Les Champs magnétiques
Les Champs magnétiques is a book by André Breton and Philippe Soupault. It is famed as the first work of literary Surrealism. Published in 1920, the authors used a surrealist automatic writing technique; the book is considered Surrealist, rather than Dadaist, because it attempts to create something new rather than react to an existing work. Les Champs magnetiques is characterised by rich textured language that seems to border on the nonsensical; this is considered a "normal" result of automatic writing and is more logical than the output from other Surrealist techniques, such as "exquisite corpse". A typical paragraph in Les Champs magnetiques is: It was the end of sorrow lies; the rail stations were dead. The people hung back and watched the ocean, animals flew out of focus; the time had come. Yet king dogs never grow old – they stay young and fit, someday they might come to the beach and have a few drinks, a few laughs, get on with it, but not now. The time had come, but who would go first? The division between chapters was the point.
The next chapter was started the following morning. Breton gave many interviews about the creation of the book; the Magnetic Fields by André Breton and Philippe Soupault and introduced by David Gascoyne: Atlas Press, London, 1985
André Breton was a French writer and anti-fascist. He is known best as the co-founder, principal theorist and chief apologist of Surrealism, his writings include the first Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as "pure psychic automatism". Born to a family of modest means in Tinchebray in Normandy, Breton attended medical school, where he developed a particular interest in mental illness, his education was interrupted when he was drafted for World War I. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the devotee of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably. Vaché committed suicide when aged 24, his war-time letters to Breton and others were published in a volume entitled Lettres de guerre, for which Breton wrote four introductory essays. Breton married his first wife, Simone Kahn, on 15 September 1921; the couple relocated to rue Fontaine No. 42 in Paris on 1 January 1922.
The apartment on rue Fontaine became home to Breton's collection of more than 5,300 items: modern paintings, sculptures, books, art catalogs, journals and works of popular and Oceanic art. He was an atheist. Breton launched the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault, he associated with Dadaist Tristan Tzara. In 1924, he was instrumental in the founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research. In Les Champs Magnétiques, a collaboration with Soupault, he implemented the principle of automatic writing, he published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, was editor of the magazine La Révolution surréaliste from that year on. A group of writers became associated with him: Soupault, Louis Aragon, Paul Éluard, René Crevel, Michel Leiris, Benjamin Péret, Antonin Artaud and Robert Desnos. Anxious to combine the themes of personal transformation found in the works of Arthur Rimbaud with the politics of Karl Marx, Breton joined the French Communist Party in 1927, from which he was expelled in 1933.
Nadja, a novel about his encounter with an imaginative woman who became mentally ill, was published in 1928. Breton celebrated the concept of Mad Love, many women joined the surrealist group over the years. Toyen was a good friend. During this time, he survived by the sale of paintings from his art gallery. In 1930, Un Cadavre, a pamphlet, was written and released by several members of the surrealist movement who were insulted by Breton or had otherwise disbelieved in his leadership; the pamphlet criticized Breton's influence over the movement. It marked. In 1935, there was a conflict between Breton and the Soviet writer and journalist Ilya Ehrenburg during the first International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture, which opened in Paris in June. Breton had been insulted by Ehrenburg—along with all fellow surrealists—in a pamphlet which said, among other things, that surrealists were "pederasts". Breton slapped Ehrenburg several times on the street, which resulted in surrealists being expelled from the Congress.
René Crevel, who according to Salvador Dalí was "the only serious communist among surrealists", was isolated from Breton and other surrealists, who were unhappy with Crevel because of his bisexuality and annoyed with communists in general. In 1938, Breton accepted a cultural commission from the French government to travel to Mexico. After a conference at the National Autonomous University of Mexico about surrealism, Breton stated after getting lost in Mexico City "I don't know why I came here. Mexico is the most surrealist country in the world". However, visiting Mexico provided the opportunity to meet Leon Trotsky. Breton and other surrealists traveled via a long boat ride from Patzcuaro to the town of Erongarícuaro. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were among the visitors to the hidden community of intellectuals and artists. Together and Trotsky wrote the Manifesto for an Independent Revolutionary Art calling for "complete freedom of art", becoming difficult with the world situation of the time.
In 1942, Breton collaborated with artist Wifredo Lam on the publication of Breton's poem "Fata Morgana", illustrated by Lam. Breton was again in the medical corps of the French Army at the start of World War II; the Vichy government banned his writings as "the negation of the national revolution" and Breton escaped, with the help of the American Varian Fry and Harry Bingham, to the United States and the Caribbean during 1941. Breton got to know Martinican writer Aimé Césaire, composed the introduction to the 1947 edition of Césaire's Cahier d'un retour au pays natal. During his exile in New York City he met Elisa Bindhoff, the Chilean woman who would become his third wife. In 1944, he and Elisa traveled to the Gaspé Peninsula in Québec, where he wrote Arcane 17, a book which expresses his fears of World War II, describes the marvels of the Rocher Percé and the extreme northeastern part of North America, celebrates his new romance with Elisa. During André Breton's visit to Haiti in 1945-46, the French surrealist leader sought to connect surrealist politics and automatist practices with the legacies of the Haitian Revolution and the ritual practices of Vodou possession.
Recent developments in Haitian painting were central to his efforts, as can be seen from a comment that Breton left in the visitors' book at the Centre d'Art in Port-au-Prince: "Haitian painting will drink the blood of the phoenix. And, with the epaulets of [J
Jacques Prévert was a French poet and screenwriter. His poems became and remain popular in the French-speaking world in schools, his best-regarded films formed part of the poetic realist movement, include Les Enfants du Paradis. Prévert grew up in Paris. After receiving his Certificat d'études upon completing his primary education, he quit school and went to work in Le Bon Marché, a major department store in Paris. In 1918, he was called up for military service in the First World War. After this, he was sent to the Near East to defend French interests there, he died in Omonville-la-Petite, on 11 April 1977. He had been working on the last scene of the animated movie Le Roi et l'oiseau with his friend and collaborator Paul Grimault; when the film was released in 1980, it was dedicated to Prévert's memory, on opening night, Grimault kept the seat next to him empty. When Prévert was attending primary school, he at first hated writing, he participated in the Surrealist movement. Together with the writer Raymond Queneau and Marcel Duhamel, he was a member of the Rue du Château group.
He was a member of the agitprop theater company Groupe Octobre where he helped craft a left-wing cinema in support of the causes of the Popular Front. Prévert remained supportive of left-wing causes throughout his life. In 1971, he wrote a poem in support of the communist Angela Davis after her arrest. Prévert's poems were collected and published in his books: Paroles, Spectacle, La Pluie et le beau temps, Histoires and Choses et autres, his poems are about life in Paris and life after the Second World War. They are taught in schools in France, appear in French language textbooks published worldwide. Some, such as "Déjeuner du Matin", are often taught in American upper-level French classes, for the students to learn basics; some of Prévert's poems, such as "Les Feuilles mortes", "La grasse matinée", "Les bruits de la nuit" and "Chasse à l'enfant" were set to music by Joseph Kosma—and in some cases by Germaine Tailleferre of Les Six, Christiane Verger, Hanns Eisler. They have been sung by prominent French vocalists, including Marianne Oswald, Yves Montand, Édith Piaf, as well as by the American singers Joan Baez and Nat King Cole.
In 1961, French singer-songwriter Serge Gainsbourg paid tribute to "Les feuilles mortes" in his own song "La chanson de Prévert". More the British remix DJs Coldcut released their own version in 1993. A German version has been published and covered by Didier Caesar, which he named "Das welke Laub". "Les feuilles mortes" bookends Iggy Pop's 2009 album, Préliminaires. Prévert's poems are translated into many languages worldwide. Many translators have translated his poems into English. In Nepali and translator Suman Pokhrel has translated some of his poems. Prévert wrote a number of screenplays for the film director Marcel Carné. Among them were the scripts for Drôle de drame, Quai des brumes, Le Jour se lève, Les Visiteurs du soir and Children of Paradise; the last of these gains a high placing in lists of best films and earned him a oscar nomination for best original screenplay. His poems were the basis for a film by the director and documentarian Joris Ivens, The Seine Meets Paris, about the River Seine.
The poem was read as narration during the film by singer Serge Reggiani. In 2007, a filmed adaptation of Prévert's poem, "To Paint the Portrait of a Bird," was directed by Seamus McNally, featuring T. D. White and Antoine Ray- English translation by Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Prévert had a long working relationship with Paul Grimault a member of Groupe Octobre. Together they wrote the screenplays of a number of animated movies, starting with the short "The Little Soldier", they worked together until his death in 1977, when he was finishing The King and the Mocking Bird, a second version of, released in 1980. Prévert adapted several Hans Christian Andersen tales into animated or mixed live-action/animated movies in versions loosely connected to the original. Two of these were with Grimault, including The King and the Mocking Bird, while another was with his brother Pierre Prévert; these include compilations of his poetry but collaborations with Marc Chagall and Humanist photographers on patriotic and poignant albums of imagery of post-war Paris.
Paroles Le Petit Lion, illustrated by Ylla Contes pour enfants pas sages Des Bêtes, illustrated by Ylla Spectacle Grand bal du printemps, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas Lettre des îles Baladar Tour de chant La pluie et le beau temps Histoires Les Halles: L'Album du Coeur de Paris, with photographs by Romain Urhausen Le Cirque d'Izis, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas and original artwork by Marc Chagall JON WAY Charmes de Londres, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas Prévert wrote the scenarios and sometimes the dialogue in the following films: Ciboulette Le Crime de monsieur Lange 27 Rue de la Paix Moutonnet Drôle de drame Quai des bru
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Alejo Carpentier y Valmont was a Cuban novelist and musicologist who influenced Latin American literature during its famous "boom" period. Born in Lausanne, Carpentier grew up in Havana and despite his European birthplace, he self-identified as Cuban throughout his life, he traveled extensively in France, to South America and Mexico, where he met prominent members of the Latin American cultural and artistic community. Carpentier took a keen interest in Latin American politics and aligned himself with revolutionary movements, such as Fidel Castro's Communist Revolution in Cuba in the mid-20th century. Carpentier was exiled for his leftist political philosophies. With a developed knowledge of music, Carpentier explored musicology, publishing an in-depth study of the music of Cuba, La música en Cuba and integrated musical themes and literary techniques throughout his works, he explored elements of Afro-Cubanism and incorporated the cultural aspects into the majority of his writings. Although Carpentier wrote in a myriad of genres, such as journalism, radio drama, academic essays and libretto, he is best known for his novels.
He was among the first practitioners of magical realism using the technique, lo real maravilloso to explore the fantastic quality of Latin American history and culture. The most famous example of Afro-Cuban influence and use of lo real maravilloso is Carpentier's 1949 novel El reino de este mundo about the Haitian revolution of the late 18th century. Carpentier's writing style integrated the resurgent Baroque style, or New World Baroque style that Latin American artists adopted from the European model and assimilated to the Latin American artistic vision. With a first-hand experience of the French Surrealist movement, Carpentier adapted the Surrealist theory to Latin American literature. Always eager to explore more than Cuban identity, Carpentier used his traveling experiences throughout Europe and Latin American to expand his understanding of Latin American identity. Carpentier wove elements of Latin American political history, social injustice and art into the tapestries of his writings, all of which exerted a decisive influence on the works of younger Latin American and Cuban writers like Lisandro Otero, Leonardo Padura and Fernando Velázquez Medina.
Carpentier died in Paris in 1980 and was buried in Havana's Colon Cemetery with other Cuban political and artistic luminaries. Carpentier was born on December 26, 1904, in Lausanne, Switzerland, to Jorge Julián Carpentier, a French architect, Lina Valmont, a Russian language teacher. For a long time it was believed that he was born in Havana, where his family moved after his birth. In 1912, Alejo and his family moved from Cuba to Paris, he spoke French and as an adolescent, he read Balzac and Zola. In 1921, Carpentier attended the School of Architecture of the University of Havana; when he was 18, his parents' marriage broke up and his father left. The following year, Carpentier tried to find work to support his mother, he turned to journalism, working for Social. He studied music. GERZAICAH LUCAS In 1921, while studying in Havana, Carpentier became a cultural journalist, writing about avant-garde developments in the arts music." He contributed columns to a daily journal from Havana. His journalistic work, considered leftist, helped establish the Cuban Communist Party.
During 1923 and 1924 he continued to work as a columnist and edited musical and theatre reviews for La Discusión and El Heraldo de Cuba. In 1927, with the help of Jorge Mañach, Juan Marinello, Francisco Ichaso, Martí Casanovas, he became a founding member of Revista de Avance, a magazine devoted to nationalism and new ideas in the arts; the first issue appeared on March 15, 1927. Because of his involvement in such projects, Carpentier was suspected of having subversive and ultramodern cultural ideas. Carpentier was arrested in 1927 for opposing Gerardo Machado y Morales dictatorship and had signed a democratic and anti-imperialist manifesto against Machado's regime and, as a result, spent forty days in jail. During this brief period in jail he started working on his first novel, Ecué-Yamba-O, an exploration of Afro-Cuban traditions among the poor of the island. After his release, he escaped Cuba with the help of journalist Robert Desnos who lent him his passport and papers. Carpentier decided on a voluntary exile to France and arrived in Paris in 1928.
When he left Cuba, he was fortunate enough to avoid the political conflicts which had occurred during the 1930s. During this time certain positions were unacceptable to the authorities and Cuban intellectuals were forced to define their political position and for these and other political reasons he decided to leave. During this time abroad, his disconnection from Cuba and the interaction with different groups of intellectuals and artists in Paris helped with his ‘critical vision’. Carpentier felt that it was important for him to remain outside the influences of movements because he believed in maintaining a “balance against the insularity of his homeland”. Upon arriving in Paris he began working on poems and editorials in Parisian and Cuban magazines. Contributions to the Parisian Journal such as the short story "Cahiers du Sud", i
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes was a French writer and artist associated with the Dada movement. He was died in Saint-Jeannet. In addition to numerous early paintings, Ribemont-Dessaignes wrote plays, poetry and opera librettos, he contributed to the Dada periodical Literature. Among Ribemont-Dessaignes' works for the theater are the plays The Emperor of China and The Mute Canary, the opera libretti The Knife's Tears and The Three Wishes, both with music by Czech composer Bohuslav Martinů, his novels include L'Autruche aux yeux clos, Ariane, Le Bar du lendemain, Céleste Ugolin, Monsieur Jean ou l'Amour absolu. Dada Performance. Edited by Mel Gordon. PAJ Publications. Les Larmes Du Couteau. CD recording of Martinu's opera. Commentary by Ales Brezina. Supraphon, 1999; the French Literature Companion. Ribemont-Dessaignes' written works at the International Dada Archive at the University of Iowa Libraries. Page images of the full texts. Manifesto