Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
William Edward Fichtner Jr. is an American actor who has appeared in a number of films and TV series. He is known for his roles as Sheriff Tom Underlay in Alexander Mahone on Prison Break, his film appearances include Heat, Armageddon, The Perfect Storm, Go, Blades of Glory, Black Hawk Down, The Longest Yard, Mr. & Mrs. Smith, The Dark Knight, Date Night, The Lone Ranger, Independence Day: Resurgence and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Fichtner was born on Mitchel Air Force Base on Long Island, was raised in Cheektowaga, New York, a suburb of Buffalo, he is the son of William E. Fichtner, he has German ancestry. Fichtner graduated from Maryvale High School in 1974. After graduating from Farmingdale State College in 1976 with an associate degree in criminal justice, he attended SUNY Brockport and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in criminal justice in 1978, he studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York. He credits his Farmingdale State College admissions counselor Don Harvey with his decision to study acting.
Harvey, who became a lifelong friend, took Fichtner to his first Broadway show. On May 18, 2008, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by Farmingdale State College. Fichtner began his acting career as Josh Snyder in As the World Turns in 1987, he has since appeared in the films Contact, Armageddon, Go, Black Hawk Down, The Perfect Storm, The Longest Yard, Crash and The Dark Knight. A character actor, one of his few leading roles is in Passion of Mind starring Demi Moore and Stellan Skarsgård, his role in Crash won him a Screen Actors Guild Outstanding Performance Award and a "Best Acting Ensemble" Award from Broadcast Film Critics Choice. He appears in the sitcom Mom on CBS. Credited as Bill Fichtner, he voiced Ken Rosenberg in the video games Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Between 2005 and 2006, he starred in the sci-fi TV series Invasion as Sheriff Tom Underlay. After Invasion was canceled, he played ruthless FBI Agent Alexander Mahone in three seasons of Prison Break.
In 2009, he co-presented the Vezina Trophy at the National Hockey League awards show. He guest starred as judge Christopher Mulready in The West Wing episode "The Supremes", he had a role as the Gotham National Bank manager in the feature film The Dark Knight and as Jurgen in Equilibrium. In June 2009, Fichtner had a recurring role as TV producer Phil Yagoda on Entourage, he voiced Master Sergeant Sandman in the 2011 video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. Fichtner played Eric Sacks in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Fichtner is a fan of the National Football League's Buffalo Bills, appearing in a commercial for the team before the 2014 season, he narrated the ESPN 30 for 30 documentary titled Four Falls of Buffalo, chronicling the Buffalo Bills' four consecutive Super Bowl appearances from 1990–93. William Fichtner on IMDb William Fichtner at the official Contact movie website "Random Roles: William Fichtner" at The A. V. Club
Yvonne Navarro is an American author who has published over twenty books. Of those twenty, the titles AfterAge, Final Impact, Red Shadows, DeadTimes, That's Not My Name and Mirror Me were solo novels, or fiction created by her, her most recent works Highborn and Concrete Savior are solo novels and are part of The Dark Redemption Series. She is married to author Weston Ochse. AfterAge was a finalist for the Horror Writers Association's 1993 Bram Stoker Award, in the category of Superior Achievement in a First Novel. Deadrush was a finalist for the Horror Writers Association's 1995 Bram Stoker Award, in the category of Superior Achievement in a Novel. Her'Buffyverse' novel, The Willow Files, Vol. 2, won the 2002 Bram Stoker Award in the category of Works for Young Readers. Final Impact won the 1997 Chicago Women in Publishing Award for Excellence in Adult Fiction, the Rocky Mountain News "Unreal Worlds" Award for Best Horror Paperback of 1997. That's Not My Name was the First Place Winner of the Illinois Women's Press Association's 2001 Mate E. Palmer Communications Contest in the Fiction Novel Category.
That's Not My Name was the First Place Winner of the National Federation of Press Women's 2001 Communications Contest in the Fiction Novel Category. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Paleo was the First Place Winner in the Illinois Women's Press Association's 2001 Mate E. Palmer Communications Contest in the Juvenile Book Category, the Third Place Winner, National Federation of Press Women's 2001 Communications Contest in the Juvenile Book Category. Yvonne Navarro has written seven novels related to the fictional'Buffyverse': Wicked Willow; these include Shattered Twilight and Broken Sunrise. Paleo Tempted Champions The Willow Files, Vols. 1 and 2She has contributed'Buffyverse' short stories to: Tales of the Slayer Vols. 1 and 3 How I Survived My Summer Vacation The Longest Night She has written numerous media tie-in novels, including Elektra, Species II, Aliens: Music of the Spears, Ultraviolet and the first Hellboy. Her most recent original tie-in novel was Supernatural: The Usual Sacrifices, published by Titan Books on June 27, 2017.
