Central Italian is a group of Italo-Dalmatian Romance lects spoken in central Italy in Lazio, central Marche, the far south of Tuscany, a small part of Abruzzo. The differences between these dialects are slight in inflection and stress of certain words. Central Italian dialects are related and mutually intelligible to Tuscan, on which Standard Italian was based. Although a few isoglosses cross the area, no firm demarcating lines have been established between them making them a one wider dialect continuum; the following dialects are part of the Central Italian group: Marchigiano Umbrian dialects Sabino Tuscia dialect Romanesco Castelli Romani dialect Ciociaro Languages of Italy Pellegrini's map
The Sabines were an Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of ancient Italy inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome. The Sabines divided into two populations just after the founding of Rome, described by Roman legend; the division, however it came about, is not legendary. The population closer to Rome transplanted itself to the new city and united with the preexisting citizenry, beginning a new heritage that descended from the Sabines but was Latinized; the second population remained a mountain tribal state, coming to war against Rome for its independence along with all the other Italic tribes. After losing, it became assimilated into the Roman Republic. There is little record of the Sabine language. There are personal names in use on Latin inscriptions from the Sabine country, but these are given in Latin form. Robert Seymour Conway, in his Italic Dialects, gives 100 words which vary from being well attested as Sabine to being of Sabine origin. In addition to these he cites place names derived from the Sabine, sometimes giving attempts at reconstructions of the Sabine form.
Based on all the evidence, the Linguist List tentatively classifies Sabine as a member of the Umbrian Group of Italic languages of the Indo-European family. Latin-speakers called the Sabines' original territory, straddling the modern regions of Lazio and Abruzzo, Sabinium. To this day, it bears the ancient tribe's name in the Italian form of Sabina. Within the modern region of Lazio, Sabina constitutes a sub-region, situated north-east of Rome, around Rieti. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, many Roman historians regarded the origins of indigenous Romans to be Greek though their knowledge was derived from Greek legendary accounts. Dionysius regarded Lista as the mother-city of the Aborigines. Ancient historians debated the specific origins of the Sabines. Zenodotus of Troezen claimed that the Sabines were Umbrians that changed their name after being driven from the Reatine territory by the Pelasgians. However, Porcius Cato argued that the Sabines were a populace named after the son of Sancus.
In another account mentioned in Dionysius's work, a group of Lacedaemonians fled Sparta since they regarded the laws of Lycurgus as too severe. In Italy, they founded the Spartan colony of Foronia and some from that colony settled among the Sabines. According to the account, the Sabine habits of belligerence and frugality were known to have derived from the Spartans. Plutarch mentions, in the Life of Numa Pompilius, "Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians". Legend says; the resultant war ended only by the women throwing themselves and their children between the armies of their fathers and their husbands. The Rape of the Sabine Women became a common motif in art. According to Livy, after the conflict, the Sabine and Roman states merged, the Sabine king Titus Tatius jointly ruled Rome with Romulus until Tatius' death five years later. Three new centuries of Equites were introduced at Rome, including one named Tatienses, after the Sabine king. A variation of the story is recounted in the pseudepigraphal Sefer haYashar.
Tradition suggests that the population of the early Roman kingdom was the result of a union of Sabines and others. Some of the gentes of the Roman republic were proud of their Sabine heritage, such as the Claudia gens, assuming Sabinus as a cognomen or agnomen; some Sabine deities and cults were known at Rome: Semo Sancus and Quirinus, at least one area of the town, the Quirinale, where the temples to those latter deities were located, had once been a Sabine centre. The extravagant claims of Varro and Cicero that augury, divination by dreams and the worship of Minerva and Mars originated with the Sabines are disputable, as they were general Italic and Latin customs, as well as Etruscan though they were espoused by Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome and a Sabine. Titus Tatius, legendary King of the Sabines Numa Pompilius, legendary King of Rome Ancus Marcius, legendary King of Rome Quintus Sertorius, republican general Attius Clausus, founder of the Roman Claudia gens Gaius Sallustius Crispus, Roman writer Marcus Terentius Varro, Roman scholar Dius Fidius Feronia Ops Quirinus Sabus Sancus Soranus Vacuna Varro's list of Sabine gods During the expansion of ancient Rome, there were a series of conflicts with the Sabines.
Manius Curius Dentatus conquered the Sabines in 290 BC. The citizenship without the right of suffrage was given to the Sabines in the same year; the right of suffrage was granted to the Sabines in 268 BC. Ancient peoples of Italy Hostus Hostilius Ovid, Fasti Ovid, Ars Amatoria Livy, Ab urbe condita Cicero, De Republica Plutarch, Parallel Lives Juvenal, Satires Donaldson, John William. "Chapter IV: The Sabello-Oscan Language". Varronianus: a critical and historical introduction to the ethnography of ancient Italy and the philological study of the Latin language. London: John W. Parker and Son. Brown, Robert. "Livy's Sabine Women and the Ideal of Concordia." Transactions of the American Philological Association 125: 291-319
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia. It is located on the lowest slope of a small mountain of the Apennines; the city's origins are ancient. The hills above the town were occupied in the Bronze Age; as Ikuvium, it was an important town of the Umbri in pre-Roman times, made famous for the discovery there of the Iguvine Tablets in 1444, a set of bronze tablets that together constitute the largest surviving text in the Umbrian language. After the Roman conquest in the 2nd century BC — it kept its name as Iguvium — the city remained important, as attested by its Roman theatre, the second-largest surviving in the world. Gubbio became powerful in the beginning of the Middle Ages; the town sent 1000 knights to fight in the First Crusade under the lead of Girolamo Gabrielli, according to an undocumented local tradition, they were the first to penetrate into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre when the city was seized. The following centuries were quite turbulent, Gubbio was engaged in wars against the surrounding towns of Umbria.
One of these wars saw the miraculous intervention of its bishop, who secured Gubbio an overwhelming victory and a period of prosperity. In the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Gabrielli, such as the condottiero Cante dei Gabrielli da Gubbio, were of the Guelph faction, supportive of the papacy. In 1350 Giovanni Gabrielli, count of Borgovalle, a member of the most prominent noble family of Gubbio, seized communal power and became lord of Gubbio; however his rule was short, he was forced to hand over the town to Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz, representing the Church. A few years Gabriello Gabrielli, bishop of Gubbio, proclaimed himself again lord of Gubbio. Betrayed by a group of noblemen which included many of his relatives, the bishop was forced to leave the town and seek refuge at his home castle at Cantiano. With the decline of the political prestige of the Gabrielli family, Gubbio was thereafter incorporated into the territories of the House of Montefeltro. Federico da Montefeltro rebuilt the ancient Palazzo Ducale, incorporating in it a studiolo veneered with intarsia like his studiolo at Urbino.
The maiolica industry at Gubbio reached its apogee in the first half of the 16th century, with metallic lustre glazes imitating gold and copper. Gubbio became part of the Papal States in 1631, when the family della Rovere, to whom the Duchy of Urbino had been granted, was extinguished. In 1860 Gubbio was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy along with the rest of the Papal States; the name of the Pamphili family, a great papal family, originated in Gubbio went to Rome under the pontificate of Pope Innocent VIII, is immortalized by Diego Velázquez and his portrait of Pope Innocent X. The town is located near the border with Marche; the municipality borders Cagli, Costacciaro, Fossato di Vico, Gualdo Tadino, Pietralunga, Scheggia e Pascelupo, Sigillo and Valfabbrica. The frazioni of the comune of Gubbio are the villages of: Belvedere, Branca, Camporeggiano, Casamorcia-Raggio, Colonnata, Ferratelle, Magrano, Monteleto, Nogna, Petroia, Ponte d'Assi, San Benedetto Vecchio, San Marco, San Martino in Colle, Santa Cristina, Semonte, Torre Calzolari and Villa Magna.
The historical centre of Gubbio has a decidedly medieval aspect: the town is austere in appearance because of the dark grey stone, narrow streets, Gothic architecture. Many houses in central Gubbio date to the 14th and 15th centuries, were the dwellings of wealthy merchants, they have a second door fronting on the street just a few inches from the main entrance. This secondary entrance is narrower, a foot or so above the actual street level; this type of door is called a porta dei morti because it was proposed that they were used to remove the bodies of any who might have died inside the house. This is certainly false, but there is no agreement as to the purpose of the secondary doors. A more theory is that the door was used by the owners to protect themselves when opening to unknown persons, leaving them in a dominating position. Among most visited buildings and sites in the city are: Roman Theater: This ancient open air theater built in the 1st century BC using square blocks of local limestone.
Traces of mosaic decoration have been found. The diameter of the cavea was 70 metres, could house up to 6,000 spectators. Roman Mausoleum: This Mausoleum is sometimes said to be of Gaius Pomponius Graecinus, but on no satisfactory grounds. Palazzo dei Consoli: Dating to the first half of the 14th century, this massive palace, is now a museum housing the Iguvine Tablets. Palazzo and Torre Gabrielli Duomo: This Cathedral was built in the late 12th century; the most striking feature is the rose-window in the façade with, at its sides, the symbols of the Evangelists: the eagle for John the Evangelist, the lion for Mark the Evangelist, the angel for Matthew the Apostle and the ox for Luke the Evangelist. The interior has latine cross plan with a single nave; the most precious art piece is the wooden Christ of Umbrian school. Palazzo Ducale: The Palace built from 1470 by Luciano Laurana or Francesco di Giorgio Martini for Federico da Montefeltro. Famous is the inner court, reminiscent of the Palazzo Ducale, Urbino.
San Francesco: This church from the second half of the 13th century is the sole re
Roman Umbria is a modern name for one of the 11 administrative regions into which the emperor Augustus divided Italy. The main source for the regions is the Historia Naturalis of Pliny the Elder, who informs his readers he is basing the geography of Italy on the discriptio Italiae, "division of Italy," made by Augustus; the Sexta Regio is called Umbria complexa agrumque Gallicam citra Ariminium, "Umbria including the Gallic country this side of Rimini."Umbria is named after a proto-Italic people, the Umbri, who were subjugated by the Romans in the 4th through the 2nd centuries BC. Although it passed the name on to the modern region of Umbria, the two coincide only partially. Roman Umbria extended from Narni in the South, northeastward to the neighborhood of Ravenna on the Adriatic coast, thus including a large part of central Italy that now belongs to the Marche; the importance of Umbria in Roman and medieval times was intimately bound up with the Via Flaminia, the consular road that supplied Rome and served as a military highway into and out of the City: for this reason once the Roman empire collapsed, Umbria became a strategic battleground fought over by the Church, the Lombards and the Byzantines, suffered becoming partitioned among them and disappearing from history.
The modern use of "Umbria" is due to a renaissance of local identity in the 17th century. Before its defeat by and assimilation to the Romans, Umbria was a sovereign state populated by a people speaking the Umbrian language; this circumstance prevailed in history during the middle Roman Republic. By the late republic, Umbria was part of Rome; the language was no longer spoken. Like any other region, over the centuries Region VI changed its borders; these changes are reflected in the writings of the imperial geographers. The sexta regio is described in some detail by Pliny the Elder. Gallia Togata went along the northern Adriatic coast of Italy in Marche from Ancona to "this side of Rimini." The southernmost point of Gallia Togata is Ancona. He mentions the Aesis River north of there, Senagallia and Fanum at the mouth of the Metaurus River. There follows a folk-etymologic statement concerning the name of the Umbri. People believe, he says, that they are named from the thunderstorms of the deluge and therefore that they are the oldest people on Earth.
