Roman provincial currency
Roman provincial currency was coinage minted within the Roman Empire by local civic rather than imperial authorities. These coins were continuations of the original currencies that existed prior to the arrival of the Romans; because so many of them were minted in the Greek areas of the empire, they were referred to until recently as Greek Imperial coinage, catalogued at the end of lists of coins minted by the Greek cities. When a new region was assimilated into Roman civilization, the continuance of pre-existing local currencies was allowed as a matter of expediency. New colonies were given authority to mint bronze coins; these provincial currencies were used by the local inhabitants only for local trade – as their intrinsic values were much lower than Roman imperial coinage. Provincial coins were issued in silver and bronze denominations, though never gold; the majority were bronze. Silver and billon coins were more common in the Eastern regions of the Empire Alexandria. In general, the issuance of silver coinage was controlled by Rome.
That gave the imperial government a measure of influence throughout the empire. Some coins that circulated in the eastern parts of the empire may have been minted at the mint of Rome. By 210 BC Rome was controlling all of the Greek cities in the region of Magna Graecia. At the beginning of the next century a clear Roman influence on the Greek coinage can be noticed. Both iconography and style of the coins had changed. Greek coinage from this period can be classified as the first instances of Roman provincial currency. There were over 600 provincial mints during the Imperial Era; the mints were located throughout the Empire, with a particular concentration in the Eastern portions of the Empire. Major provincial cities such as Corinth or Antioch possessed their own minting capabilities; some mints issued only for their cities. There are several cities known by their coins. List of historical currencies Roman currency Roman Republican coinage Roman Provincial Coins Coins on Wildwinds.com Coins with similar Designs Roman Egypt coins Area of issues
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold that contains a hollow shape of the intended shape. The metal is poured into the mold through a hollow channel called a sprue; the metal and mold are cooled, the metal part is extracted. Casting is most used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, have been used for sculpture, jewellery in precious metals, weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include plaster mold casting and sand casting; the modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the mold material, such as sand or metal, pouring method, such as gravity, vacuum, or low pressure. Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, shell and investment moldings; this method of mold casting involves the use of non-reusable molds.
Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting, has been used for centuries. Sand casting allows for smaller batches than permanent mold casting and at a reasonable cost. Not only does this method allow manufacturers to create products at a low cost, but there are other benefits to sand casting, such as small-size operations; the process allows for castings small enough fit in the palm of one's hand to those large enough only for train beds. Sand casting allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds. Sand casting requires a lead time of days, or weeks sometimes, for production at high output rates and is unsurpassed for large-part production. Green sand, black in color, has no part weight limit, whereas dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2,300–2,700 kg. Minimum part weight ranges from 0.075–0.1 kg. The sand is bonded together using chemical binders, or polymerized oils. Sand requires little maintenance. Plaster casting is similar to sand casting except that plaster of paris is used instead of sand as a mold material.
The form takes less than a week to prepare, after which a production rate of 1–10 units/hr-mold is achieved, with items as massive as 45 kg and as small as 30 g with good surface finish and close tolerances. Plaster casting is an inexpensive alternative to other molding processes for complex parts due to the low cost of the plaster and its ability to produce near net shape castings; the biggest disadvantage is that it can only be used with low melting point non-ferrous materials, such as aluminium, copper and zinc. Shell molding is similar to sand casting, but the molding cavity is formed by a hardened "shell" of sand instead of a flask filled with sand; the sand used is finer than sand casting sand and is mixed with a resin so that it can be heated by the pattern and hardened into a shell around the pattern. Because of the resin and finer sand, it gives a much finer surface finish; the process is automated and more precise than sand casting. Common metals that are cast include cast iron, aluminium and copper alloys.
This process is ideal for complex items. Investment casting is a process, practiced for thousands of years, with the lost-wax process being one of the oldest known metal forming techniques. From 5000 years ago, when beeswax formed the pattern, to today’s high technology waxes, refractory materials and specialist alloys, the castings ensure high-quality components are produced with the key benefits of accuracy, repeatability and integrity. Investment casting derives its name from the fact that the pattern is invested, or surrounded, with a refractory material; the wax patterns require extreme care for they are not strong enough to withstand forces encountered during the mold making. One advantage of investment casting is; the process is suitable for repeatable production of net shape components from a variety of different metals and high performance alloys. Although used for small castings, this process has been used to produce complete aircraft door frames, with steel castings of up to 300 kg and aluminium castings of up to 30 kg.
Compared to other casting processes such as die casting or sand casting, it can be an expensive process. However, the components that can be produced using investment casting can incorporate intricate contours, in most cases the components are cast near net shape, so require little or no rework once cast. A durable plaster intermediate is used as a stage toward the production of a bronze sculpture or as a pointing guide for the creation of a carved stone. With the completion of a plaster, the work is more durable than a clay original which must be kept moist to avoid cracking. With the low cost plaster at hand, the expensive work of bronze casting or stone carving may be deferred until a patron is found, as such work is considered to be a technical, rather than artistic process, it may be deferred beyond the lifetime of the artist. In waste molding a simple and thin plaster mold, reinforced by sisal or burlap, is cast over the original clay mixture; when cured, it is removed from the damp clay
Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper with about 12–12.5% tin and with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability; the archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; the Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were made of brasses and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects use the more inclusive term "copper alloy" instead. There are two basic theories as to the origin of the word.
Romance theoryThe Romance theory holds that the word bronze was borrowed from French bronze, itself borrowed from Italian bronzo "bell metal, brass" from either, bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon from Brentḗsion ‘Brindisi’, reputed for its bronze. Proto-Slavic theoryThe Proto-Slavic theory reflects the philological issue that in the most of Slavonic languages word "bronza" corresponds to "war metal" while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used exclusively for military purposes; the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. Bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC, it was only that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC.
Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more controlled, the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic; the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt and some ancient sites in China and Mesopotamia. Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools socketed axes, are found, which show no signs of wear.
With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, used by the living for ritual offerings. Though bronze is harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron improved in quality; as cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron, blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. There are many different bronze alloys, but modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper.
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs and blades. Historical "bronzes" are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture suggests. The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in
The gram is a metric system unit of mass. Defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, at the temperature of melting ice". However, in a reversal of reference and defined units, a gram is now defined as one thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is now defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, not in terms of grams, but by "the amount of electricity needed to counteract its force" The only unit symbol for gram, recognised by the International System of Units is "g" following the numeric value with a space, as in "640 g" to stand for "640 grams" in the English language; the SI does not support the use of abbreviations such as "gr", "gm" or "Gm". The word gramme was adopted by the French National Convention in its 1795 decree revising the metric system as replacing the gravet introduced in 1793, its definition remained that of the weight of a cubic centimetre of water. French gramme was taken from the Late Latin term gramma.
This word—ultimately from Greek γράμμα, "letter"—had adopted a specialised meaning in Late Antiquity of "one twenty-fourth part of an ounce", corresponding to about 1.14 modern grams. This use of the term is found in the carmen de ponderibus et mensuris composed around 400 AD. There is evidence that the Greek γράμμα was used in the same sense at around the same time, in the 4th century, survived in this sense into Medieval Greek, while the Latin term did not remain current in Medieval Latin and was recovered in Renaissance scholarship; the gram was the fundamental unit of mass in the 19th-century centimetre–gram–second system of units. The CGS system co-existed with the MKS system of units, first proposed in 1901, during much of the 20th century, but the gram has been displaced by the kilogram as the fundamental unit for mass when the MKS system was chosen for the SI base units in 1960; the gram is today the most used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide.
Most standards and legal requirements for nutrition labels on food products require relative contents to be stated per 100 g of the product, such that the resulting figure can be read as a percentage by weight. 1 gram = 15.4323583529 grains 1 grain = 0.06479891 grams 1 avoirdupois ounce = 28.349523125 grams 1 troy ounce = 31.1034768 grams 100 grams = 3.527396195 ounces 1 gram = 5 carats 1 gram = 8.98755179×1013 joules 1 undecimogramme = 1 "eleventh-gram" = 10−11 grams in the historic quadrant–eleventh-gram–second system a.k.a. hebdometre–undecimogramme–second system 500 grams = 1 Jin in the Chinese units of measurement. 1 gram is equal to 1 small paper clip or pen cap. The Japanese 1 yen coin has a mass of one gram, lighter than the British penny, the United States cent, the Euro cent, the 5 cent Australian coins. Conversion of units Duella Gold gram Orders of magnitude Gram at Encyclopædia Britannica
The quadrigatus was a medium-sized silver coin produced by the Roman Republic during the 3rd century BC. The obverse featured a young janiform bust and the reverse featured Victory driving a quadriga, giving the coin its name, with the inscription "ROMA" below; the coin weighed about 6.8 grams, consistent with the weight of a south Italian Greek didrachm. It was minted for a number of years until shortly before the introduction of the denarius. Gold coins of similar style were issued at this time which featured the same obverse type as the quadrigatus and the reverse type of two soldiers performing an oath over a third soldier holding a pig, with the inscription "ROMA" below; the choice of Janus for these coins is believed to coincide with the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus, indicating the absence of warfare, a rare occasion. Michael Crawford, has suggested that the janiform head represents the Dioscuri, since Janus is a mature and bearded figure. Roman-era historians such as Livy and Plutarch refer to these early coins as denarii, but modern numismatic references consider these coins as anonymous Roman silver, produced before the standardization of the denarius around 211 B.
C. The name quadrigatus comes from the quadriga or four-horse chariot on the reverse, the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for the next 150 years; the victoriatus was a coin of the same fabric, valued at half a quadrigatus. Roman currency
The quadrans or teruncius was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value; the obverse type, after some early variations, featured the bust of Hercules, while the reverse featured the prow of a galley. Coins with the same value were issued from other cities in Central Italy. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production. It was produced sporadically until the time of Antoninus Pius. Unlike other coins during the Roman Empire, the quadrans bore the image of the emperor; the Greek word for the quadrans was κοδράντης, translated in the King James Version of the Bible as "farthing". In the New Testament a coin equal to one half the Attic chalcus was worth about 3/8 of a cent. In Mark's gospel, when a poor widow gave two mites or λεπτα to the Temple Treasury, the gospel writer noted that this amounted to one quadrans.
Roman currency Semis
The antoninianus, or radiate, was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2 denarii. It was silver, but was debased to bronze with a minimal silver content; the coin was introduced by Caracalla in early 215. It was silver, similar to the denarius except that it was larger and featured the emperor wearing a radiate crown, indicating it was a double denomination. Antoniniani depicting females the emperor's wife, featured the bust resting upon a crescent moon. At its introduction, the silver content of the antoninianus was only equal to 1.5 denarii. This created inflation: people hoarded the denarii, while both buyers and sellers recognized the new coin had a lower intrinsic value and elevated their prices to compensate. Silver bullion supplies were running short because the Roman Empire was no longer conquering new territory; each new issue of the antoninianus thus had less silver in it than the last, thus contributed to ever-increasing inflation. In 271 Aurelian increased the average weight of the antoninianus, this change lasting for only a short time.
Around this time, the enigmatic'XXI' was first marked on the reverse of the antoninianus. The true meaning of this series of numbers is still a topic of debate, but is thought to represent a 20:1 silver ratio. By the late 3rd century, antoniniani were entirely made of bronze reclaimed from melted-down older issues like the sestertius. Vast quantities were minted, with a large percentage of the circulating stock being contemporary forgeries with blundered legends and designs. Individual coins were by practically worthless, were lost or discarded by the millions; the resultant situation was not unlike the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic in 1920s Germany, when paper money was printed in reckless abundance. The coin ceased to be used by the end of the 3rd century, when a series of monetary reforms attempted to arrest the decline by issuing new coinage. Today most of these coins are common finds, with a few scarcer examples including Aemilianus, Marcus Aurelius Marius and Regalianus. Modern numismatists use "antoninianus".
An ancient Roman document called the Historia Augusta refers to silver coins named after an Antoninus on several occasions. Because Caracalla's silver coin was a new issue, he had taken Antoninus as part of his imperial name, an association was made with it, the name stuck. Media related to Antoninianus at Wikimedia Commons