SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ultratop

Ultratop is an organization which generates and publishes the official record charts in Belgium. Ultratop is a non-profit organization, created on the initiative of the Belgian Entertainment Association, the Belgian member organization of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Two parallel set of charts are concurrently produced and published, one on behalf of Belgium's Dutch-speaking Flanders region, the other catering to the nation's French-speaking region of Wallonia; the music charts produced by Ultratop organization are separated along regional-language boundaries, an unusual division, justified by the cultural differences in Belgium. So it is that the Dutch-speaking Flanders region has one set of charts of record activity there, while the French-speaking Wallonia region has another set to measure popularity in those provinces; the charts are broadcast on several Belgian radio stations, on TV stations TMF in Flanders and Plug RTL in Wallonia. Ultratop creates charts based on record sales of around 500 retail outlets and legal digital downloads.

GfK is the market observer of the charts. The chart broadcasts on Radio Contact on Saturdays from 12:00 to 14:00; the combined number of Ultratop chart listeners on the various radio or TV stations exceeds two million every week. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the charts in 2005, a jubilee book was published, it covers all 15,282 singles from 5,882 artists thus far. The Flemish Ultratop 50 chart has existed since 31 March 1995. Prior to 1995, the official weekly chart was the Radio 2 Top 30 broadcast by the Belgische Radio- en Televisieomroep and subsequently by the Belgische Radio- en Televisieomroep Nederlandstalige Uitzendingen - a chart which continues to be broadcast to this day by the BRTN's successor, the Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie; the Ultratop 50 chart is compiled in Dutch and presented on the Belgian radio station MNM. It used to air on the now defunct TMF Flanders, has not been shown on television since; the Walloon Ultratop chart began in 1995 as the Ultratop 40, ranking the forty best-selling singles in the French-speaking region of Belgium.

On 4 September 2010, the Walloon chart was renamed Ultratop 50 as well after being increased from a 40-position into a 50-position chart. Compiled in Dutch, it covers weekly albums sales in Belgium's Dutch-speaking Flanders region. Brought out as the Ultratop 50 Albums chart, it was expanded to become the Ultratop 100 Albums chart, the Ultratop 200 Albums chart. Published in French, it covers weekly albums sales in Belgium's French-speaking Wallonia region; the Ultratop charts published include: In addition to the main Ultratop 50, another weekly singles chart known as Ultratip is published. Referred to as the Tipparade, it is an indicator chart of commercially available singles, with chart positions based on a combination of sales and airplay, i.e. the number of times a song is played on the radio or television, coupled with the calculated audience size for each station and language. Ultratip differs from the Ultratop charts, in that it depends on both airplay and sales, whereas Ultratop charts are based on sales.

A song cannot chart on the Ultratop chart on airplay figures alone. List of number-one hits List of best-selling Belgian music artists Music of Belgium Media related to Ultratop at Wikimedia Commons Official website Official website Charts archive (Flanders, from 1956 to 2011 on worldcharts.co.uk Charts archive (Walloon, from 1996 to 2011 on worldcharts.co.uk

Battle of Vienna

The Battle of Vienna took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 12 September 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle was fought by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states; the battle marked the first time the Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, it is seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world". In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I; the battle was won by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the latter represented only by the forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The Viennese garrison was led by Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, an Austrian subject of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.

The overall command was held by the senior leader, the King of Poland, John III Sobieski, who led the relief forces. The opposing military forces were those of the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman fiefdoms, commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha; the Ottoman army numbered 90,000 to 300,000 men. They began the siege on 14 July 1683. Ottoman forces consisted, among other units, of 60 ortas of Janissaries with an observation army of some 70,000 men watching the countryside; the decisive battle took place on 12 September, after the arrival of the united relief army. Historians suggest the battle marked the turning point in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, a 300-year struggle between the Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires. During the 16 years following the battle, the Austrian Habsburgs recovered and dominated southern Hungary and Transylvania, cleared of Ottoman forces; the battle is noted for including the largest known cavalry charge in history. Capturing the city of Vienna had long been a strategic aspiration of the Ottoman Empire, because of its interlocking control over Danubian southern Europe and the overland trade routes.

During the years preceding this second siege under the auspices of grand viziers from the influential Köprülü family, the Ottoman Empire undertook extensive logistical preparations, including the repair and establishment of roads and bridges leading into the Holy Roman Empire and its logistical centers, as well as the forwarding of ammunition and other resources from all over the Empire to these centers and into the Balkans, since 1679 the plague had been raging in Vienna. The battle would have been sooner had it not been 1566 Battle of Szigeth which stopped the Ottoman Empire for a while. On the political front, the Ottoman Empire had been providing military assistance to the Hungarians and non-Catholic minorities in Habsburg-occupied portions of Hungary. There, in the years preceding the siege, widespread unrest had grown into open rebellion against Leopold I's pursuit of Counter-Reformation principles and his desire to crush Protestantism. In 1681 Protestants and other anti-Habsburg Kuruc forces, led by Imre Thököly, were reinforced with a significant force from the Ottomans, who recognized Thököly as King of "Upper Hungary".

This support included explicitly promising the "Kingdom of Vienna" to the Hungarians if it fell into Ottoman hands. Yet before the siege, a state of peace had existed for 20 years between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire as a result of the Peace of Vasvár. In 1681 and 1682 clashes between the forces of Imre Thököly and the Holy Roman Empire intensified, the incursions of Habsburg forces into central Hungary provided the crucial argument of Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha in convincing Sultan Mehmet IV and his Divan to allow the movement of the Ottoman army. Mehmet IV authorized Mustafa Pasha to operate as far as Győr and Komárom Castles, both in northwestern Hungary, to besiege them; the Ottoman army was mobilized on 21 January 1682 and war was declared on 6 August 1682. The logistics of the time meant it would have been risky or impossible to launch an invasion in August or September 1682, since a three-month campaign would have taken the Ottomans to Vienna just as winter set in.

But the 15-month gap between mobilization and the launch of a full-scale invasion provided ample time for Vienna to prepare its defense and for Leopold to assemble troops from the Holy Roman Empire and form an alliance with Poland and Pope Innocent XI. This undoubtedly contributed to the failure of the Ottoman campaign; the decisive alliance of the Holy Roman Empire with Poland was concluded in the 1683 Treaty of Warsaw, by which Leopold promised to support Sobieski if the Ottomans attacked Kraków, in return the Polish army would come to the relief of Vienna if it were attacked. On 31 March 1683, another declaration—sent by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha on behalf of

Pieter van Nieuwenhuyzen

Pieter van Nieuwenhuijzen is a Dutch sailor who has competed in multiple America's Cups. He sailed in the 1997–98 Whitbread Round the World Race aboard the dutch entry, Brunel Sunergy.van Nieuwenhuijzen was with AmericaOne for the 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup, where he was on the shore team. He joined Alinghi as a grinder in October 2000, he sailed with Alinghi. He was the first Dutchman to be on a winning boat. Van Nieuwenhuijzen was part of Alinghi's successful 2007 America's Cup defence and their victory in the 2008 iShares Cup, he sailed in the 2009 World Match Racing Tour. He was a bowman on Alinghi 5; that year, van Nieuwenhuijzen joined Oracle Racing and sailed with Jimmy Spithill when they won the 2010 RC44 World Championships. He sailed with Oracle in the 2011–13 America's Cup World Series. In 2012, he joined the Quantum Racing team as their grinder. Quantum Racing won the 52 Super Series in 2013, 2014 and 2016 and the TP52 World Championships in 2014, he sailed with Artemis Racing in the 2016 RC44 Bermuda Cup