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Uncaria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It has about 40 species, their distribution is pantropical, with most species native to tropical Asia, three from Africa and the Mediterranean and two from the neotropics. They are known colloquially as cat's claw or uña de gato; the latter two names are shared with several other plants. The type species for the genus is Uncaria guianensis. Indonesian Gambier is a large tropical vine with leaves typical of the genus, being opposite and about 10 cm long; the South American U. tomentosa is called Uña de Gato. Uncaria sinensis is common in China. Uncaria was named in 1789 by Johann von Schreber in his Genera Plantarum edition 8; the genus name is derived from the Latin word uncus, meaning "a hook". It refers to the hooks, formed from reduced branches, that Uncaria vines use to cling to other vegetation. Uncaria is a member of the tribe Naucleeae. Woody lianas. Stipules bifid. Inflorescences are compact heads at the ends of horizontal reduced branches.

Corolla lobes without appendages. Seeds with a long wing at each end, the lower wing bifid; the following species list may contain synonyms. Diplomat Edmund Roberts noted that, upon his visit to China in the 1830s, Chinese were using U. gambir for tanning, noted that the U. gambir made "leather porous and rotten." He noted that Chinese would chew it with areca nut. The plant extract contains some 150 identified phytochemicals, including catechins and chalcone-flavan-3-ol dimers, called gambiriins. Cat's claw and the Chinese Uncaria species are used in traditional medicine, although there is no high-quality clinical evidence they have any medicinal properties. Although cat's claw appears to be safe for human use below 350 milligrams per day over 6 weeks, its adverse effects may include nausea, upset stomach, an increased risk of bleeding if used with an anticoagulant drug. Germplasm Resources Information Network: Uncaria Search Uncaria, Royal Botanic Gardens, KewScience

2008 Montana gubernatorial election

The 2008 Montana gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 2008 to elect the governor and lieutenant governor of the U. S. state of Montana. Incumbent Governor Brian Schweitzer, a Democrat, elected to his first four-year term in 2004, was elected to a second term with 65.5 per cent of the vote. John Bohlinger, a Republican and the incumbent lieutenant governor, was once again Schweitzer's running mate, was re-elected to a second term; the Republican nominee was a member of the Montana Senate. Brown's running mate was businessman, future U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator, Steve Daines. Brian Schweitzer, incumbent Governor, 2000 U. S. Senate nominee and rancher John Bohlinger, incumbent Lieutenant Governor and former Republican member of the Montana House of Representatives William Fischer, small businessman involved in the logging industry in Lakeside, Montana Steve White, small business owner in the telecommunications industry in Kalispell, Montana Don Pogreba, Shelby native and debate teacher at Helena High School Jason Neiffer, Great Falls native, history teacher at Capital High School Roy Brown, State Senator, former Majority Leader of the Montana House of Representatives Steve Daines, businessman Larry H. Steele, 2007 candidate for Mayor of Great Falls and 2006 candidate for the Montana House of Representatives Harold Luce Stan Jones, business consultant and United States Air Force veteran Michael Baker Montana Governor race from Campaign contributions from Follow the Money Brown vs Schweitzer graph of collected poll results from Roy Brown for Governor Brian Schweitzer for Governor

Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine Hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its Empire, it could accommodate over 150,000 spectators. In its developed form, it became the model for circuses throughout the Roman Empire; the site is now a public park. The Circus was Rome's largest venue for public games connected to Roman religious festivals. Ludi were sponsored by leading Romans or the Roman state for the benefit of the Roman people and gods. Most were held annually or at annual intervals on the Roman calendar. Others might be given to fulfill a religious vow, such as the games in celebration of a triumph. In Roman tradition, the earliest triumphal ludi at the Circus were vowed by Tarquin the Proud to Jupiter in the late Regal era for his victory over Pometia. Ludi ranged in duration and scope from one-day or half-day events to spectacular multi-venue celebrations held over several days, with religious ceremonies and public feasts and chariot racing, athletics and recitals, beast-hunts and gladiator fights.

