Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions overseen by the federal government. They differ from U. S. Native American tribes, which have limited sovereignty; the territories are classified by incorporation and whether they have an "organized" government through an organic act passed by Congress. The U. S. has sixteen territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Five are permanently-inhabited, unincorporated territories. Of the eleven, only one is classified as an incorporated territory. Two territories are defacto administered by Colombia. Territories were created to administer newly-acquired land, most attained statehood. Others, such as the Philippines, the Marshall Islands and Palau became independent. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959; the first were the Northwest and Southwest territories, the last were the Alaska and Hawaii Territories. Thirty-one territories became states. In the process, some less-developed or -populous areas of a territory were orphaned from it after a statehood referendum.
When a portion of the Missouri Territory became the state of Missouri, the remainder of the territory became an unorganized territory. Territorial telecommunications and other infrastructure is inferior to that of the U. S. mainland, American Samoa's Internet speed was found to be slower than several Eastern European countries. Poverty rates are higher in the territories than in the states; the U. S. has had territories since its beginning. According to federal law, the term "United States" means "the continental United States, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands". Since 1986, the Northern Mariana Islands have been considered part of the U. S. A 2007 executive order included American Samoa in the U. S. "geographical extent", as reflected in the Federal Register. All territories are except for American Samoa and Jarvis Island; the U. S. has five permanently-inhabited territories, two of which are known as "commonwealths": Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea. About four million people in these territories are U.
S. citizens, citizenship at birth is granted in four of the five territories. American Samoa has about 32,000 non-citizen U. S. nationals. Under U. S. law, "only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals" in its territories. American Samoans are under U. S. protection, can travel to the rest of the U. S. without a visa. American Samoans must become naturalized citizens, like foreigners. Unlike the other four inhabited territories, Congress has passed no legislation granting birthright citizenship to American Samoans; each territory is self-governing with three branches of government, including a locally-elected governor and a territorial legislature. It elects a non-voting member to the U. S. House of Representatives, they "possess the same powers as other members of the House, except that they may not vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives". They can vote in their appointed House committees on all legislation presented to the House, they are included in their party count for each committee, they are equal to senators on conference committees.
Depending on the Congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. In January 2017, the members of Congress from the territories were Gregorio Sablan, Madeleine Bordallo, Amata Coleman Radewagen, Jenniffer González and Stacey Plaskett; the District of Columbia has a non-voting delegate. Like the District of Columbia, U. S. territories do not have voting representation in Congress and have no representation in the Senate. Every four years, U. S. political parties nominate presidential candidates at conventions which include delegates from the territories. U. S. citizens living in the territories cannot vote in the general presidential election, non-citizen nationals in American Samoa cannot vote for president. The territorial capitals are Pago Pago, Hagåtña, San Juan and Charlotte Amalie, their governors are Lolo Matalasi Moliga, Eddie Baza Calvo, Ralph Torres, Ricardo Rosselló and Kenneth Mapp. American Samoa – Territory since 1900; the U. S. controlled the eastern half of the islands.
In 1900, the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila took effect. The Manuʻa islands became part of American Samoa in 1904, Swains Island became part of American Samoa in 1925. Congress ratified American Samoa's treaties in 1929. American Samoa is locally self-governing under a constitution last revised in 1967. People born in American Samoa are U. S. nationals. A
History of Guam
The history of Guam involves phases including the early arrival of Austronesian people known today as the Chamorros around 2000 BC, the development of "pre-contact" society, Spanish colonization in the 17th century and the present American rule of the island since the 1898 Spanish–American War. Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands, it is believed that Guam was first discovered by seafaring people who migrated from Southeast Asia around 2000 BC. The original inhabitants of Guam are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC, having linguistic and cultural similarities to Malaysia and the Philippines; these people evolved into the Chamorro people. They flourished as an advanced and hunting society, they were expert seafarers and skilled craftsmen familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery who built unique houses and canoes suited to this region of the world. Most of what is known about Pre-Contact Chamorros comes from legends and myths, archaeological evidence, Jesuit missionary accounts, observations from visiting scientists like Otto von Kotzebue and Louis de Freycinet.
When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society fell into three classes: matao and mana'chang. The matao were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds while the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matao and mana'chang communicated with each other, matao used achaot as a go-between. There were "makhanas" and "suruhanus", skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao Mona still persists as remnant of pre-European society. Early European explorers noted the Chamorros' fast sailing vessels used for trading with other islands of Micronesia; the "latte stones" familiar to Guam residents and visitors alike were in fact a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte stone consists of a base shaped out of limestone. Like the Easter Island statues, there is plenty of speculation over how this was done by a society without machines or metal, but the accepted view is that the head and base were etched out of the ground by sharp adzes and picks, carried to the assembly area by an elaborate system of ropes and logs.
