Glossary of leaf morphology
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may compound; the edge of the leaf may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article. Leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical. Leaves may be simple, with compound, with several leaflets. In flowering plants, as well as the blade of the leaf, there may be a stipules. Leaf structure is described by several terms that include: Being one of the more visible features, leaf shape is used for plant identification. Similar terms are used for other plant parts, such as petals and bracts. Leaf margins are used in visual plant identification because they are consistent within a species or group of species, are an easy characteristic to observe. Edge and margin are interchangeable in the sense that they both refer to the outside perimeter of a leaf.
Leaves may be folded or rolled in various ways. If the leaves are folded in the bud, but unrolls is its called vernation, ptyxis is the folding of an individual leaf in a bud; the Latin word for'leaf', folium, is neuter. In descriptions of a single leaf, the neuter singular ending of the adjective is used, e.g. folium lanceolatum'lanceolate leaf', folium lineare'linear leaf'. In descriptions of multiple leaves, the neuter plural is used, e.g. folia linearia'linear leaves'. Descriptions refer to the plant using the ablative singular or plural, e.g. foliis ovatis'with ovate leaves'. Glossary of botanical terms Glossary of plant morphology Cladophylls are leaf-like petioles Leaf size Sinus Leaflet and Rachis Petiole and Plant stem Phylloclades are flattened stems that resemble leaves Pinnation Plant morphology Taxonomy The Description of Leaves, University of Rochester Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Vplants Botany 115 The seed site
Cantharellula umbonata is an edible species of fungus in the genus Cantharellula native to eastern North America. It is associated with Polytrichum fruits in the summer and fall. Cantharellula umbonata in Index Fungorum Cantharellula umbonata in MycoBank
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is Agaricus bisporus. "Mushroom" describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Forms deviating from the standard morphology have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", "morel", gilled mushrooms themselves are called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are gilled, their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result.
At the microscopic level, the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills is formed; the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but never blue, green, or red. While modern identification of mushrooms is becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination; the presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habitat and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species, requires more effort. However, over-mature specimens cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles such as Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk-cap mushrooms and russulas, as well as Lentinellus, are in the Russulales, while the tough, leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, the little pin-mushroom genus, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales.
Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other Amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc. An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, giving a full account of their classifications is difficult; some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi, so on. "Mushroom" has been used for polypores, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi and cup fungi. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. 14,000 species of mushrooms are described. The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, or musserouns were used. The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related; the term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools". The word "toadstool" has apparent analogies in German Krötenschwamm. In German folklore and old fair
Psilocybe makarorae is a species of psilocybin mushroom in the family Strophariaceae. Described as new to science in 1995, it is known only from New Zealand, where it grows on rotting wood and twigs of southern beeches; the fruit body has a brownish cap with lighter coloured margins, measuring up to 3.5 cm wide. The cap shape is either conical, bell-shaped, or flat depending on the age of the mushroom, it features a prominent umbo. Although the whitish stem does not form a true ring, it retains remnants of the partial veil that covers and protects the gills of young fruit bodies. P. makarorae mushrooms can be distinguished from the similar North American species Psilocybe caerulipes by microscopic characteristics such as the presence of cystidia on the gill faces, cheilocystidia with more elongated necks. Based on the bluing reaction to injury, P. makarorae is presumed to contain the psychedelic compounds psilocybin and psilocin. The species was first mentioned in the literature in 1981, when Pierre Margot and Roy Watling described a specimen collected in 1969 by Grace Marie Taylor near the Franz Josef Glacier as an unnamed Psilocybe with affinities to the North American species Psilocybe caerulipes.
It was described as new to science in 1995 by mycologists Peter R. Johnston and Peter K. Buchanan. In his 1996 book Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World, Paul Stamets noted that the two authors are known to work with law-enforcement officials to assist in prosecuting those who illegally collect psychoactive mushrooms; the type material was collected near the Haast Pass crossing the Makarora River. The specific epithet makarorae refers to the type locality. P. makarorae is classified in Gastón Guzmán's section Mexicanae owing to the spore shape and bluing reaction upon injury. It is distinguished from other species in this section by the size of the caps, the presence of pleurocystidia, the short-necked cheilocystidia; the cap is conical to bell shaped, but as the mushroom grows, it expands to become convex with a prominent umbo, attains a diameter of 15–55 mm. The cap surface is dry to tacky, its colour is yellow-brown to orange-brown paler towards the margin, which has fine striations corresponding to the gills on the underside.
The flesh is white. Gills have an adnexed attachment to the stem, are pale greyish brown; the whitish stem is 30–60 millimetres long by 2–4 mm wide. It is cylindrical, with a surface of pressed silky fibrils; the base of the stem is brownish, with white rhizoids present. The veil of young fruit bodies is cortinate—resembling the cobweb-like partial veil found in Cortinarius species; as the mushroom grows, its remnants remain visible on the stem, but it never forms a complete ring. Both the cap and the stem stain greenish-blue; the spore print is dark purplish brown. Spores measure 7.5–9.5 by 5.5–6.5 by 4.5–5.5 μm, averaging 8.7 by 6.0 by 5.3 μm. Its shape in face view is ovate to rhomboid, while viewed from the side it appears elliptical; the spore wall is brown, about 0.8–1 μm thick, has a germ pore. The basidia are four-spored and somewhat club-shaped, tapering to the base; the cheilocystidia have dimensions of 18–26 by 6–9 μm, a shape ranging from ventricose-rostrate to mucronate. They are hyaline, thin-walled, clamped, with necks that are 3–5 μm long.
The pleurocystidia are similar in shape to cheilocystidia, but narrower, have a shorter neck measuring 2.5–4 μm. The cap cuticle is a cutis of long-celled, 2–3 μm diameter, gelatinised hyphae; the hypodermium is filamentous. Clamps are common; the subhymenium is poorly developed. The tissue comprising the hymenophore is made of 3 -- 6 μm diameter hyaline cells. P. makarorae contains psilocin. Although the potency is not known Stamets suggests that, based on the degree of the bluing reaction, they are "probably moderately potent". Psilocybe makarorae resembles the North American species P. caerulipes, but the former can be distinguished microscopically from the latter by the presence of pleurocystidia, cheilocystidia with longer necks. There are several other psychoactive species of Psilocybe found in New Zealand: P. aucklandii, P. cubensis, P. semilanceata, P. subaeruginosa, P. subcubensis, P. tasmaniana. P. subaeruginosa is distinguished from P. makarorae by having chocolate brown pleurocystidia.
Related to P. subaeruginosa is the poorly known P. tasmaniana. It has been reported growing on dung and dung-enriched woody debris in open areas of Eucalyptus forests. P. cubensis is a common, dung-loving species that can be recognized by its larger size, golden color, well-formed membranous ring. Known only from the Auckland region, P. auklandii fruits in soil rich in woody debris near Leptospermum and Dacrydium, in Monterey Pine plantations. P. semilanceata, one of the most common Psilocybe mushrooms, is only found in high-altitude grasslands in the South Island. Psilocybe makarorae is kn