Some included public executions. The greater ludi at the Circus began with a flamboyant parade, much like the triumphal procession, which marked the purpose of the games and introduced the participants. During Rome's Republican era, the aediles organised the games; the most costly and complex of the ludi offered opportunities to assess an aedile's competence and fitness for higher office. Some Circus events, seem to have been small and intimate affairs. In 167 BC, "flute players, scenic artists and dancers" performed on a temporary stage erected between the two central seating banks. Others were enlarged at enormous expense to fit the entire space. A venatio held there in 169 BC, one of several in the 2nd century, employed "63 leopards and 40 bears and elephants", with spectators kept safe by a substantial barrier; as Rome's provinces expanded, existing ludi were embellished and new ludi invented by politicians who competed for divine and popular support. By the late Republic, ludi were held on 57 days of the year.

On many other days and jockeys would need to practice on its track. Otherwise, it would have made a convenient corral for the animals traded in the nearby cattle market, just outside the starting gate. Beneath the outer stands, next to the Circus' multiple entrances, were workshops and shops; when no games were being held, the Circus at the time of Catullus was "a dusty open space with shops and booths... a colourful crowded disreputable area" frequented by "prostitutes, fortune tellers and low-class performing artists." Rome's emperors met the ever-burgeoning popular demand for regular ludi and the need for more specialised venues, as essential obligations of their office and cult. Over the several centuries of its development, the Circus Maximus became Rome's paramount specialist venue for chariot races. By the late 1st century AD, the Colosseum had been built to host most of the city's gladiator shows and smaller beast-hunts, most track-athletes competed at the purpose-designed Stadium of Domitian, though long-distance foot races were still held at the Circus.

135 days of the year were devoted to ludi. At the height of its development as a chariot-racing circuit, the circus remained the most suitable space in Rome for religious processions on a grand scale, was the most popular venue for large-scale venationes. With the advent of Christianity as the official religion of the Empire, ludi fell out of favour; the last known beast-hunt at the Circus Maximus took place in 523, the last known races there were held by Totila in 549. The Circus Maximus was sited on the level ground of the Valley of Murcia, between Rome's Aventine and Palatine Hills. In Rome's early days, the valley would have been rich agricultural land, prone to flooding from the river Tiber and the stream which divided the valley; the stream was bridged at an early date, at the two points where the track had to cross it, the earliest races would have been held within an agricultural landscape, "with nothing more than turning posts, banks where spectators could sit, some shrines and sacred spots".

In Livy's history of Rome, the first Etruscan king of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Priscus built raised, wooden perimeter seating at the Circus for Rome's highest echelons midway along the Palatine straight, with an awning against the sun and rain. His grandson, Tarquinius Superbus, added the first seating for citizen-commoners, either adjacent or on the opposite, Aventine side of the track. Otherwise, the Circus was still little more than a trackway through surrounding farmland. By this time, it may have been drained but the wooden stands and seats would have rotted and been rebuilt; the turning posts, each made of three conical stone pillars, may have been the earliest permanent Circus structures. The games' sponsor sat beside the images of attending gods, on a conspicuous, elevated stand but seats at the track's perimeter of

Michael W. Smith Project

Michael W. Smith Project is the debut album of Christian recording artist Michael W. Smith. Released in 1983, the album was reissued in CD format in 1987 with a new cover featuring an updated photo of Smith; the album reached number nine on the Top Contemporary Christian chart. All tracks are written except where noted. Note: "First Light" was titled "From Light" on the original vinyl and cassette releases. Music Michael W. Smith – lead vocals, background vocals, acoustic piano, Fender Rhodes, Yamaha GS2 synthesizer, Prophet-5 synthesizers Shane KeisterOB-X synthesizer, Prophet-5 synthesizers, vocoder Jon Goin – guitars Mike Brignardellobass guitar Mark Hammonddrums, Roland TR-808 drum machine on "First Light" Mike Psanos – percussion Dennis Solee – saxophone Gary Chapman – background vocals Jackie Cusic – background vocals Diana DeWitt – background vocals David Durham – background vocals Teresa Ellis – background vocals Amy Grant – background vocals Pam Mark Hall – background vocals Chris Harris – background vocals Gary Pigg – background vocals Kim Smith – background vocalsProduction Michael W. Smith – producer, assistant engineer Michael Blanton and Dan Harrell – executive producers Mike Psanos – recording engineer Brown Bannister – assistant engineer John Woods – assistant engineer Jack Joseph Puig – remixing Recorded at Tree International Studio Hank Williamsmastering Mastered at Woodland Sound Studio Bill Brunt – art direction Tim Campbell – photography

Francis Steinmetz

Francis Steinmetz was an officer in the Royal Netherlands Navy who escaped from Oflag IV-C, Colditz Castle, a German POW camp, during World War II, making a "home run" to safety. Steinmetz was born 20 September 1914 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies and entered the Dutch Royal Navy in September 1932. After periods on various boats he was posted to the submarine service, he was captured in 1940 in Amsterdam by advancing German forces. Sent to a prison camp at Soest, Steinmetz was transferred to a POW camp Silesia, he refused to sign a German parole saying he would refrain from any hostile act towards Germany and was transferred to Sonderlager IVC, at Colditz Castle. At Colditz all Dutch escapes were coordinated by the Dutch escape officer Captain Machiel van den Heuvel, known as "Vandy" by the British. Van den Heuvel recognised the possibilities of the exercise park and soon had his first escape plan ready. On 15 August 1941 Steinmetz and Hans Larive hid under a manhole cover under the cover of a rugby scrum.

Lieutenant Gerrit Dames created a diversion by cutting a hole in the barbed wire fence, before allowing himself to be caught, shouting to imaginary escapers to run, so that the Germans would think that the missing officers had escaped. Larive and Steinmetz hid for several hours; the cover was fixed with a heavy bolt. Once it was dark the two men forced the manhole cover open from below, replaced the now broken glass bolt with the original one, they made their way out of the castle.. At Leisnig Steinmetz and Larive took a train to Nuremberg where they waited for their next train in a nearby park. To avoid attracting unwanted attention, they pretended to be a courting couple, with Steinmetz pulling a blanket down over his shorts so it looked like a skirt, they crossed the Swiss border on 18 August 1941. Under Swiss neutrality law they were not allowed to leave the country, so the Dutch Legation provided false papers describing them as sugar planters on their way to Cuba, they travelled on a sealed train.

At Barcelona they boarded Isla de Teneriffe, sailing for Havana. The ship was intercepted by a Royal Navy cutter in the Strait of Gibraltar and the two men were taken off and arrived in Gibraltar on 4 November, they sailed to England aboard the submarine HNLMS O 21 and arrived in London on 17 December 1941. After interrogation by the British, Steinmetz served on motor torpedo boats, taking MTB 222 to the West Indies, he commanded Dutch motor torpedo boats in the Far East. After the end of the Second World War, Steinmetz returned to Holland and served at the naval training camp at Hilversum. In December 1950, he commanded the minesweeper Boereo in Dutch New Guinea, before returning to the naval training centre at Voorschoten. Steinmetz commanded the minesweeper De Bitter and the frigate De Zeuw, before joining the Dutch Ministry of Naval Affairs, his final ship was the destroyer Limburg. After retiring, Steinmetz worked for Ole Anderson in Denmark. Steinmetz married twice, first in 1946 to Regina Henrietta Noren.

He had one son during his first marriage. Jewish POW's at Colditz - from the Jewish Virtual Library

Getor Jagatpura railway station

Getor Jagatpura railway station is a small railway station in Jaipur district, Rajasthan. Its code is GTJT, it serves Jagatpura area of Jaipur city. The station consists of 2 platforms; the platform 2 is not well sheltered but platform 1 is sheltered. It lacks many facilities including sanitation; some of the important trains that run from Getor Jagatpura are: Jaipur -Hisar Passenger Ajmer Chandigarh Garib Rath Express Amritsar - Ajmer Express Amritsar - Ajmer Express Agra Fort - Ajmer Intercity Express Ala Hazrat Express Jaipur - Alwar Express Ala Hazrat Express Mathura - Jaipur Passenger FACILITY AVAILABLE 1.amul stall 2.ticket vending machine in reservation office near platform 2 3.autostand outside platform 1 4. RPF substation Jaipur district Durgapura railway station Gandhinagar Jaipur railway station Jaipur Junction railway station