The latte stone was used as a part of the raised foundation for a magalahi house, although they may have been used for canoe sheds. Archaeologists using carbon-dating have broken Pre-Contact Guam history into three periods: "Pre-Latte" "Transitional Pre-Latte", "Latte". Archaeological evidence suggests that Chamorro society was on the verge of another transition phase by 1521, as latte stones became bigger. Assuming the stones were used for chiefly houses, it can be argued that Chamorro society was becoming more stratified, either from population growth or the arrival of new people; the theory remains tenuous, due to lack of evidence, but if proven correct, will further support the idea that Pre-Contact Chamorros lived in a vibrant and dynamic environment. The first known contact between Guam and Western Europe occurred when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer sailing for the Holy Roman Emperor King Charles I of Spain, arrived with his 3-ship fleet in Guam on March 6, 1521 after a long voyage across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, from Spain.
History credits the village of Umatac as his landing place, but drawings from the navigator's diary suggest that Magellan may have landed in Tumon in northern Guam. The expedition had started out in Spain with five ships. By the time they reached the Marianas they were down to three ships and nearly half the crew, due to storms and the mutiny in one ship which destroyed the expedition. Tired and hungry from their long discovery voyage, the crew prepared to go ashore and restore provisions in Guam. However, the excited native Chamorros who had a different concept of ownership, based on subsistence living, canoed out to the ships and began helping themselves to everything, not nailed down to the deck of the galleons. "The aboriginals were willing to engage in barter... Their love of gain overcame every other consideration." As the Chamorros took everything they found on the ship without asking and his crew remembered the island as the "Island of Thieves". After a few shots were fired from the Trinidad's big guns, the natives were frightened off from the ship and retreated into the surrounding jungle.
Magellan was able to obtain rations and offered iron, a prized material, in exchange for fresh fruits and water. Details of this visit, the first in history between Westerners and a Pacific island people, come from the journal of Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's scribe and one of only 18 crew members to survive the circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano. Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until 1565 by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. However, the island was not colonized until the 17th century. On June 15, 1668, the galleon San Diego arrived at the shore of the island of Guam. Jesuit missionaries led by Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores arrived on Guam to introduce Christianity and develop trade; the Spanish taught the Chamorros to cultivate maize, raise cattle, tan hides, as well as to adopt western-style clothing. They introduced the Spanish language and culture. Once Christianity was established, the Catholic Church became the focal point for village activities, as in
The Chamorro people are the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands. Today, significant Chamorro populations exist in several U. S. states including Hawaii, Washington, Tennessee and Nevada. According to the 2000 Census 65,000 people of Chamorro ancestry live on Guam and another 19,000 live in the Northern Marianas. Another 93,000 live outside the West Coast of the United States; the Chamorros are Austronesian, but many have European and East Asian ancestry. The Chamorro language is included in the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian family; because Guam was colonized by Spain for over 300 years, Chamorro has acquired many loanwords from Spanish. An example is. Chamorro is spoken in many homes, but this is becoming less common. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in reviving the language, all public schools on both Guam and the Northern Marianas are now required by law to teach the Chamorro language as part of the elementary and high school curriculum; the most spoken phrase in Chamorro is Håfa Adai or Håfa Dai, a greeting which approximates “Hello” in English.
The Chamorro are believed to have arrived in the Marianas Islands from Southeast Asia circa 2,000 BC. They are most related to other Austronesian-speaking natives in eastern Indonesia, Taiwanese aborigines, as well as peoples of the Caroline Islands to the south, they were expert seafarers and skilled craftspeople familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery-making. The latte stone, a megalithic rock pillar topped with a hemispherical capstone, was used by early Chamorros as foundation for buildings and has since been appropriated as a national symbol. Chamorro society was based on what sociologist Dr. Lawrence J. Cunningham termed the “matrilineal avuncuclan”, one characteristic of, that the brother of the female parent plays a more primary paternal role than biological male parent of a child. Spanish colonial records show that Chamorro farmers planted seeds according to the phases of the Moon. For example, farmers on Guam plant tuber crops such as sweet potato and yams at full moon during low tide.
According to early Chamorro legend, the world was created by a twin brother and sister, Puntan and Fu'uña. As he lay dying, Puntan instructed his sister Fu'uña to make his body into the ingredients of the universe, she used his eyes to create the Sun and Moon, his eyebrows to make rainbows, most of the rest of his parts into various features of the Earth. Once her work was complete, she descended on an island called Guåhan, transformed herself into a giant rock; this rock split, from it emerged all human beings. Some believe that this rock was once located at the site of a church in Agat, while others believe it is the phallic-shaped Laso de Fua located in Fouha Bay in Umatac. Ancient Chamorros engaged in ancestor veneration, but did not practice a formal "religion”" in the sense of worshiping deities. However, there is at least one account by Christoph Carl Fernberger in 1623, that human sacrifice was practiced to placate a "great fish"; this claim may be related to a Chamorro legend about. According to the legend, a gigantic fish was eating away at the island from both sides.