She contributed the story "Meet Me on the Other Side" to the collection The Children of Cthulhu. She has had well over a hundred other short stories published in small press magazines and professional anthologies. A number of her black and white illustrations appeared in small press magazines in the 1990s. Yvonnenavarro.com – Official site Yvonne Navarro at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo
Jemma Griffiths, known by her stage name Jem, is a Welsh singer and record producer. Born and raised in Penarth, she began songwriting at an early age. After graduating from university in 1996, she worked as a DJ as well as co-founder of record label Marine Parade in Brighton. By 2002 she was focused on writing and singing her own songs, collaborating with various producers in the United States such as Guy Sigsworth, Yoad Nevo, Ge-Ology to help create what would become her debut studio album: Finally Woken, released on 24 March 2004 through ATO Records. Popularised by singles "They", "Just a Ride" and "Wish I", the album garnered generous sales and chart performance in the United States, Canada and Europe. Jem followed up her successful debut with her second album, Down to Earth, released on 18 September 2008. Jem's musical style is varied and encompasses genres of trip hop, pop rock and new wave, with critics associating her with other female British musicians Dido and Beth Orton. Jemma Griffiths was born in Penarth, Wales, a small town near the Welsh capital, Cardiff on 18 May 1975.
Jem found her passion for singing and songwriting whilst attending Stanwell School. During her early school years she explored her musical interests with the family piano, penning her first song at the age of thirteen. Jem has three siblings, older sister Chloe, younger sister Georgia, who provided vocals for the Welsh indie/punk band Weapons of Mass Belief alongside brother Justin, who goes by the name Yestyn, of Glass Pear. In 1993, Jem moved to Brighton to study Law at the University of Sussex; this decision was due in part, because her father was a lawyer, because her older sister had attended university before her. Jem assumed it was the best route for her to take at the time, she had no intentions of becoming a lawyer, continued to maintain her passion for music throughout the course of her education. Both during her studies and after graduating in 1996, Jem spent time as a club and festival promoter and began working as a DJ in Brighton's lively club scene. With regards to her university education Jem stated that she "went to class as little as could without being kicked out".
In early 1998, alongside Adam Freeland, she co-founded and helped run the specialist breakbeat/hip hop record label Marine Parade. However, after spending two years acting as agent and promoter for other aspiring musicians, she soon felt that she had neglected her own musical career for too long. Therefore, in November 1999 she surprised her colleagues by leaving Brighton and returning to Wales, where she assembled a mobile recording studio and focused on developing her own individual songwriting and music production skills, completing a collection of four demos that acted as the basis of her break into the music industry. In 2000, Jem moved to London where she met Sugababes manager Sarah Stennett, with whom she began a professional relationship. Stennett introduced her to other producers. Two days into her first writing session with acclaimed electronic producer Guy Sigsworth, the song "Nothing Fails" was born, with the lyrics being picked up by Madonna for her 2003 studio album, American Life.
In 2001, Jem travelled to Brooklyn, New York City, teaming up with hip hop producer Ge-Ology and co-producer Yoad Nevo, where they succeeded in fusing her many musical influences to create a fresh and distinctive new sound. In March 2002, during a trip to Los Angeles to visit friends, Jem stopped by independent radio station KCRW to leave a demo of her song "Finally Woken" in Nic Harcourt's mailbox. Credited with being the first American DJ to play Coldplay, Norah Jones and Dido, Harcourt began playing it on his show Morning Becomes Eclectic, whose popular listeners included big names in the music business; the track became one of the most listener-requested songs at the station, landing Jem in their top 5 played artists of 2003, all prior to any record label being attached to her name. One of those'big names' listening was Bruce Flohr, a top-level A&R rep for RCA Records and newly established ATO Records. Upon meeting Jem, listening to more of her demos, Flohr recalled thinking'How do I not let this girl out the door without signing her?'.
ATO Records made the unanimous decision to offer her a recording contract. At that time there was no other label interest in her, because her status as a studio-only artist meant that she flew under the radar of most A&R, she was subsequently signed to the label. On 13 October 2003, in preparation for the release of the full-length album, ATO released an EP entitled It All Starts Here... consisting of five adapted demos that Jem had recorded. In anticipation of the album release, Jem relocated to Los Angeles, where she felt there was more opportunity for her to promote her work and explore her musical potential. After the success of Moby's album Play, Jem decided to license every song off of her album to be broadcast on American television programs and advertisements as a method of promotion. Television program The O. C. was the first to use Jem's music in several of their episodes inviting her to guest-star on the show, performing a cover version of Paul McCartney's 1970 song "Maybe I'm Amazed" in the first season finale.
Since every song from the album has appeared in various television programs, such as Six Feet Under, Desperate Housewives, Without a Trace and Grey's Anatomy. Six additional tracks were added to the original EP, the full-length studio album Finally Woken was released in the United
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie