In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, handling the disciplinary actions. The term is shortened to the colloquial form ump, they are sometimes addressed as blue at lower levels due to the common color of the uniform worn by umpires. In professional baseball, the term blue is used by players or managers, who instead call the umpire by name. Although games were officiated by a sole umpire in the formative years of the sport, since the turn of the 20th century, officiating has been divided among several umpires, who form the umpiring crew; the position is analogous to that of a referee in many other sports. In a game officiated by two or more umpires, the umpire in chief is the umpire, in charge of the entire game; this umpire calls balls and strikes, calls fair balls, foul balls short of first/third base, makes most calls concerning the batter or concerning baserunners near home plate.
To avoid injury, the home plate umpire wears similar equipment to the catcher, including mask, chest protector, leg guards and shoes with extra protection added over the laces. If another umpire leaves the infield to cover a potential play in foul ground or in the outfield the plate umpire may move to cover a potential play near second or third base. In the event that an umpire is injured and only three remain, the second base position will be left vacant. In nearly all levels of organized baseball, including the majors, an umpiring crew rotates so that each umpire in the crew works each position, including plate umpire, an equal number of games. In the earliest days of baseball, many senior umpires always worked the plate, with Hall of Fame umpire Bill Klem being the last umpire to do so. Klem did so for the first 16 years of his career. On the Major League level, an umpiring crew rotates positions clockwise each game. For example, the plate umpire in one game would umpire third base in the next.
Other umpires are called base umpires and are stationed near the bases. When two umpires are used, the second umpire is the base umpire; this umpire will make most calls concerning runners on the bases and nearby plays, as well as in the middle of the outfield. When three umpires are used, the second umpire is called the first-base umpire and the third umpire is called the third-base umpire though they may move to different positions on the field as the play demands; these two umpires call checked swings, if asked by the plate umpire: the first base umpire for right-handed batters, the third base umpire for left-handed batters. To indicate a full swing, he will clench his fist; when four umpires are used, each umpire is named for the base. Sometimes a league will provide six umpires. Outfield umpires are used in major events, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, depending on the level, at parts of post-season playoffs. For Major League Baseball, all playoff levels use six umpires adding a left-field and right-field umpire, while at lower levels, six umpires are used at the championship games.
Rulings on catches of batted balls are made by the umpire closest to the play. The term umpire-in-chief is not to be confused with the crew chief, the most experienced umpire in a crew. At the major-league and high minor-league levels, the crew chief acts as a liaison between the league office and the crew and has a supervisory role over other members of the crew. For example, on the Major League level, "The Crew Chief shall coordinate and direct his crew's compliance with the Office of the Commissioner's rules and policies. Other Crew Chief responsibilities include: leading periodic discussions and reviews of situations and rules with his crew. Thus, on the professional level, some of the duties assigned to the umpire-in-chief in the Official Baseball Rules have been reassigned to the crew chief, regardless of the crew chief's umpiring position during a specific game. Instant replay reviews, for example, will be reviewed with the crew chief and one other umpire, with results announced by the crew chief.
The crew chief acts analogous to the referee in American football. An umpire's judgment call used to be final, unless the umpire making the call chose to ask his partner for help and decided to reverse it after the discussion. Since 2014, the MLB allows managers to challenge plays during the game. If the manager has a call overturned, they are rewarded with another challenge. If an umpire seems to make an error in rule inte
Amitava Chattopadhyay is The GlaxoSmithKline Chaired Professor in Corporate Innovation — Professor of Marketing at INSEAD, Fellow of the Institute on Asian Consumer Insights, Senior Fellow at the Ernst & Young Institute for Emerging Market Studies. Professor Chattopadhyay is an authority on Brand management and the author of the award-winning book, The New Emerging Market Multinationals: Four Strategies for Disrupting Markets and Building Brands. Over the past three decades, he has published more than 60 articles, with the majority appearing in leading international journals such as the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Marketing Science, Management Science, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Long Range Planning. Prof. Chattopadhyay is on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Psychology, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Long Range Planning.
He has been on the Advisory Board of the Association for Consumer Research as well as the Association's Board of Directors. For his research, he has been the recipient of several awards, including the Robert Ferber Award. Aside from degree programs, Chattopadhyay has taught in executive programs in Europe, North America, Australia and Africa, he is on a consultant to multinational firms. Amitava has been a nomad all his life, he studied in five different schools in India and UK, from where he graduated high school from St. Gregory's Grammar School in Manchester, UK. Along the way he studied at Ballygunge Government High School, Don Bosco School, Park Circus, Modern School, in Swansea, UK, he studied Chemistry at Jadavpur University, a program from which he graduated at the top of his class in 1976, went on to do his MBA from the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, before heading off for his PhD in Marketing from the University of Florida in Gainesville, USA. Amitava started his academic career at McGill University in Canada.
Template:Fasct After eight years, the climate got to him and he moved to the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Five years on, INSEAD came calling and Amitava moved to INSEAD in 1999. Amitava started out in Fontainebleau but moved to the Singapore campus in 2005. Amitava has been interested throughout his career in consumers—what they think, how they feel, how they respond to the various initiatives of businesses as they try to position themselves in the minds of consumers. Amitava's research has looked at how brands try to position themselves in consumers’ minds through advertising, through word-of-mouth, through online platforms, through innovation in their product offerings, through the use of various perceptual elements such as colors, visual aesthetics and the like, his work on the one hand has investigated how firm initiatives influence consumers’ thoughts and feelings, how these in turn influence their preferences and purchase decisions. On the other, his research has looked at how businesses can get better at developing the initiatives they target at customers through a variety of interventions in terms of the processes they follow and the tools they apply in generating consumer directed initiatives.
Most Amitava has been struck by the rise of brand businesses from the emerging markets. International business theory has maintained that emerging market firms make and sell low-cost inexpensive products or supply products and services to branded goods players in the developed markets, who sell these under their own brand to end consumers around the world. A good example of this model is FoxCom which makes many of the products that are sold under the Apple brand by Apple Inc. However, the new millennium has seen the emergence of branded goods players from the emerging markets who are building global branded businesses. Consider Taiwan's HTC or China's Haier and Lenovo, or India's Tata Motors or Infosys, or Turkey's TEMSA or Vitra, or Brazil's Natura and WEG Industries, or Mexico's Grupo Modelo. Many, if not most of these names have become household names globally in the short course of a decade; these are but a small handful of the players from among a much larger group of companies that are today pouring out of the emerging markets to build global branded businesses and winning against the entrenched global players from the developed world.
The question that intrigued me is how are these new emerging market competitors, businesses that are speaking small and under-resourced, managing this feat? A feat which they were not supposed to be able to achieve! This is the focus of our book The New Emerging Market Multinationals: Four Strategies for Disrupting Markets and Building Brands; the book was nominated by Strategy + Business as the Best Business Book on strategy for 2012. I continue to be interested in this topic and am developing a series of case studies on Chinese companies as they appeared to be quite distinct when we were doing the research for The New Emerging Market Multinationals. In 2012, Amitava published his first book with McGraw-Hill, titled The New Emerging Market Multinationals: Four Strategies for Disrupting Markets and Building Brands; the book is co-authored with Prof. Rajeev Batra, Prof. Aysegul Ozsomer."The New Emerging Market Multinationals" is based on an in-depth study of 39 emerging market multinationals that revealed innovative compete-from-belo
Witless Bay Ecological Reserve is an ecological preserve close to St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; the Witless Bay Ecological Reserve consists of four islands: Gull Island, Green Island, Great Island, Pee Pee Island. Immense numbers of birds nest on these islands during the seabird breeding season from 1 April through 1 September; the Witless Bay reserve contains North America´s largest Atlantic puffin colony. It is estimated that more than 260,000 pairs of Atlantic puffins nest there during the late spring and summer; the reserve hosts the world's second-largest colony of Leach's storm-petrels. More than 620,000 pairs of these birds come here to nest every year. Thousands of black-legged kittiwakes and common murres arrive for the nesting season. A tourism information centre is located by Lower Pond in the town of Witless Bay. Witless Bay town's web site Witless Bay Ecological Reserve Witless Bay Management Plan
The following is a list of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college lacrosse teams that have qualified for the NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship, with teams listed by number of appearances. The following is a list of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college lacrosse teams that have qualified for the NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship, with teams listed by number of appearances and their tournament won-loss records; the NCAA does not recognize Syracuse's participation in the 1990 tournament and therefore recognizes them as participating in 29 tournaments, having a win-loss record of 59–20, having 10 championships. No third-place game is held, semifinal losers credited with third-place finish NCAA page for men's lacrosse All time Men's National College Lacrosse Champions
All Time Top 1000 Albums is a book by Colin Larkin and editor of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music. The book was first published by Guinness Publishing in 1994; the list presented is the result of over 200,000 votes cast by the public in record shops, universities and the French music trade show MIDEM - and ranked in order. Each album's entry is accompanied by an annotation with a 100 word review, details of its creation and notes about the band or artist who recorded it; the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album made the top spot in the first edition and the same band's Revolver made the top five in each edition of the book. In 1987, radio presenter Paul Gambaccini asked 80 critics and disc jockeys from the United Kingdom and United States to list their ten greatest albums of all-time. From these lists, he compiled the "Top 100 Albums", subsequently published by Pavilion Books in 1987. In 1993, Colin Larkin was approached by the now defunct Today newspaper to update this list, published in the newspaper.
As a consequence Larkin suggested the idea of a Top 1000 albums book to his publisher. Unlike the Gambaccini list, Larkin wanted to compile a list from votes cast by "broader opinion", in keeping with the genres used in the Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Larkin set about polling several thousand people via a printed voting form, left in record shops and sent to schools and Universities; the result was the first edition of the All Time Top 1000 Albums, published in 1994. In 1998 the second edition was published by Virgin Books using the continuing votes received over the previous four years; as a result of the publicity garnered by the encyclopedia and the first edition, Larkin was able to ask for votes during his numerous radio broadcasts for BBC GLR, now BBC London 94.9. He collected the 2nd edition sold 38,000 copies. In 1999 Virgin published a smaller pocket edition, followed by a 3rd edition published in 2000, by which time the ongoing poll had reached over 200,000 votes cast. In September 2000, BBC News reported the'head to head' battle between the Beatles and Radiohead, the two bands who took the top four positions on the list.
All Time Top 1000 Albums, Guinness Publishing, 1994, Colin Larkin All Time Top 1000 Albums, 2nd Edition, Virgin Books, 1998, Colin Larkin All Time Top 1000 Albums, Pocket Edition, Virgin Books, 1999, Colin Larkin All Time Top 1000 Albums, 3rd Edition, Virgin Books, 2000, Colin Larkin
The Gallegly amendment was introduced by Representative Elton Gallegly to the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act in 1996. Its purpose was to allow states to deny public education or charge tuition to aliens not lawfully present in the United States, despite the Supreme Court decision Plyler v. Doe barring these actions, it passed the US House of Representatives by a margin of 257-163 but was removed from the final bill after prolonged opposition from President Clinton and several Republican senators. It was described as the single most contentious issue of the bill and Clinton threatened a veto if it was present in the final version. While the amendment was not passed, it succeeded in dominating the agenda for several months in the summer of 1996 and may have diverted Congressional Democrats from opposing other provisions; the amendment was the last serious attempt at the federal level to deny free public education to aliens not lawfully present in the United States.
Gallegly argued. "Come to America for opportunity. Do not come to America to live off the law-abiding American taxpayer," he said. Emotions ran high during early House debate: Representative Gary Ackerman commented, "After I got over my initial reaction, I decided not to go out and commit any crimes of violence," with other Democrats describing the amendment as "hideous." The amendment was supported by Speaker Newt Gingrich, who stated, "There is no question that offering free taxpayer goods to illegals attracts more illegals... It is wrong for us to be the welfare capital of the world." In comparison, Gingrich had not favored a full federal version of Proposition 187 during its passage, a complete ban and contained no option of charging tuition. The amendment was supported by Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, who welcomed the prospect of a veto by President Clinton that would demonstrate that Clinton was not serious about immigration reform and aid Dole's run for president. Dole stated the amendment would free up $1.8 billion and allow either the hiring of 51,000 new teachers or the purchase of 3.6 million new school computers.
The Gallegly amendment was not well received by public school teachers and officials. This was the case in the Tyler, Texas school system, which had fought and lost the original Plyler case more than a decade before. A more recent poll from Arizona put support for Plyler at 76% among public school teachers.) Several teachers unions said. The International Union of Police Associations opposed it, saying it would increase crime and cause illegal alien children to become both "victims and criminals." At the legislative level, Texas Republican senators Phil Gramm and Kay Bailey Hutchison opposed the amendment. Five Republican senators publicly expressed disapproval by sending a letter to Presidential candidate Bob Dole calling the amendment "highly controversial and ill-advised." Up to a dozen Republican senators may have been opposed. The death of the amendment in conference was the result of Republican negotiations, the agreed-upon strategy being that Republicans would negotiate first among themselves and present a united front to the Democrats.
Orrin Hatch and Arlen Specter were on the conference committee to merge the House and Senate bills and had opposed the amendment. They agreed to a compromise that would apply only to children entering public schools after September 1996, but after California Senator Dianne Feinstein and some California congressional Republicans turned against the amendment, Proposition 187 architect Ron Prince made clear he was afraid it would kill the bill, conference negotiators Representative Lamar Smith and Senator Alan Simpson began to share Prince's fear. Lobbying against it, Simpson stated that the public did not support the amendment and that "If the national interest is subverted by Machiavellian mumbo jumbo, I'm not going to play that game." Threatened with enough Republican opposition to allow a filibuster in the Senate, the Republican leadership blocked both the original amendment and any compromise from making it into the final bill. Holding the Line: The Implementation of Plyler v. Doe at 25. Michael A. Olivas, University of Houston Law Center.
Understanding Plyler's Legacy: Voices from Border Schools. Nina Rabin, Mary Carol Combs, Norma Gonzàlez. Wroe, Andrew; the Republican party and immigration politics: from Proposition 187 to George W. Bush. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-61108-5