Manufacturing in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing, which contributed to Britain's early economic growth. During the second half of the 20th century, there was a steady decline in the importance of manufacturing and the economy of the United Kingdom shifted toward services. Manufacturing, remains important for overseas trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8.2% of the workforce and 12% of the country's national output. The East Midlands and West Midlands were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2.8%. Manufacturing in the United Kingdom expanded on an unprecedented scale in the 19th century. Innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems, growth of transportation by railway and steam ship that spread around the world, its growth was driven by international trading relationships Britain developed with Asia and the Americas, as well as entrepreneurialism, work ethic and the availability of natural resources such as coal.
The main sectors were textiles and steel making and ship building. Between 1809 and 1839, exports tripled from £25 million to £76 million, while imports nearly doubled from £28 million to £52 million during the same period. In many industrial sectors, Britain was the largest manufacturer in the world and the most technologically advanced. In the part of the 19th century, a second phase developed, sometimes known as the Second Industrial Revolution. Germany and the United States, which made use of the American system of manufacturing, caught up and overtook Britain as the world's largest manufacturers in the early 20th century. Nonetheless, Britain remained one of the largest industrial producers. By the middle of the century, in 1948, manufacturing made up 48% of the UK economy. In the post-war decades, manufacturing began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry experienced a relative decline. By 2013, the percentage of manufacturing in the economy had fallen to 13%, replaced by services which had risen from 46% to 79% over the same period.
This trend is common in all mature Western economies. Heavy industry, employing many thousands of people and producing large volumes of low-value goods has either become efficient or has been replaced by smaller industrial units producing high-value goods. Although the manufacturing sector's share of both employment and the UK's GDP has fallen since the 1960s, data from the OECD shows that manufacturing output in terms of both production and value has increased since 1945. A 2009 report from PricewaterhouseCoopers, citing data from the UK Office for National Statistics, stated that manufacturing output has increased in 35 of the 50 years between 1958 and 2007, output in 2007 was at record levels double that in 1958. Manufacturing employment fell faster in the UK since 1998; this started with manufacturing productivity flatlining from 1993 to 1997 and a rise in pound sterling. PricewaterhouseCoopers presumed that British manufacturing was less able to adapt to new production immune from Asian competition.
Since 1993, the UK invested less in R&D and adaptation than its OECD competitors. However, manufacturing remains an important sector of the modern British economy and the UK is one of the most attractive countries in the world for direct foreign industrial investment in 2003; the Blue Book 2006 reports that this sector added a gross value of £147,469 million to the UK economy in 2004. Engineering and allied industries comprise the single largest sector, contributing 30.8% of total Gross Value Added in manufacturing in 2003. Within this sector, transport equipment was the largest contributor, with 8 global car manufacturers being present in the UK; these include British makers now owned by overseas companies such MINI, Rolls-Royce, Jaguar Land Rover and Vauxhall Motors and plants making vehicles under foreign ownership and branding such as Honda and Toyota with a number of smaller, specialist manufacturers including Aston Martin and Morgan and commercial vehicle manufacturers including Leyland Trucks, Alexander Dennis, JCB, the main global manufacturing plant for the Ford Transit, London Electric Vehicle Company and Case-New Holland being present.
The British motor industry comprises numerous components for the sector, such as Ford's diesel engine plant in Dagenham, which produces half of Ford's diesel engines globally. Triumph Motorcycles Ltd is the only wholly British owned major transport manufacturer. A range of companies like Brush Traction and Hunslet manufacture railway locomotives and other related components. Associated with this sector are the defence equipment industries; the UK manufactures a broad range of equipment, with the sector being dominated by BAE Systems, which manufactures civil and defence aerospace and marine equipment. Commercial shipbuilders include Harland and Wolff, Cammell Laird, Barclay Cur
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
Greenford is a large suburb in the London Borough of Ealing in west London, UK. It was an ancient parish in the historic county of Middlesex, it is 11 miles from Charing Cross in Central London. Greenford is served by London Underground's Central Line and terminus for the Greenford branch of the GWR; the town is served by another station South Greenford, on the Greenford branch of the GWR. Nearby places include Yeading, Perivale, Northolt, Sudbury and Wembley; the most prominent landmarks in the suburb are 279 feet above sea level. The name is first recorded in 848 as Grenan forda, it is formed from the Old English'grēne' and'ford' and means'place at the green ford'. Greenford was known as Great Greenford in order to distinguish it from Little Greenford, now known as Perivale; the affixes'Magna' and'Parva' have been used to denote the difference. Greenford is considered to be birthplace of the modern organic chemical industry, as it was at William Perkin's chemical factory in North Greenford, by the Grand Union Canal, that the world's first aniline dye was discovered in March 1856.
Perkin called his amazing discovery'mauveine'. Today there is a blue plaque marking the spot in Oldfield Lane North, just south of the Black Horse public house. Local anecdote says that Queen Elizabeth I would only eat bread made from wheat grown in Greenford, until 2013/14 Greenford was the home to the Hovis factory; the former Rockware glassworks on the canal is commemorated by Rockware Avenue. Greenford formed part of Greenford Urban District from 1894 to 1926 and was absorbed by the Municipal Borough of Ealing. Post First World War, tea blender and food manufacturer J. Lyons and Co. were looking for a secondary site on which to expand production beyond Cadby Hall, Hammersmith. In 1921 they bought the first piece of an eventual 63 acres site, due to its location close to good transport links from both the Grand Union Canal and the Great Western Railway's Great Western Main Line, the West Coast Main Line and onwards to the Midlands at Willesden Junction; the factory opened in July 1921, with the first single-storey buildings known as "Zig-Zag" due to their northern light-aligned windows allowing maximum light into the production area.
There were steam and electrical power plants on site, which powered both the plant as well as the staff canteen and medical facilities, accessible to all plant employees and their dependants. Transport docks and a canal basin had been developed, allowing shipment of tea and coffee directly from London Docks into HM Customs excise controlled bonded warehouses; the extensive onsite railway infrastructure allowed precise positioning of heavy raw goods into the factory, as well as the extraction of finished product. Lyons bought their own steam shunters to move wagons between the GWR exchange sidings and the factory system. Lyons became Greenford's biggest employer. A pioneer in electronic machines and computing, Lyons deployed the latest factory automation technology, making Greenford a showplace, visited by the media, academics and royalty, with more than one visit by King George V and Queen Mary. In the 1950s, the site developed the breakfast cereal Ready Brek. Areas of the site not developed for factory use were landscaped, with many trees planted.
As the factory developed these diminished after the development of the Lyons Maid Bridge Park factory in the 1950s, the new administration block in 1971. After the merger of Lyons with Allied Bakeries in the 1980s, the focus of the new Allied Domecq business to focus on spirits, with the sell-off of the businesses associated with the factory, the need for the facility dwindled. Redeveloped from 1998, today it is known as Lyon Way Industrial Estate. Five hundred yards north east from William Perkin's dye factory was a triangular field in which he kept horses. On this ground was built the Oldfield Tavern public house, which became a popular venue for a rock group called the Detours, who met a drummer there called Keith Moon. On Thursday 20 February 1964 they were introduced to the audience of the Oldfield Tavern as the Who.. Andy Locke, Dave Kerr-Clemenson and Wal Scott were all in Edison Lighthouse, with chart-topping Love Grows all came from Greenford; the Cardinal Wiseman School Our Lady of the Visitation Catholic Primary School William Perkin Church of England High School Coston Primary School Edward Betham Primary School Ravenor Primary School Horsenden Primary School ) Stanhope Primary School Greenford High School The A40, a major dual-carriageway, serves the area.
Sudbury Hill station, on the Piccadilly line. Greenford station, on the Central line. Greenford station, on the First Great Western. South Greenford railway station, on the First Great Western. Greenford has the following bus routes travelling through it: 92, 95, 105, 282, 395, 487, E1, E2, E3, E5, E6, E7, E9, E10, E11, H17 and N7; the grounds of the former Ravenor Farm has become Greenford's largest park. It is the venue for the annual Greenford Carnival, held every July; until 1910, the land that formed Ravenor Farm/Ravenor Park was a detached part of Northolt parish, with the tithes to the land going to St. Mary's Church and not the Greenford parish of Holy Cross. T
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The arms industry known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering and servicing of military material and facilities. Arms-producing companies referred to as arms dealers, defence contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government operate in the arms industry and selling weapons and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether or publicly owned - are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, ammunition, military aircraft, military vehicles, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades and more; the arms industry provides other logistical and operational support. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated military expenditures as of 2012 at $1.8 trillion.
This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry; the combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009; the five biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, China and France, the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces; some countries have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens for self-defence, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many regions affected by political instability.
The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Governments award contracts to supply their country's military; the link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces and politics become linked to the European multilateral defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place. During the early modern period, United Kingdom and some states in Germany became self-sufficient in arms production, with diffusion and migration of skilled workers to more peripheral countries such as Portugal and Russia.
The modern arms industry emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies. As smaller countries could no longer produce cutting-edge military equipment with their indigenous resources and capacity, they began to contract the manufacture of military equipment, such as battleships, artillery pieces and rifles to foreign firms. In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces; this galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan. In 1884, he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the only factory in the world that could build a battleship and arm it completely.
The factory produced warships for many navies, including the Imperial Japanese Navy. Several Armstrong cruisers played an important role in defeating the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In the American Civil War in 1861 the North had a distinct advantage over the south as it relied on using the breech-loading rifle against the muskets of the south; this began the transition to industrially produced mechanised weapons such as the Gatling gun. This industrial innovation in the defence industry was adopted by Prussia in 1866 & 1870-71 in its defeat of Austria and France respectively. By this time the machine gun had begun entering into the militaries; the first example of its effectiveness was in 1899 during the Boer War and in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. However, Germany were leaders in innovation of weapons and used this innovation nearly defeating the allies in World War I. In 1885, France decided to capitalize on this lucrative form of trade and repealed its ban on weapon exports.
The regulatory framework for the period up to the First World War was characterized by a laissez-faire policy that placed little obstruction in the way of weapons exports. Due to the carnage of World War I
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013. In 2012, Astrium had a turnover of €5.8 billion and 18,000 employees in France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Astrium was a member of Institute of its Applications and Technologies. In late 2013 Astrium was merged with Cassidian, the defence division of EADS and Airbus Military to form Airbus Defence and Space. EADS itself was reorganized as the Airbus Group, with three divisions that include Airbus, Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus Helicopters. During 2006–2013, the three main areas of activity within Astrium were: Astrium Satellites for spacecraft and ground segment EADS Astrium Space Transportation for launchers and orbital infrastructure Astrium Services for the development and delivery of satellite services. Astrium Satellites was one of the three business units of Astrium, a subsidiary of EADS, it is a European space manufacturer involved in the manufacturing of spacecraft used for science, Earth observation and telecommunications, as well as the equipment and subsystems used therein and related ground systems.
EADS Astrium Satellites employs around 8,348 people on nine sites in the United Kingdom, France and Spain. As of 15 October 2012, the CEO of Astrium is Eric Beranger who took over from Evert Dudok who became Astrium Services. Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Paradigm Secure Communications created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defence became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services.
CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004. EADS Astrium is the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with other French subsidiaries of EADS Space; the name of the new company is Astrium SAS. Equivalent mergers have been achieved in 2006 in the other countries; the EADS group does not communicate about these mergers, excepted when required by the law, such as in contractual documents. EADS Astrium Space Transportation was formed in June 2003 from the Space Infrastructure division of Astrium and the EADS Launch Vehicles division; until July 2006 it was called EADS Space Transportation and was a owned subsidiary of EADS Space. In July 2006 the three subsidiaries of EADS Space were reintegrated into one company, EADS Astrium, of which EADS Astrium Space Transportation is a business division. 4397 employees work in the launcher segment. The Space Transportation company is the prime contractor for the Ariane 5 launcher, the Columbus Module of the International Space Station, the ATV, as well as a number of smaller projects.
It builds launchers for the French nuclear missile program, such as the M51 SLBM. It joined the team led by Lockheed Martin for a bid on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle, being in charge of the craft's Mission Module; the team won a contract from NASA in June 2005. In 2005, EADS Astrium Space Transportation started a campaign in favour of a project called LIFE, for astronomy from the Moon surface; the company has facilities in Germany. These manufacturing facilities utilise specialist CTH03 and CTH04 high technology equipment containers which allow the safe transport of Airbus integrated spacecraft in a horizontal position when sending them worldwide to launch sites. After Evert Dudok took over from Antoine Bouvier as Head of EADS Astrium Satellites on 11 June 2007, Alain Charmeau assumed responsibility of the management of EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Astrium Services is the services division of EADS Astrium; the services division specializes in military satellite communications services and employs about 2,200 personnel.
Astrium Services is responsible for delivering the following services and systems: In June 2007, EADS Astrium announced it would be entering the space tourism sector. On 20 June 2007 the company unveiled a model of the space jet, a one-stage sub-orbital hybrid craft, utilising both jet and rocket engines. Carrying four passengers, the space jet would take off from regular airports using conventional jet engines. After flying to the needed altitude, the rockets would be fired. After reaching its final altitude of 100 km, passengers would experience weightlessness for three minutes. Tickets were expected to cost up to €200,000 with flights beginning in 2012. EADS estimated. In March 2009 EADS Astrium confirmed. In
Alexandra Palace is a Grade II listed entertainment and sports venue in London, located between Muswell Hill and Wood Green in the London Borough of Haringey. It is built on the site of Tottenham Wood and the Tottenham Wood Farm. Built by John Johnson and Alfred Meeson, it opened in 1873 but following a fire two weeks after its opening, was rebuilt by Johnson. Intended as "The People's Palace" and referred to as "Ally Pally", its purpose was to serve as a public centre of recreation and entertainment. At first a private venture, in 1900, the owners planned to sell it and Alexandra Park for development. A group of neighbouring local authorities managed to acquire it. An Act of Parliament created the Alexandra Park Trust; the Act required the Trustees to maintain the Palace and Park and make them available for the free use and recreation of the public forever. The present trustee is the London Borough of Haringey, whose coat of arms shows lightning bolts depicting the Palace's pioneering role in the development of television.
In 1935, the trustees leased part of the palace to the BBC for use as the production and transmission centre for their new BBC Television. In 1936, it became the home of the BBC's first regular public television service; the broadcasting system was the 405-line monochrome analogue television – the first electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting. Although other facilities soon superseded it after the war, Alexandra Palace continued to be used by the BBC for many years and its radio and television mast is still in use; the original studios'A' and'B' still survive in the south-east wing with their producers' galleries and are used for exhibiting original historical television equipment. The original Victorian theatre with its stage machinery survives; the theatre and stage structure is on English Heritage's Buildings at Risk register. Alexandra Palace became a listed building in 1996, at the instigation of the Hornsey Historical Society. A planned commercial development of the building into a mixed leisure complex including a hotel, replacement ice-skating rink, ten-pin bowling alley and exhibition centre, encountered opposition from public groups and was blocked by the High Court in 2007.
The Great Hall and West Hall are used for exhibitions, music concerts and conferences, operated by the trading arm of the charitable trust that owns the building and park on behalf of the public. There is a pub, ice rink and palm court. In 2013, Alexandra Park was declared a Local Nature Reserve and is a Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade 1; the nearest railway stations are the London Underground station Wood Green on the Piccadilly line and Alexandra Palace with services from Moorgate. Alexandra Palace is served by London Buses route W3; the "Palace of the People" was conceived by Owen Jones in 1859. The Great Northern Palace Company had been established by 1860, but was unable to raise financing for the construction of the Palace. Construction materials were acquired and recycled from the large 1862 International Exhibition building in South Kensington after it was demolished: the Government had declined to take it over. In 1863 Alexandra Park Co. Ltd. acquired the land of Tottenham Wood Farm for conversion to a park and to build the People’s Palace.
Alexandra Park was opened to the public on 23 July 1863. The planned building was named "The Palace of the People"; the Palace of the People, or the People's Palace, remained as alternative names. In September 1865, construction commenced but to a design by John Johnson and Alfred Meeson rather than the glass structure proposed by Jones. In 1871, work started on the Edgware and London Railway to connect the site to Highgate station. Work on both the railway and the palace was completed in 1873 and, on 24 May of that year, Alexandra Palace and Park was opened; the structure covers some 7.5 acres. The palace was built by Kelk and Lucas, who built the Royal Albert Hall in South Kensington at around the same time. Sims Reeves sang on the opening day before an audience of 102,000. Only 16 days Alexandra Palace was destroyed by a fire which killed three members of staff. Only the outer walls survived. With typical Victorian vigour, it was rebuilt and reopened on 1 May 1875; the new Alexandra Palace contained a concert hall, art galleries, a museum, lecture hall, banqueting room and large theatre.
The stage of the theatre incorporated machinery which enabled special effects for the pantomimes and melodramas popular – artists could disappear, reappear and be propelled into the air. The theatre was used for political meetings. An open-air swimming pool was constructed at the base of the hill in the surrounding park; the grounds included a horse racing course with grandstand, London's only racecourse from 1868 until its closure in 1970, a Japanese village, a switchback ride, a boating lake and a 9-hole pitch-and-putt golf course. Alexandra Park cricket and football clubs have played within the grounds since 1888. A Henry Willis organ installed in 1875, vandalised in 1918 and restored and reopened in 1929, survives. In its 1929 restored form, Willi