Tashkent is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in ex-Soviet Central Asia with a population in 2018 of 2,485,900. It is located in the north-east of the country close to the Kazakhstan border. Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its early history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was profited from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, Tashkent witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history. See also: Timeline of Tashkent and History of TashkentDuring its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations.
Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy; some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement. This tower is said to have marked the midway point between China. Other scholars, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach; the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi refers to the city as Chach. The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads; the Buddhist monk Xuanzang, who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí.
After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian 20th-century Soviet influence; the city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship and trade along the Silk Road. In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia, it prospered through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived. In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev, acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders.
While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders. Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over, he abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city is made an independent khanate under Russian protection. The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General.
A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. T
The Antonov An-24 is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau and manufactured by Kiev and Ulan-Ude Aviation Factories. First flown in 1959, the An-24 was produced in some 1,000 units of various versions, it was designed to replace the veteran piston Ilyushin Il-14 transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The high-wing layout protects engines and blades from debris, the power-to-weight ratio is higher than that of many comparable aircraft and the machine is rugged, requiring minimal ground support equipment. Due to its rugged airframe and good performance, the An-24 was adapted to perform many secondary missions such as ice reconnaissance and engine/propeller test-bed, as well as further development to produce the An-26 tactical transport, An-30 photo-mapping/survey aircraft and An-32 tactical transport with more powerful engines.
Various projects were envisaged such as a four jet short/medium haul airliner and various iterations of powerplant. The main production line was at the Kiev-Svyatoshino aircraft production plant which built 985, with 180 built at Ulan Ude and a further 197 An-24T tactical transport/freighters at Irkutsk. Production in the USSR was shut down by 1978. Production continues at China's Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation which makes licensed, reverse-engineered and redesigned aircraft as the Xian Y-7, its derivatives. Manufacture of the Y-7, in civil form, has now been supplanted by the MA60 derivative with western engines and avionics, to improve performance and economy, widen the export appeal. An-24 Original design and prototypes. Twin-engined 44-seat transport aircraft. An-24A Airliner project powered by Kuznetsov NK-4 turboprops, discontinued when the NK-4 was cancelled. An-24A Production 50-seat airliners built at Kiev with the APU exhaust moved to the tip of the starboard nacelle. An-24ALK Several An-24s were converted for navaids calibration tasks, with one An-24LR'Toros' re-designated An-24ALK after conversion.
This aircraft was fitted with a powerful light sources for the optical sensors. An-24AT A 1962 project for a Tactical transport with rear loading ramp and powered by Isotov TV2-117DS coupled turboprops. An-24AT-RD The An-24AT tactical transport project with two turbojet boosters pod-mounted under the outer wings and a wider loading ramp. An-24AT-U A projected Tactical transport from 1966 with three or five PRD-63 JATO bottles, wider cargo ramp and provision for up to three brake parachutes. An-24B The second 50-seat airliner version with one extra window each side, single-slotted flaps replacing the double-slotted flaps and extended chord of the centre-section to compensate for the lower performance flaps; some aircraft were delivered with four extra fuel bladders in the wing centre-section. An-24D A projected long-range airliner version of the An-24B with a single RU-19 booster jet engine in the starboard nacelle, stretched fuselage with seating for 60, strengthened structure and increased fuel capacity.
An-24LL The generic suffix LL can be applied to any test-bed, but in the An-24's case seems to refer to a single aircraft equipped for metrology, to be used for checking the airworthiness of production aircraft. An-24LP Three An-24RV aircraft converted into fire bombers/cloud seeders by installing a tank in the cabin, optical smoke and flame detectors, provision for a thermal imager, racks for carrying flare dispensers and the ability to carry firefighters for para-dropping. An-24LR'Toros' At least two An-24Bs converted to carry the'Toros' SLAR either side of the lower fuselage, for ice reconnaissance, guiding icebreakers and other shipping. An-24LR'Nit' One An-24B was converted to with'Nit' SLAR in large pods along the lower fuselage sides. An-24PRT The production search and rescue aircraft based on the An-24RT, eleven built. An-24PS A single An-24B aircraft converted for search and rescue duties, rejected after acceptance trials in favour of a derivative of the An-24RT. An-24RR Four aircraft converted as Nuclear and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 air sampling pods low on the forward fuselage and a sensor pod on a pylon on the port fuselage side.
An-24RT Similar to the AN-24T, fitted with an auxiliary turbojet engine. An-24RT A few An-24T and An-24RT aircraft converted to Communications relay aircraft. Sometimes referred to as An-24Rt to differentiate from the An-24RT. An-24RV Turbojet boosted export version, similar to the An-24V but fitted with a 1,985-lb thrust auxiliary turbojet engine in the starboard nacelle. An-24ShT A tactical Airborne Command Post for use by commanders capable of forming ground-based communications and HQ. An-24T Tactical transport version, re
Sukhoi Superjet 100
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 or SSJ100 is a regional jet designed by Sukhoi, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation. Its development started in 2000, it made its maiden flight on 19 May 2008 and its first commercial flight on 21 April 2011 with Armavia; the 46–49 t MTOW plane seats 87 to 98 passengers and is powered by two 77 to 79 kN PowerJet SaM146 turbofans developed by a joint venture between French Safran and Russian NPO Saturn. By May 2018, 127 were in service and by September the fleet had logged 300,000 revenue flights and 460,000 hours. Development of the aircraft began in 2000, when JSC Sukhoi was incorporated to develop the RRJ60/75/95 project in May. Studies of the Russian Regional Jet began in 2001, with initial studies based on three sizes: the RRJ-60/75/95 with 60, 78 and 98 seats respectively. Sukhoi targeted a market for 800 aircraft including 250-300 from Russia. Boeing provided consultancy services on aircraft definition. In June 2001, the SCAC announced the Russian regional jet programme.
Rosaviakosmos agreed with Boeing to jointly develop and market it and in July 2001, Sukhoi agreed with Ilyushin to oversee certification and with Boeing to manage marketing and sales support. On 15 October 2001, the Russian government allocated $46.6 million to develop a new 70-80 seat regional jet Rosaviakosmos selected Sukhoi, planning a 2006 first flight and 2007 service entry. A choice had to be made between the Pratt & Whitney PW800 and the SM146, a Snecma DEM21 gas generator combined with an Aviadvigatel "cold section": the program allocated $63.5 million to develop a 4–5 tf engine between 2003 and 2015. In December 2002, the joint Snecma/Saturn SaM146 was selected to power the regional jet. In March 2003, the Russian government decided to build 200 RRJs. In October 2003, key suppliers were selected, including: Thales for avionics, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty for landing gear, Honeywell for the auxiliary power unit, Liebherr for flight controls, Intertechnique for fuel systems, Parker Hannifin for hydraulic systems, B/E Aerospace for interiors.
In 2004, EASA certification was applied for and it was expected six months after the Russian approval. In February 2005, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant was selected for the final assembly, implementing jig-less assembly, automatic component alignment and automatic riveting; the RRJ60/75 were dropped, to focus on the largest 98-seat RRJ-95, with the 78-seater to follow and a future stretch. On 17 July at the Farnborough Air Show, the RRJ95 was renamed Sukhoi Superjet 100. On 7 December, Aeroflot purchased 30 aircraft. On 22 August 2007, Sukhoi and Alenia Aeronautica established the SuperJet International joint venture for customer support outside Russia and Asia. Alenia Aeronautica took a 25 % stake in SCAC for $250 million; the development was anticipated at $1 billion with another $1 billion needed to develop the powerplant and for customer support. On 28 January 2007, the first SSJ was transported by an Antonov 124 from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Zhukovsky, Moscow Oblast, for ground tests conducted by the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute.
On 26 September 2007, the Superjet was rolled out at Dzyomgi Airport in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. On 21 February 2008, the SaM146 engine was first run; the Gromov Flight Research Institute used an Ilyushin Il-76LL to test the engine. On 19 May 2008, it took off for the first time from Komsomolsk-on-Amur. By October 2008, the first stage of flight testing was completed; the second prototype was flown and the certification process was started. In December 2008, the second prototype took to the skies. Deliveries were scheduled to begin in late 2008, Sukhoi predicted that three units of all variants of the Superjet 100 would be delivered by the end of 2008. On 7 July 2008, first deliveries slipped to December 2009 as the original schedule was too optimistic. By January 2009, the first two aircraft had completed over 80 flights, the engines had accumulated 2,300 hours of tests. On 1 April 2009, the two prototypes flew 3,000 km from Novosibirsk to Moscow. On 17 April 2009, EASA pilots flew the two prototypes.
On 26 July 2009, the third prototype flew. As it made its international debut at the 2009 Paris Air Show, Malév Hungarian Airlines was to order 30 Superjets worth $1 billion; as of June 2009, 13 aircraft were under construction, with the first four scheduled to be handed over to clients by the end of 2010. After 2012, the company expected to build 70 aircraft per year. Armenian Armavia was to receive the first two, followed by Aeroflot, having ordered 30 with an option for 15 more. Other customers include Russia's Avialeasing, Swiss AMA Asset Management Advisor, Indonesian Kartika Airlines. On 29 December 2009, deliveries were delayed. On 4 February 2010, the fourth prototype flew with engines removed from the first prototype due to delays in engine production, including NPO Saturn quality problems. By 28 May 2010, all engine tests needed for certification were completed, including the final simulation of a bird flock encounter. On 19 November 2010, FMS tests were completed. On 15 September 2010, static tests for certification of the aircraft were completed by TsAGI.
By June 2010, certification was delayed due to SaM146 engine problems. The engines had excessive fuel consumption. In September 2010, certification was expected for November. In October 2010, noise was tested for certification authorities, Russian IAC and European EASA. On 4 November 2010, the first production aircraft, intended for Armavia, was firs
The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner. It was the second to enter in regular service, behind the British de Havilland Comet, was the only jetliner operating in the world from 1956 to 1958, when the British jetliner was grounded due to safety matters. In 1957, Czechoslovak Airlines – ČSA, became the first airline in the world to fly a route with jet airliners, using the Tu-104A variant between Prague and Moscow. In civil service, the Tu-104 carried over 90 million passengers with Aeroflot, a lesser number with ČSA, while it saw operation with the Soviet Air Force, its successors included the Tu-124, the Tu-134 and the Tu-154. At the beginning of the 1950s, the Soviet Union's Aeroflot airline needed a modern airliner with better capacity and performance than the piston-engined aircraft in operation; the design request was filled by the Tupolev OKB, which based their new airliner on its Tu-16'Badger' strategic bomber. The wings and tail surfaces of the Tu-16 were retained with the airliner, but the new design adopted a wider, pressurised fuselage designed to accommodate 50 passengers.
The prototype build in MMZ ` Opit' first flew on June 1955 with Yu. L. Alasheyev at the controls, it was fitted with a drag parachute to shorten the landing distance by up to 400 metres, since at the time not many airports had sufficiently long runways. Although a popular story says Westerners were surprised by the arrival of the Tu-104 in London during a 1956 state visit by Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev, the airplane had been revealed at the July 1955 Tushino airshow; the Tu-104 was powered by two Mikulin AM-3 turbojets placed in the wing roots. The crew consisted of five people: two pilots, a navigator, a flight engineer and a radio operator; the airplane raised great curiosity by its lavish "Victorian" interior – so-called by some Western-hemisphere observers – due to the materials used: mahogany and lace. Tu-104 pilots were trained on the Il-28 bomber, followed by mail flights on an unarmed Tu-16 bomber painted in Aeroflot colors, between Moscow and Sverdlovsk. Pilots with previous Tu-16 experience transitioned into the Tu-104 with relative ease.
The Tu-104 was considered difficult to fly, as it was heavy on controls and quite fast on final approach, at low speeds it would display a tendency to stall, a feature common with highly-swept wings. Experience with the Tu-104 led the Tupolev Design Bureau to develop the world's first turbofan series-built airliner, the Tupolev Tu-124, designed for local markets, subsequently the more commercially successful Tu-134. On 15 September 1956, the Tu-104 began revenue service on Aeroflot's Moscow-Omsk-Irkutsk route, replacing the Ilyushin Il-14; the flight time was reduced from 13 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 40 minutes, the new jet increased the level of passenger comfort. By 1957, Aeroflot had placed the Tu-104 in service on routes from Vnukovo Airport in Moscow to London, Copenhagen, Brussels, Ottawa and Prague. In 1957, ČSA Czechoslovak Airlines became the only export customer for the Tu-104, placing the aircraft on routes to Moscow and Brussels. ČSA bought six Tu-104As configured for 81 passengers.
Three of these aircraft were subsequently written off. In 1959, the plane was leased to Sir Henry Lunn Ltd. of London which used the plane for 12 holidays to Russia and boasted a 4.5 hour flight time. The Tu-104 continued to be used by Aeroflot throughout the 1970s; some 16 aircraft were lost in crashes. The safety record of the plane was poor, but comparable to other jet airliners of its day; the Tu-104 was unreliable, heavy unstable and poorly controlled in flight, it was inclined to swing. Weak mechanization of the wing facilitated stalling at low speeds. Due to the design features of the aircraft, the glide path was not maintained, the speed was extinguished by a stepwise decrease; the recommended landing speed of 225–250 km/h was never observed, the aircraft was landed at 270–300 km/h. A special danger was "pick-up"; the plane picked up abruptly, it gained a big height, broke into an uncontrolled vertical dive. At least 2 catastrophes occurred for this reason; the design of the aircraft and the operating procedures were changed, but the problem remained.
Aeroflot retired the Tu-104 from civil service in March 1979 following a fatal accident at Moscow. Several aircraft were transferred to the Soviet military, which used them as staff transports and to train cosmonauts in zero gravity. After a Tu-104 crash in February 1981 killed 52 people, the type was permanently removed from service; the last flight of the Tu-104 was a ferry flight to Ulyanovsk Aircraft Museum in 1986. Data from: Tu-104 – initial version seating 50 passengers, it used two Mikulin AM-3 turbojet engines, each with 6,735 kilograms of thrust. 29 airframes were built. Tu-104 2NK-8 – Proposed version powered by two Kuznetsov NK-8 turbofan engines. Tu-104A – Improved version appearing in June 1957; the Tu-104A became the definitive production variant. On 6 September 1957, it flew with 20 t of payload at 11,211 metres of altitude. On 2
The Diamond DA40 Star is an Austrian four-seat, single-engine, light aircraft constructed from composite materials. Built in both Austria and Canada, it was developed as a four-seat version of the earlier DA20 by Diamond Aircraft Industries. Based on the success of the earlier DV20/DA20 two-seat aircraft, the company designed a four-seat variant, the DA40; the DA40 is a four-seat low-wing cantilever monoplane made from composite materials. It has a T-tail; the Rotax 914-powered prototype DA40-V1, registered OE-VPC, first flew on the 5 November 1997 and was followed by a second prototype DA40-V2, powered by a Continental IO-240. In 1998 a third prototype DA40-V3 flew powered by a Lycoming IO-360 engine. Four more test aircraft were produced followed by the first production aircraft in 2000. JAR23 certification of the IO-360 production variant was obtained in October 2000. In 2002 the production of the Lycoming-engined variant was moved to Canada and the Austrian factory concentrated on diesel-engined variants.
The DA40 has appeared in only three versions, the DA 40, DA 40D and DA 40F, as documented on its type certificates. The various model names that the aircraft has been sold under are marketing names and are not recognized by the authorities that have certified the aircraft; the DA40 was marketed as the DA40-180, powered by a fuel injected Textron Lycoming IO-360 M1A engine. In late 2006, the XL and FP models replaced the DA40-180; the FP replaced the fixed pitch propeller version of the 180 and the XL replaced the constant speed propeller version. The major difference between the new models and the 180 is the higher maximum cruise; the DA40-XL is four knots faster than the preceding DA40-180/G1000 with the two-blade Hartzell propeller and the "Speed Gear" option. The XL's speed increase is due to the Powerflow exhaust system; the DA40-XL has a constant speed propeller and is powered by a 180 hp Lycoming IO-360-M1A fuel injected engine. It has a maximum cruise speed of burning 9.2 gallons of Avgas per hour.
Its maximum takeoff weight is 2,535 lb. The DA40-F has a fixed pitch propeller, a 180 hp Lycoming O-360-A4M engine, which has a carburettor rather than fuel injection and a more basic interior, but is otherwise similar to the XL; the DA40-TDI uses a Thielert "Centurion" jet fuel. It has a constant speed propeller and FADEC engine control; the first flight of the DA40D was made on Nov. 28, 2002. This model is not certified in the US. Efforts to increase the DA40's cruising speed centered on the wheel spats; the wheel fairing streamlining was improved, a three-blade scimitar-type constant speed propeller was incorporated and the Powerflow exhaust system from the XL was retained. The canopy contour was revised, with the sides being more vertical before curving into the roof, which provides more shoulder and head room. In the last half of 2007 the company updated the DA40 line by introducing the XLS and CS versions and eliminated the FP model; the XLS is the deluxe version, with the integration of some options into the standard offering including a Powerflow tuned exhaust, WAAS-capable G1000, GDL69 datalink, TAS traffic alert system.
The CS is the budget version, with fewer standard features. Both CS and XLS versions of the DA40 use; the major difference is the choice of propeller, with the CS using a Hartzell two-blade aluminum constant speed prop and the XLS using an MT composite three-blade unit. Pilot and passengers enter the DA40 via the leading edge of the wing, an unusual feature among low-wing aircraft; the aircraft's nosewheel is free-castoring and directional control while taxiing is by mainwheel differential braking. DA40s are produced at Diamond's aircraft factories in Wiener Neustadt, Austria and in London, Canada. A joint venture has been set up in China with Shandong Bin Ao Aircraft Industries for production of the DA40 TDI in Shandong Province. Capacity is available for up to 1,000 aircraft a year to be produced with certification by the European Aviation Safety Agency in 2008. A Chinese flying school has used its CD-135 for 13 hours per day on average. Past DA40 models were available with either traditional mechanical instruments or an optional Garmin G1000 glass cockpit suite.
Current production DA40s are built only with the Garmin G1000 as standard equipment. In April 2008, Diamond introduced the optional availability of Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology on the DA40 XLS; the DA40 has accumulated a low accident record with regard to stall and spin accidents. Its overall and fatal accident rates are one-eighth that of the general aviation fleet and include no stall-related accidents; the level of safe operation is attributed to its high aspect ratio wing, low wing loading and benign flight characteristics. The aircraft can be trimmed full nose up, engine set to idle and it will descend at 600–1200 feet per minute at 48 kn hands-off, a lower rate of descent than the competitor Cirrus SR22 can achieve with its airframe ballistic parachute deployed. In a 2011 analysis by Aviation Consumer magazine, the DA40 was shown to have had a fatal accident rate of 0.35/100,000 hours, the lowest in US general aviation and better than the market leading Cirrus SR20 and SR22, which that year had a combined fatal accident rate of 1.6/100,000, despite its full aircraft parachute system.
By comparison, the Cessna 172 had a fatal accident rate of 0.45/100,000 hours. DA40 Initial model, powered by a Textron Lycoming IO-360 M1A 180 hp engine and a MT Propellers MTV-12-B/180-17. Maximum gross weight is 1150 kg (2535
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l