Some of his further statements appear to be equivocal, leading to some historical misidentification of Gallia Togata. He declares:"The largest part of this district was occupied by Sicilians and Liburnians the territories of Palma and Adria." This Adria is Italy on the coast of Abruzzi south of Ancona. Praetutia is capital city of the Petrutii. From Interamnea comes Teramo and from Praetutia comes Aprutium Abruzzo; the coast of Abruzzo was in Augustus' Region IV. If Hadrianus is taken to be Adria in Veneto Gallia Togata would appear to be a synonym for all Gallia Cisalpina. However, Veneto is not "this side of Rimini." Pliny states his belief that the Umbrians once held the north Adriatic coast, displacing Sicilians and Liburnians, were in turn displaced by the Etruscans. The Gauls expelled them. Romans colonized the Gallic coast to control it, hence "togata." For Umbria proper Pliny lists the settlements: Spello, Amelia, Assisi, Iesi, Casuentillum, Dolates Sallentini, Market of Flaminius, Market of Julius, Market Brenta, Gubbio, etc.
Ptolemy, 2nd century geographer, does not lump Gallia Togata together with Umbria, but describes them as separate regions. In Ptolemy, Ancona is in Picenum; the strip of country "above" the Apennines, "extending as far as Ravenna," is Gallia Togata. Thirteen towns are listed for it, which are south of the Po River, but are as far inland as Piacenza; this region is somewhat larger than the one of the same name in Augustus' time, comprising all of Emilia-Romagna. The towns are: Piacenza, Brescello, etc. For the Umbri Ptolemy has only nine towns, omitting some of the major ones: Arna, Todi, etc. Umbria Umbri Umbrian language Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Ptolemy. Geography
Marsi is the Latin exonym for an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus. The area in which they lived is now called Marsica. During the Roman Republic, the people of the region spoke a language now termed Marsian in scholarly English, it is attested by a few glosses. The Linguist List classifies it as one of the Umbrian Group of languages; the Marsian inscriptions are dated by the style of the alphabet from about 300 to 150 BC. Conway lists nine inscriptions, one from Ortona and two each from Marruvium, Lecce and Luco. In addition, there are a few glosses, a few place names and a few dozen personal names in Latin form, their language differs slightly from Roman Latin of that date. In final syllables, the diphthongs ai, ei, oi all appear as e. On the other hand, the older form of the name of the tribe shows its derivation and exhibits the assibilation of -tio- into -tso-, proper to the Oscan language but strange to classical Latin; the Bronze of Lake Fucinus was an inscribed bronze plaque taken from the bed of the lake near Luco in 1877 during the process of draining the lake.
It was in a settlement, covered by the lake. The bronze was placed in the Museum of Prince Alessandro Torlonia, where it was photographed for publication. In 1894, no one has it been seen since; the text of the photograph is as follows: caso cantouio|s aprufclano cei|p apur finem e..|salicom en ur|bid casontonio | socieque dono|m ato.er.actia | pro lenibus mar|tses. They are first mentioned as members of a confederacy with the Vestini and Marrucini, they joined the Samnites in 308 BC, and, on their submission, became allies of Rome in 304 BC. After a short-lived revolt two years for which they were punished by the loss of territory, they were readmitted to the Roman alliance and remained faithful down to the Social War, their contingent being always regarded as the flower of the Italian forces. In this war, owing to the prominence of the Marsian rebels, is known as the Marsic War, they fought bravely against odds under their leader Q. Pompaedius Silo, though they were defeated, the result of the war was the enfranchisement of the allies.
The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the northwest corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that, from the beginning of the 3rd century, the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli farther west. The earliest pure Latin inscriptions of the district seem to be C. I. L. Ix. 3827 and 3848 from the neighbourhood of Supinum. Mommsen pointed out that, in the Social War, all the coins of Pompaedius Silo have the Latin legend "Italia", while the other leaders in all but one case used Oscan; the chief temple and grove of the goddess Angitia stood at the southwest corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the emissarius of Claudius and the village of Luco dei Marsi. She was worshipped in the central highlands as a goddess of healing skilled to cure serpent bites by charms and the herbs of the Marsian woods, carried out by local inhabitants until modern times, their country was considered by Rome to be the home of witchcraft.
Marsus, Latinisation of the name Marsi Umbrian language Conway, Robert Seymour. The Italic Dialects Edited with a Glossary. Cambridge: University Press. Pp. 289–299. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Conway, Robert Seymour. "Marsi". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. Endnote: Conway, R. S; the Italic Dialects. Pp. 290 seq
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte