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Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania known as the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula or the Umayyad conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd al-Rahman I, who completed the unification of the Muslim-ruled areas; the conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers from north Africa. After defeating the Visigothic usurper Roderic at the decisive Battle of Guadalete, Tariq was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusayr and continued northward. By 717, the combined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees into Septimania, they occupied further territory in Gaul until 759.

The historian al-Tabari transmits a tradition attributed to the Caliph Uthman who stated that the road to Constantinople was through Hispania, "Only through Spain can Constantinople be conquered. If you conquer you will share the reward of those who conquer." The conquest of Hispania followed the conquest of the Maghreb. Walter Kaegi says Tabari's tradition is dubious, arguing that conquest of the far western reaches of the Mediterranean Sea was motivated by military and religious opportunities, he considers that it was not a shift in direction due to the Muslims failing to conquer Constantinople in 678. Historian Jessica Coope of University of Nebraska argues that the pre-modern Islamic conquest was unlike Christianization because the latter was "imposed on everyone as part of a negotiated surrender, thus lacked the element of personal conviction that modern ideas about religious faith would require" while conquest of dar al-harb was not motivated by a goal of converting the population to Islam, but by the belief that everyone was better off under Islamic rule.

What happened in Iberia in the early 8th century is uncertain. There is one contemporary Christian source, the Chronicle of 754, regarded as reliable but vague. There are no contemporary Muslim accounts, Muslim compilations, such as that of Al-Maqqari from the 17th century, reflect ideological influence; this paucity of early sources means. The manner of King Roderic's ascent to the throne is unclear. Regnal lists, which cite Achila and omit Roderic, are consistent with the contemporary account of civil war. Numismatic evidence suggests a division of royal authority, with several coinages being struck, that Achila II remained king of the Tarraconsense and Septimania until circa 713; the nearly contemporary Chronicle of 754 describes Roderic as a usurper who earned the allegiance of other Goths by deception, while the less reliable late-ninth century Chronicle of Alfonso III shows a clear hostility towards Oppa, bishop of Seville and a brother of Wittiza, who appears in an unlikely heroic dialogue with Pelagius.

There is a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic and who sought help from Tangier. However, these stories are not included in the earliest accounts of the conquest. According to the chronicler Ibn Abd al-Hakam, the Tangier governor Tariq ibn Ziyad led a raiding force 1,700 men strong from North Africa to southern Spain in 711. However, 12,000 seems a more accurate figure. Ibn Abd al-Hakam reports, one and a half centuries that "the people of Andalus did not observe them, thinking that the vessels crossing and recrossing were similar to the trading vessels which for their benefit plied backwards and forwards", they defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete in 712. Tariq's forces were reinforced by those of his superior, the wali Musa ibn Nusayr, both took control of most of Iberia with an army estimated at 10,000–15,000 combatants. According to the Muslim historian Al-Tabari, Iberia was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman.

Another prominent Muslim historian of the 13th century, Ibn Kathir, quoted the same narration, pointing to a campaign led by Abd Allah bin Nafi al Husayn and Abd Allah bin Nafi al Abd al Qays in 32 AH. However, this putative invasion is not accepted by modern historians; the first expedition led by Tariq was made up of Berbers who had themselves only come under Muslim influence. It is probable that this army represented a continuation of a historic pattern of large-scale raids into Iberia dating to the pre–Islamic period, hence it has been suggested that actual conquest was not planned. Both the Chronicle of 754 and Muslim sources speak of raiding activity in previous years, Tariq's army may have been present for some time before the decisive battle, it has been argued that this possibility is supported by the fact that the army was led by a Berber and that Musa, the Umayyad Governor of North Africa, only arrived the following year – the governor had not stooped to lead a mere raid, but hurried across once the unexpected triumph became clear.

The historian Abd al-Wāḥid Dhannūn Ṭāhā mentions that several Arab-Muslim writers mention the fact that Tariq has decided to cross the strait without informing his superior and wali Musa. The Chronicle of 754 states that many townspeople fled to the hills rather than defend their

Shamlu

The Shamlu tribe was one of the seven original and the most powerful Qizilbash tribes of Turcoman origin in Iran. Among the Qizilbash, Turcoman tribes from Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijan who had helped Shah Ismail I defeat the Aq Qoyunlu tribe were by far the most important - in number and influence; therefore the name Kizilbash is applied to them only. Some of these greater Turcoman tribes were subdivided into as many as eight or nine clans and included the: Ustādjlu Rumlu Shāmlu Dulghadir Afshār Qājār TakkaluOther tribes, such as Turkman, Bahārlu, Qaramānlu, Warsāk or Bayāt were listed among these "seven great uymaqs"; some of these names consist of a place-name with addition of the Turkish suffix -lu, such as Shāmlu or Bahārlu. Other names are those of old Oghuz tribes such as Afshār, Dulghadir, or Bayāt, as mentioned by the medieval Uyghur historian Mahmoud Al-Kāshgharī; the origin of the name Ustādjlu, however, is unknown and indicates a non-Turkic origin of the tribe. The non-Turkic or non-Turkish-speaking Iranian tribes among the Kizilbash were called Tājiks by the Turcomans and included: Tālish Siāh-Kuh Lur tribes certain Kurdish tribes certain Persian families and clansThe rivalry between the Turkic clans and Persian nobles was a major problem in the Safavid kingdom and caused much trouble.

As V. Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Turcomans "were no party to the national Persian tradition". Shah Ismail tried to solve the problem by appointing Persian wakils as commanders of Kizilbash tribes. However, the Turcomans considered this an insult and brought about the death of 3 of the 5 Persians appointed to this office - an act, that inspired the deprivation of the Turcomans by Shah Abbas I; the Beginnings In the 15th century, Ardabil was the center of an organization designed to keep the Safavid leadership in close touch with its murids in Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, elsewhere. The organization was controlled through the office of khalīfāt al-khulafā'ī who appointed representatives in regions where Safavid propaganda was active; the khalīfa, in turn, had subordinates termed pira. Their presence in eastern Anatolia posed a serious threat to the Ottomans, because they encouraged the Shi'ite population of Asia Minor to revolt against the sultan.

In 1499, the young leader of the Safavid order, left Lahijan for Ardabil to make his bid for power. By the summer of 1500, ca. 7,000 supporters from the local Turcoman tribes of Anatolia and Iraq - collectively called "Kizilbash" by their enemies - rallied to his support. Leading his troops on a punitive campaign against the Shīrvanshāh, he sought revenge for the death of his father and his grandfather in Shīrvan. After defeating the Shīrvanshāh Farrukh Yassar, he moved south into Azarbaijan where his 7,000 Kizilbash warriors defeated a force of 30,000 Ak Koyunlu under Alwand Mirzā, conquered Tabriz; this was the beginning of the Safavid state. In the first decade of the 16th century, the Kizilbash expanded Safavid rule over the rest of Persia, as well as Baghdad and Iraq under Ak Koyunlu control. In 1510 Shah Ismail sent a large force of the Kizilbash to Transoxania to support the Timurid ruler Babur in his war against the Uzbeks; the Kizilbash defeated the Uzbeks and secured Samarqand for Babur.

However, in 1512, an entire Kizilbash army was annihilated by the Uzbeks after Turcoman Kizilbash had mutinied against their Persian wakil and commander, Amir Nadjm. This heavy defeat put an end to Safavid expansion and influence in Transoxania and the northeastern frontiers of the kingdom remained vulnerable to nomad invasions; the Battle of Chaldiran Meanwhile, the Safavid da'wa continued in Ottoman areas - with great success. More alarming for the Ottomans was the successful conversion of Turcoman tribes in eastern Anatolia and Iraq, the recruitment of these well experienced and feared fighters into the growing Safavid army. In order to stop the Safavid propaganda, Sultan Bayezid II deported large numbers of the Shi'ite population of Asia Minor to Morea. However, in 1507, Shah Ismail and the Kizilbash overran large areas of Kurdistan, defeating regional Ottoman forces. Only two years in Central Asia, the Kizilbash defeated the Uzbeks at Merv, killing their leader Muhammad Shaybani and destroying his dynasty.

His head was sent to the Ottoman sultan as a warning. In 1511, an Alevi revolt known as "Shahkulu Uprising" broke out in Teke and was brutally suppressed by the Ottomans: 40,000 were massacred on the order of the sultan. Shah Ismail sought to turn the chaos within the Ottoman Empire to his advantage and invaded Anatolia; the Kizilbash defeated a large Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha. Shocked by this heavy defeat, Sultan Selim I decided to invade Persia with a force of 200,000 Ottomans and face the Kizilbash on their own soil. In addition, he ordered the persecution of Shiism and the massacre of all its adherents in the Ottoman Empire. On the 20 August 1514, the two armies met at Chaldiran in Azarbaijan; the Ottomans had artillery and handguns. The Kizilbash were defeated, many high-ranking Kizilbash amirs as well as three influential figures of the ulamā were killed; the defeat destroyed Shah Ismail's belief in his divine status. It fundamentally altered the relationship between the murshid-e kāmil and his murids.

In 1588, Shah Abbas I came to power. He appointed the Governor of Herat and his former guardian and tutor, Al

Targeted advertising

Targeted advertising is a form of advertising, including online, directed towards audiences with certain traits, based on the product or person the advertiser is promoting. These traits can either be demographic which are focused on race, economic status, age, the level of education, income level, employment or they can be psychographic focused which are based on the consumer's values, attitudes, opinions and interests, they can be behavioral variables, such as browser history, purchase history, other recent activity. Targeted advertising is focused on certain traits and the consumers who are to have a strong preference will receive the message instead of those who have no interest and whose preferences do not match a product's attribute; this eliminates waste. Traditional forms of advertising, including billboards, newspapers and radio, are progressively becoming replaced by online advertisements. Information and communication technology space has transformed over recent years, resulting in targeted advertising to stretch across all ICT technologies, such as web, IPTV, mobile environments.

In next generation advertising, the importance of targeted advertisements will radically increase, as it spreads across numerous ICT channels cohesively. Through the emergence of new online channels, the need for targeted advertising is increasing because companies aim to minimize wasted advertising by means of information technology. Most targeted new media advertising uses second-order proxies for targets, such as tracking online or mobile web activities of consumers, associating historical web page consumer demographics with new consumer web page access, using a search word as the basis for implied interest, or contextual advertising. Web services are continually generating new business ventures and revenue opportunities for internet corporations. Companies have developed technological capabilities that allow them to gather information about web users. By tracking and monitoring what websites users visit, internet service providers can directly show ads that are relative to the consumer's preferences.

Most of today's websites are using these targeting technologies to track users' internet behavior and there is much debate over the privacy issues present. Search engine marketing uses search engines to reach target audiences. For example, Google's Google Remarketing Campaigns are a type of targeted advertising where websites use the IP addresses of computers that have visited their websites to remarket their ad to the user, on their website as they use websites that are a part of the Google display network, or when searching for keywords related to a product or service on the google search engine. Dynamic remarketing can improve the targeted advertising as the ads are able to include the products or services that the consumers have viewed on the advertisers' website within the ads. Google Adwords have different platforms; the Search Network displays the ads on'Google Search, other Google sites such as Maps and Shopping, hundreds of non-Google search partner websites that show AdWords ads matched to search results'.'The Display Network includes a collection of Google websites, partner sites, mobile sites and apps that show AdWords ads matched to the content on a given page.'

These two kinds of Advertising networks can be beneficial for each specific goal of the company, or type of company. For example, the search network can benefit a company with the goal of reaching consumers searching for a particular product or service. Other ways Advertising campaigns are able to target the user is to use browser history and search history, for example, if the user typed in promotional pens in a search engine, such as Google; the ad quality is affected by the 5 components of the quality score: The ad's expected click-through rate The quality of the landing page The ad/search relevance Geographic performance The targeted devicesWhen ranked based on these criteria, it will affect the advertiser by improving ad auction eligibility, actual cost per click, ad position, ad position bid estimates. Google uses its display network to track what users are looking at and to gather information about them; when a user goes onto a website that uses the google display network it will send a cookie to Google, showing information on the user, what he or she searched, where they are from, found by the IP address, builds a profile around them, allowing google to target ads to the user more specifically.

For example, if a user went onto promotional companies' websites that sell promotional pens, Google will gather data from the user such as age, gender and other demographic information as well as information on the websites visited, the user will be put into a category of promotional products, allowing Google to display ads on websites the user visits relating to promotional products. These types of adverts are called behavioral advertisements as they track the website behavior of the user and displays ads based on previous pages or searched terms. Social media targeting is a form of targeted advertising, that uses general targeting attributes such as geotargeting, behavioral targeting, socio-psychographic targeting, gathers th