Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
The Sicherheitspolizei abbreviated as SiPo, was a term used in Germany for security police. In the Nazi era, it was used to describe the state political and criminal investigation security agencies, it was made up by the combined forces of the Gestapo and the Kriminalpolizei between 1936 and 1939. As a formal agency, the SiPo was folded into the RSHA in 1939, but the term continued to be used informally until the end of World War II in Europe; the term originated in August 1919 when the Reichswehr set up the Sicherheitswehr as a militarised police force to take action during times of riots or strikes. However owing to limitations in army numbers, it was renamed the Sicherheitspolizei to avoid attention, they wore a green uniform, were sometimes called the "Green Police". It was a military body, recruiting from the Freikorps, with NCOs and officers from the old German Imperial Army; when the Nazis came to national power, Germany, as a federal state, had myriad local and centralised police agencies, which were un-coordinated and had overlapping jurisdictions.
Himmler and Heydrich's grand plan was to absorb all the police and security apparatus into the structure of the Schutzstaffel. To this end, Himmler took command first of the Gestapo. On 17 June 1936 all police forces throughout Germany were united, following Adolf Hitler's appointment of Himmler as Chef der Deutschen Polizei; as such he was nominally subordinate to Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, but in practice Himmler answered only to Hitler. Himmler reorganised the police, with the state agencies statutorily divided into two groups: the Ordnungspolizei, consisting of both the national uniformed police and the municipal police, the Sicherheitspolizei, consisting of the Kripo and Gestapo. Reinhard Heydrich was appointed chief of the SiPo and was head of the party Sicherheitsdienst and the Gestapo; the two police branches were known as the Orpo and SiPo, respectively. The idea was to identify and integrate the party agency with the state agency. Most of the SiPo members were encouraged or volunteered to become members of the SS and many held a rank in both organisations.
In practice there was jurisdictional overlap and operational conflict between the SD and Gestapo. The Kripo kept a level of independence. Himmler founded the Hauptamt Sicherheitspolizei in order to create a centralized main office under Heydrich's overall command of the SiPo; the Einsatzgruppen were formed under the direction of Heydrich and operated by the SS before and during World War II. The Einsatzgruppen had its origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss in Austria in March 1938. Part of the SiPo, two units of Einsatzgruppen were stationed in the Sudetenland in October 1938; when military action turned out not to be necessary because of the Munich Agreement, the Einsatzgruppen were assigned to confiscate government papers and police documents. They secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens. In September 1939, with the founding of the Reich Main Security Office, the Sicherheitspolizei as a functioning state agency ceased to exist as the department was merged into the RSHA.
Further, the RSHA obtained overall command of the Einsatzgruppen units from that time forward. Members of the Einsatzgruppen units at this point were drawn from the SD and the police, they were used during the invasion of Poland to forcefully de-politicise the Polish people and kill members of groups most identified with Polish national identity: the intelligentsia, members of the clergy and members of the nobility. When the units were re-formed prior to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the men of the Einsatzgruppen were recruited from the SD, Kripo and Waffen-SS; these mobile death squads were active in the implementation of the Final Solution in the territories overrun by the Nazi forces. The term SiPo was used to describe security police force officials. Officials of the Sicherheitspolizei belonged to Kripo and Gestapo which both had the same grade structure and pay grades as civil servants. Mean annual pay for an industrial worker was 1,459 Reichsmark 1939, for a employed white-collar worker 2,772 Reichsmark.
Following the end of the Second World War, the phrase Sicherheitspolizei appeared in East Germany as a title for some components of the East German secret police forces. Glossary of Nazi Germany Buchheim, Hans. "The SS – Instrument of Domination". In Krausnik, Helmut. Anatomy of the SS State. New York: Walker and Company. ISBN 978-0-00211-026-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list Longerich, Peter. Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5. Longerich, Peter. Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6. McNab, Chris; the SS: 1923–1945. London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5. Streim, Alfred. "The Tasks of the SS Einsatzgruppen, pages 436–454". In Marrus, Michael; the Nazi Holocaust, Part 3, The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder, Volume 2. Westpoint, CT: Meckler. ISBN 0-88736-266-4. Weale, Adrian; the SS: A New History
German occupation of Norway
The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and the Germans controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian King Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile; this period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period". Having maintained its neutrality during World War I, Norwegian foreign and military policy since 1933 was influenced by three factors: Fiscal austerity promoted by the conservative parties; these three factors met resistance as tensions grew in Europe in the 1930s from Norwegian military staff and right-wing political groups, but also from individuals within the mainstream political establishment and, it has since come to light, by the monarch, King Haakon VII, behind the scenes.
By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliament Storting had accepted the need for a strengthened military and expanded the budget accordingly by assuming national debt. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the budgetary expansion were not completed in time. Although neutrality remained the highest priority, until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was known throughout the government that Norway, above all, did not want to be at war with Britain. On 28 April 1939, Nazi Germany offered Norway and several other Scandinavian countries non-aggression pacts; however to maintain neutrality, it was turned down along with Finland. By the autumn of 1939 there was an increasing sense of urgency because of its long western coastline facing access routes into the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality, but indeed to fight for its freedom and independence. Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940.
Several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incident in Jøssingfjord, put great strains on Norway's ability to assert its neutrality. Norway managed to negotiate favourable trade treaties both with the United Kingdom and Germany under these conditions, but it became clear that both countries had a strategic interest in denying the other warring power access to Norway and its coastline; the government was increasingly pressured by Britain to direct larger parts of its massive merchant fleet to transport British goods at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared in order to reach and destroy the Swedish iron ore mines in Gällivare, it was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, open a war front in south Sweden. It was agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters and that the mining should be followed by the landing of troops at four Norwegian ports: Narvik, Trondheim and Stavanger.
Because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from 5 April to 8 April. The postponement was catastrophic. On 1 April, German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler had ordered the German invasion of Norway to begin on 9 April. On the pretext that Norway needed protection from British and French interference, Germany invaded Norway for several reasons: strategically, to secure ice-free harbors from which its naval forces could seek to control the North Atlantic. Through neglect both on the part of the Norwegian foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defence Birger Ljungberg, Norway was unprepared for the German military invasion when it came on the night of 8–9 April 1940. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make material contact with the German shipping. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea and air as Operation Weserübung was put into action; the first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. German ships came into the Oslofjord, but were stopped when the Krupp-built artillery and torpedoes of Oscarsborg Fortress sank the German flagship Blücher and sank or damaged the other ships in the German task force.
Blücher transported the forces that would ensure control of the political apparatus in Norway, the sinking and death of over 1,000 soldiers and crew delayed the Germans, so that the King and government had the chance to escape from Oslo. In the other cities that were attacked, the Germans faced no resistance; the surprise, the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik were occupied by advance detachments of German troops, trans
Osøyro is the administrative centre of Os municipality in Hordaland county, Norway. The village lies on the southwestern part of the Bergen Peninsula, along the western shore of the Fusafjorden, about 25 kilometres south of the city centre of Bergen; the European route E39 highway runs through the village on its way to Bergen. There is a car ferry from the east side of Osøyro across the Fusafjorden. Os Church is located in the village. Osøyro has several smaller suburban villages surrounding it: Søfteland to the north, Søvik to the northwest, Hagavik to the west, Søre Øyane to the southwest, Halhjem to the south; the 8.77-square-kilometre urban area has a population of 12,195 which gives the area a population density of 1,391 inhabitants per square kilometre
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud and Rogaland counties. Hordaland is the third largest county after Oslo by population; the county government is the Hordaland County Municipality, located in Bergen. Before 1972, the city of Bergen was its own separate county apart from Hordaland. Hordaland is the old name of the region, revived in 1919; the first element is the plural genitive case of the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land; until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Bergenhus amt which meant " southern Bergenhus amt". Hordaland's flag shows a crown in red; the flag is a banner of the coat of arms derived from the old seal of the guild of St. Olav from Onarheim in Tysnes municipality; this seal was used by the delegates of Sunnhordland in 1344 on the document to install king Haakon V of Norway. It was thus the oldest symbol used for the region and adapted as the arms and flag in 1961; the symbols refer to the patron saint of the guild, Saint Olav, King of Norway, whose symbol is an axe.
The coat-of-arms were granted on 1 December 1961. They were designed by Magnus Hardeland, but the general design had been used in the Sunnhordland region during the 14th century. In the early 20th century, leaders of the county began using the old arms as a symbol for the county once again; the arms are on a red background and consist of two golden axes that are crossed with a golden crown above them. Hordaland county has been around for more than one thousand years. Since the 7th century, the area was made up of many petty kingdoms under the Gulating and was known as Hordafylke since around the year 900. In the early 16th century, Norway was divided into four len; the Bergenhus len encompassed much of western and northern Norway. In 1662, the lens were replaced by amts. Bergenhus amt consisted of the present-day areas of Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sunnmøre and the far northern Nordlandene amt was subordinate to Bergenhus. In the 1680s, Nordlandene and Sunnmøre were split from Bergenhus. In 1763, the amt was divided into northern and southern parts: Nordre Bergenhus amt and Søndre Bergenhus amt.
When the amt was split, the present day municipality of Gulen was split with the southern part ending up in Søndre Bergenhus amt. In 1773, the border was re-drawn so. Søndre Bergenhus amt was renamed Hordaland fylke in 1919; the city of Bergen was classified as a city-county from 1831–1972. During that time in 1915, the municipality of Årstad was annexed into Bergen. In 1972, the neighboring municipalities of Arna, Laksevåg and Åsane were annexed into the city of Bergen. At that same time, the city of Bergen lost its county status, became a part of Hordaland county. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the whole country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years. In Hordaland, the government of the county is the Hordaland County Municipality, it includes. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2015, the Hordaland county municipality has been led by the county mayor; the county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway.
Lars Sponheim is the current County Governor of Hordaland. The municipalities in Hordaland are divided among four district courts: Nordhordland, Sunnhordland and Hardanger. Hordaland is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Nordhordland District Court: Askøy, Austrheim, Fjell, Lindås, Meland, Modalen, Os, Osterøy, Radøy, Sund, Voss, Øygarden, Gulen Sunnhordland District Court: Bømlo, Fitjar, Stord and Tysnes Bergen District Court: the city of Bergen Hardanger District Court: Eidfjord, Jondal, Odda and UlvikMost of the municipalities in Hordaland are part of the Hordaland police district. Gulen and Solund in Sogn og Fjordane county are part of the Hordaland police district. Bømlo, Fitjar and Sveio are a part of the "Haugaland and Sunnhordland" police district, along with eight other municipalities in Rogaland county. Hordaland is semi-circular in shape, it is located on the western coast of Norway, split from southwest to northeast by the long, deep Hardangerfjorden, one of Norway's main fjords and a great tourist attraction.
About half of the National park of Hardangervidda is in this county. The county includes many well-known waterfalls, such as Vøringsfossen and Stykkjedalsfossen, it includes the Folgefonna and Hardangerjøkulen glaciers. More than 60 % of the inhabitants live in the surrounding area. Other urban or semi-urban centres include Leirvik and Odda. In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units each with their own governments; the number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, at present there are 33 municipalities in Hordaland. Hordaland is conventionally divided into traditional districts; the inland districts are Hardanger and Voss and the coastal districts are Sunnhordland and Nordhordland. Strilelandet is the colloquial name of a more informal region held to enc