Although the ancient Chamoru had magical abilities, the huge creature eluded them. When the men were unsuccessful in hunting it down, the women used their hair to weave a net, which grew larger as they sang; the singing enchanted the fish, lured it into the giant net. Chamorro society was divided into two main castes, continued to be so for well over a century after the Spanish first arrived. According to historical records provided by Europeans such as Father Charles Le Gobien, there appeared to be racial differences between the subservient Manachang caste, the higher Chamori, the Manachang being described as shorter, darker-skinned, physically less hardy than the Chamori; the Chamori caste was further subdivided into the upper-middle class Achoti/Acha'ot and the highest, the ruling Matua/Matao class. Achoti could gain status as Matua, Matua could be reduced to Achoti, but Manachang were born and died as such and had no recourse to improve their station. Members of the Manachang and the Chamori were not permitted to intermingle.
All three classes performed physical labor, but had different duties. Le Gobien theorized that Chamorro society comprised the geographical convergence of peoples of different ethnic origins; this idea may be supportable by the evidence of linguistic characteristics of the Chamorro language and social customs. Father Pierre Coomans wrote of the practice among Chamorro women of teeth blackening/dental lacquering, which they considered beautiful as a distinction apart from animals. Fernberger wrote in his account of the Chamorro that “penis pins” were employed as a chastity measure for young males, a type of genital piercing similar to those employed by inhabitants of precolonial Maritime Southeast Asia. Traditional beliefs among the Chamorro include tales of taotaomo'na and birak, as well as the Spanish-introduced concepts of duendes and hauntings in places such as in Yona, other old buildings, hotel elevators, the Ma’ina bridge. Taotaomo'na are spirits of ancient Chamorros. Birak is a broader term
Circumnavigation is the complete navigation around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body. This article focuses on the circumnavigation of Earth; the first circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522, after crossing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The word circumnavigation is a noun formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare, from circum "around" + navigare "to sail". If a person walks around either Pole, he crosses all meridians, but this is not considered a "circumnavigation"; the trajectory of a true circumnavigation forms a continuous loop on the surface of Earth separating two-halves of comparable area. A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers a great circle, in particular one which passes through at least one pair of points antipodal to each other. In practice, people use different definitions of world circumnavigation to accommodate practical constraints, depending on the method of travel.
Since the planet is quasispheroidal, a trip from one Pole to the other, back again on the other side, would technically be a circumnavigation, but practical difficulties preclude such a voyage although it was undertaken in the early 1980s by Ranulph Fiennes. The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition, it was a Castilian voyage of discovery, led by the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, by the Spanish Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522. The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America where the expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan, named after the fleet's captain, it continued across the Pacific discovering a number of islands on its way, including Guam before arriving in the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, back to Spain in 1522.
Elcano and a small group of 18 men were the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation. Apart from some scholars, it is not accepted that Magellan and some crew members completed a full circumnavigation on several voyages, since Sumatra and Malacca lie southwest of Cebu. If he had been in the Moluccas islands in early 1512, he completed and exceeded an entire circumnavigation of Earth in longitude—though one circumnavigation in the strict sense implies a return to the same exact point. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia, which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage.
In September 1578, he passed through the southern tip of South America, named Drake Passage, which connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim in Alta California, known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips common; the nautical global and fastest circumnavigation record is held by a wind-powered vessel, the trimaran IDEC 3. The record was established by six sailors: Francis Joyon, Alex Pella, Clément Surtel, Gwénolé Gahinet, Sébastien Audigane and Bernard Stamm; the absolute speed sailing record around the world followed the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean route in an easterly direction.
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical, non-competitive, route for a sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals. It can be seen that the route approximates a great circle, passes through two pairs of antipodal points; this is a route followed by many cruising sailors. In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles
Discovery Day is the name of several holidays commemorating the discovery of land and other significant national discoveries. The Bahamas Discovery Day was a public holiday on October 12, that celebrated the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World in 1492, it coincided with the Columbus Day celebrations of many other countries in the Americas. Columbus's initial landfall was on the now-unknown island of Guanahani in the Bahamas in 1492, it was last observed as a holiday in 2012 and has been replaced by National Heroes Day holiday, a public holiday observed on the second Monday in October. In Brazil, Discovery Day is observed on April 22 each year; this date commemorates the day when Pedro Álvares Cabral became the first European to land in Brazil in 1500. In Yukon, Discovery Day is a public holiday on the third Monday in August commemorating the anniversary of the discovery of gold in 1896, which started the Klondike Gold Rush. In Newfoundland and Labrador, it is observed on the Monday nearest June 24 and commemorates John Cabot's discovery of Newfoundland in 1497.
Discovery Day in the Cayman Islands commemorates the discovery of the Sister Islands of Cayman Brac and Little Cayman by Christopher Columbus in 1503. The public holiday is celebrated on the third Monday in May. Colombia celebrates October 12 as "Discovery Day", coinciding with the Columbus Day celebrations of many other countries in the New World. March 6 marks. December 5, the date in 1492 when Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola in what is now Môle-Saint-Nicolas, Haiti, is called Discovery Day. Today the island is shared by two countries: Haiti and the Dominican Republic which both recognize the holiday
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol