture of lanthanum, neodymium, B is nickel, manganese, or aluminium; some cells use higher-capacity negative electrode materials based on AB2 compounds, where A is titanium or vanadium, B is zirconium or nickel, modified with chromium, iron, or manganese. Any of these compounds serve the same role; when overcharged at low rates, oxygen produced at the positive electrode passes through the separator and recombines at the surface of the negative. Hydrogen evolution is suppressed, the charging energy is converted to heat; this process allows NiMH cells to be maintenance-free. NiMH cells have an alkaline electrolyte potassium hydroxide; the positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, the negative electrode is hydrogen ions, or protons. The hydrogen ions are stored in a metal-hydride structure, the electrode. Hydrophilic polyolefin nonwovens are used for separation.
Ni/MH batteries of bipolar design are being developed because they offer some advantages for applications as storage systems for electric vehicles. The solid polymer membrane gel separator could be useful for such applications in bipolar design. In other words, this design can help to avoid short-circuits occurring in liquid-electrolyte systems. Charging voltage is in the range of 1.4–1.6 V per cell. In general, a constant-voltage charging method cannot be used for automatic charging; when fast-charging, it is advisable to charge the NiMH cells with a smart battery charger to avoid overcharging, which can damage cells. The simplest of the safe charging methods is with or without a timer. Most manufacturers claim that overcharging is safe at low currents, below 0.1 C. The Panasonic NiMH charging manual warns that overcharging for long enough can damage a battery and suggests limiting the total charging time to 10–20 hours. Duracell further suggests that a trickle charge at C/300 can be used for batteries that must be kept in a charged state.
Some chargers do this after the charge cycle. A similar approach is suggested by Energizer, which indicates that self-catalysis can recombine gas formed at the electrodes for charge rates up to C/10; this leads to cell heating. The company recommends C/30 or C/40 fo
The Pilatus PC-9 is a single-engine, low-wing tandem-seat turboprop training aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. Designed as a more powerful evolution of the Pilatus PC-7, the PC-9's first flight was made in May 1984 after which certification was achieved in September 1985. After this, the first production orders for the type were received from the Royal Saudi Air Force, with deliveries commencing in 1985. Since more than 250 airframes have been produced across five different variants and the type is employed by a number of military and civilian operators around the world, including the Swiss Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Thai Air Force; the PC-9 is a more powerful evolution of the PC-7. It retains the overall layout of its predecessor, but it has little structural commonality with it. Amongst other improvements, the PC-9 features a larger cockpit with stepped ejection seats and has a ventral airbrake; the PC-9 program started in 1982. Although some aerodynamic elements were tested on a PC-7 during 1982 and 1983, the first flight of the first PC-9 prototype took place on 7 May 1984.
A second prototype flew on 20 July of the same year. Certification was achieved in September 1985. By this time, the PC-9 had lost the Royal Air Force trainer competition to the Short Tucano. However, the marketing links that Pilatus built up with British Aerospace during the competition led to their first order from Saudi Arabia; as of 2004, more than 250 aircraft of this type have been built. The first production aircraft for the Royal Australian Air Force flew on 19 May 1987, under the Australian designation PC-9/A. Condor of Germany uses 10 examples of the target-towing variant. In August 2015, Pilatus received a contract to deliver nine PC-9Ms to the Royal Jordanian Air Force, but in April 2016 changed the order to eight PC-21s. Deliveries were due to start in January 2017 under the original deal; the United States Army operated three PC-9s from 1991–96 as chase and test aircraft, they were sold to Slovenia in 1995. PC-9 Two-seat basic trainer aircraft. PC-9/A 67 two-seat trainers for the Royal Australian Air Force.
2 built planes supplied by Pilatus, 17 assembled from kits and 48 built under licence in Australia by Hawker de Havilland. PC-9B Two-seat target-towing aircraft for the German Air Force; this target-towing version has an increased fuel capacity enabling flight for up to 3 hours and 20 minutes as well as two Southwest RM-24 winches under the wings. These winches can reel out a target up to 3.5 kilometres. PC-9M This version was introduced in 1997 as the new standard model, it has an enlarged dorsal fin in order to improve longitudinal stability, modified wingroot fairings, stall strips on the leading edges as well as new engine and propeller controls. Croatia bought 17 new examples in 1997. Bulgaria purchased 12 aircraft in 2004; the last order was made by Mexico, which received at least two in September 2006. Beech Pilatus PC-9 Mk.2 In order to compete in the United States JPATS competition and Beechcraft developed an extensively modified version of the PC-9 called the Beech Pilatus PC-9 Mk. II which won out over seven other contenders.
It was renamed the Beechcraft T-6A Texan II and is now built and marketed independently by Beechcraft. Over 700 are to be built for the United States Air Force and United States Navy, with Pilatus receiving royalties. AngolaNational Air Force of Angola AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force Being replaced by the Pilatus PC-21 as of 2017. BulgariaBulgarian Air Force CroatiaCroatian Air Force ChadChadian Air Force IrelandIrish Air Corps MexicoMexican Air Force MyanmarMyanmar Air Force OmanRoyal Air Force of Oman SloveniaSlovenian Air Force and Air Defence SwitzerlandSwiss Air Force ThailandRoyal Thai Air Force Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004General characteristics Crew: one or two pilots Length: 10.14 m Wingspan: 10.125 m Height: 3.26 m Wing area: 16.29 m2 Empty weight: 1,725 kg Gross weight: 2,350 kg Max takeoff weight: 3,200 kg Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-62 turboprop, 857 kW flat-rated at 708 kW Performance Maximum speed: 593 km/h Cruise speed: 556 km/h at 7,620 m Stall speed: 143 km/h EAS flaps and gear up, 128 km/h flaps and gear down Range: 1,537 km Endurance: 4 hr 30 min Service ceiling: 11,580 m g limits: + 7.0 g to −3.5 g Rate of climb: 20.8 m/s Take-off distance over 50 ft obstacle at sea level: 1,280 ft Landing distance over 50 ft obstacle at sea level: 2,295 ft Armament Hardpoints: Three hardpoints under each wing, inner two rated at 250 kg, outer rated at 110 kg Blue PhoenixRelated development Beechcraft T-6 Texan II Pilatus PC-7 Pilatus PC-21Aircraft of comparable role and era Embraer EMB 312 Tucano Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano Grob G 120TP KAI KT-1 PZL-130 Orlik TAI Hürkuş Pilatus PC-9 Image Gallery
A radio-controlled aircraft is a small flying machine, controlled remotely by an operator on the ground using a hand-held radio transmitter. The transmitter communicates with a receiver within the craft that sends signals to servomechanisms which move the control surfaces based on the position of joysticks on the transmitter; the control surfaces, in turn, affect the orientation of the plane. Flying RC aircraft as a hobby grew from the 2000s with improvements in the cost, weight and capabilities of motors and electronics. A wide variety of models and styles is available. Scientific and military organizations are using RC aircraft for experiments, gathering weather readings, aerodynamic modeling and testing. Unmanned aerial vehicle or spy planes add video or autonomous capabilities, may be armed; the earliest examples of electronically guided model aircraft were hydrogen-filled model airships of the late 19th century. They were flown as a music hall act around theater auditoriums using a basic form of spark-emitted radio signal.
During World War II, the U. S. Army and Navy used. There are many types of radio-controlled aircraft. For beginning hobbyists, there are park trainers. For more experienced pilots there are glow plug engine, electric sailplane aircraft. For expert flyers, pylon racers, autogyros, 3D aircraft, other high-end competition aircraft provide adequate challenge; some models are made to operate like a bird instead. Replicating historic and little known types and makes of full-size aircraft as "flying scale" models, which are possible with control line and free flight types of model aircraft reach their maximum realism and behavior when built for radio-control flying; the most realistic form of aeromodeling, in its main purpose to replicate full-scale aircraft designs from aviation history, for testing of future aviation designs, or to realize never-built "proposed" aircraft, is that of radio-control scale aeromodeling, as the most practical way to re-create "vintage" full-scale aircraft designs for flight once more, from long ago.
RC Scale model aircraft can be of any type of steerable airship lighter-than-air aviation craft, or more of the heavier-than-air fixed wing glider/sailplane, fixed-wing single or multi-engine aircraft, or rotary-wing aircraft such as autogyros or helicopters. Full-scale aircraft designs from every era of aviation, from the "Pioneer Era" and World War I's start, through to the 21st century, have been modeled as radio-control scale model aircraft. Builders of RC Scale aircraft can enjoy the challenge of creating a controllable, miniature aircraft that "looks" like the full scale original in the air with no "fine details", such as a detailed cockpit, or replicate many operable features of a selected full scale aircraft design down to having operable cable-connected flight control surfaces, illuminated navigation lighting on the aircraft's exterior, realistically retracting landing gear, etc. if the full-sized aircraft possessed such features as part of its design. Various scale sizes of RC scale aircraft have been built in the decades since modern digital-proportional, miniaturized RC gear came on the market in the 1960s, everything from indoor-flyable electric powered RC Scale models, to "giant scale" RC Scale models, in scale size ranges that run from 20% to 25%, upwards to 30 to 50% size of some smaller full scale aircraft designs, that can replicate some of the actual flight characteristics of the full scale aircraft they are based on, have been enjoyed, continue to be built and flown, in sanctioned competition and for personal pleasure, as part of the RC scale aeromodeling hobby.
Gliders are planes that do not have any type of propulsion. Unpowered glider flight must be sustained through exploitation of the natural lift produced from thermals or wind hitting a slope. Dynamic soaring is another popular way of providing energy to gliders, becoming more and more common; however conventional slope soaring gliders are capable of achieving speeds comparable with similar sized powered craft. Gliders are partial to slow flying and have high aspect ratio, as well as low wing loading. Two and three-channel gliders which use only rudder control for steering and dihedral or polyhedral wing shape to automatically counteract rolling are popular as training craft, due to their ability to fly slowly and high tolerance to error. Powered gliders have seen an increase in popularity. By combining the efficient wing size and wide speed envelope of a glider airframe with an electric motor, it is possible to achieve long flight times and high carrying capacity, as well as glide in any suitable location regardless of thermals or lift.
A common method of maximising flight duration is to fly a powered glider upwards to a chosen altitude and descending in an unpowered glide. Folding propellers which reduce drag are standard. Powered gliders built with stability in mind and capable of aerobatics, high speed flight and sustained vertical flight are classified as'Hot-liners'.'Warm-liners' are powered craft with similar abilities but less extreme thrust capability. Jets can be expensive and use a micro turbine or ducted fan to power them. Most airframes are constructed from carbon fiber. For electric powered flight which are powered by electric ducted fans, may be made of styrofoam. Inside the aircraft, wooden spars reinforce the body to make a rigid airframe, they ha
Champaign is a city in Champaign County, United States. The city is 135 miles south of Chicago, 124 miles west of Indianapolis, 178 mi northeast of St. Louis, Missouri; the United States Census Bureau estimates the city was home to 87,432 people as of July 1, 2017. Champaign is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois, the state's fourth-most populous city outside the Chicago metropolitan area, it is included in the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Champaign is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Urbana. Champaign is home to Parkland College which serves about 18,000 students during the academic year. Due to the university and a number of well known technology startup companies, it is referred to as the hub, or a significant landmark, of the Silicon Prairie. Champaign houses offices for Sony, for the Fortune 500 companies Abbott, Archer Daniels Midland, Deere & Company, Dow Chemical Company, IBM, State Farm. Champaign was founded in 1855, when the Illinois Central Railroad laid its rail track two miles west of downtown Urbana.
Called "West Urbana", it was renamed Champaign when it acquired a city charter in 1860. Both the city and county name were derived from Ohio. During February 1969, Carl Perkins joined with Bob Dylan to write the song "Champaign, Illinois", which Perkins released on his album On Top; the band Old 97's took another Bob Dylan song, "Desolation Row", combined its melody with new lyrics to make a new song "Champaign, Illinois", which they released with Dylan's blessing on their 2010 album The Grand Theatre Volume One. It achieved considerable popularity; the two "Champaign, Illinois" songs are not similar to each other, except that Bob Dylan was involved in both of them. On September 22, 1985, Champaign hosted the first Farm Aid concert at the University of Illinois' Memorial Stadium; the concert raised over $7 million for American family farmers. In 2005, Champaign-Urbana was the location of the National Science Olympiad Tournament, attracting young scientists from all 50 states; the city hosts the state Science Olympiad competition every year.
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign once again hosted the National competition on May 20–22, 2010. In 2013, Champaign was rated fifth best place in the United States for a healthy work-life balance. According to the 2010 census, Champaign has a total area of 22.457 square miles, of which 22.43 square miles is land and 0.027 square miles is water. Champaign is located on high ground, providing sources to the Kaskaskia River to the west, the Embarras River to the south. Downtown Champaign drains into Boneyard Creek, which feeds the Saline Branch of the Salt Fork Vermilion River. Champaign shares a border with the neighboring city of Urbana. Champaign and the bordering village of Savoy form the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area known as Champaign-Urbana, it may be colloquially known as the "Twin Cities" or Chambana. The following diagram represents localities within a 35 miles radius of Champaign; the city has a humid continental climate, typical of the Midwestern United States, with hot summers and cold, moderately snowy winters.
Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 24 days per year, fall below 0 °F on six nights annually. The record high temperature in Champaign was 109 °F in 1954, the record low was −25 °F, recorded on four separate occasions − in 1899, 1905, 1994 and 1999; as of the 2010 census, 81,055 people and 34,434 total housing units in Champaign. The population density was 3,974.6 people per square mile. There were 28,556 housing units at an average density of 1,681.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.8% White, 15.62% African-American, 0.3% Native American, 10.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino individuals of any race made up 6.3% of the population. According to the 2010 Census the city's 32,152 households, 21.5% included children under age 18, 33.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 53.7% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 persons and the average family size was 2.97. According to the 2010 Census of all individuals, 17.3% were under age 18, 22.5% from 20 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 18% from 45 to 64, 7.6% were age 65 or older. The median age was 25.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. According to the 2010 Census the median income for a household in the city was $41,403, the median income for a family was $72,819; the per capita income for the city was $24,855. About 11.9% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. The current city executive or Mayor of Champaign is Deborah Frank Feinen who assumed office in May 2015; the representative body of Champaign is known as the City Council. The City Council is composed of three At-Large members and one member from each of the five council districts located within the city limits.
As of May 2017, its members are: Tom Bruno, Will Kyles, Matthew Gladney, Clarissa Fourman, Alicia Beck, Angi