Roderick George Toombs, better known by his ring name "Rowdy" Roddy Piper, was a Canadian professional wrestler and actor. In professional wrestling, Piper was best known to international audiences for his work with the World Wrestling Federation and World Championship Wrestling between 1984 and 2000. Although he was Canadian, because of his Scottish heritage he was billed as coming from Glasgow and was known for his signature kilt and bagpipe entrance music. Piper earned the nicknames "Rowdy" and "Hot Rod" by displaying his trademark "Scottish" rage and quick wit. According to The Telegraph, he is "considered by many to be the greatest "heel" wrestler ever". One of pro wrestling's most recognizable stars, Piper headlined numerous pay-per-view cards, including the WWF and WCW's respective premier annual events, WrestleMania and Starrcade, he accumulated 34 championships, hosted the popular WWF/E interview segment "Piper's Pit", which facilitated numerous feuds. Piper's biggest rival was Hulk Hogan: their mid-1980s feud – involving "Captain" Lou Albano and singer Cyndi Lauper – is considered the beginning of "Rock'n' Wrestling".
In 2005, Piper was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame by Ric Flair, who dubbed him "the most gifted entertainer in the history of professional wrestling". Outside of wrestling, Piper acted in dozens of films and TV shows, including the lead role of John Nada in the 1988 cult classic They Live and a recurring role as deranged professional wrestler, Da' Maniac, on the FX comedy series It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia. Toombs was born in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan on April 17, 1954, was raised in Winnipeg, Manitoba, he attended Windsor Park Collegiate. His father, Stanley Baird Toombs, was an officer with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police while they lived in The Pas, Manitoba, his mother was Eileen Toombs. After being expelled from junior high for having a switchblade in school and falling out with his father, Piper left home and stayed in youth hostels, he picked up odd jobs at local gyms. As a young man, he became proficient in playing the bagpipes, though he stated that he was unsure where he picked them up.
His childhood best friend was Stanley Cup winner Cam Connor. Piper served a tour of duty with the Canadian Army. Piper was an amateur wrestler before he started to become a professional wrestler, he won the Golden Gloves boxing championship. He was awarded a Black Belt in Judo from Gene LeBell, American Judo champion, instructor and professional wrestler. Roddy started wrestling under the care of promoter Al Tomko in Canada, his first match involving'midget wrestlers' in front of a lumberjack audience in Churchill, Manitoba, he soon began earning money wrestling. His first match in a pro and famous organization was with the legendary Larry Hennig in the American Wrestling Association. Friends of his played the bagpipes during his entrance while he was handing out dandelions and the ring-announcer had to announce something and all that he knew was his name was Roddy. So, after seeing the pipe band he announced "Ladies and Gentlemen, here comes Roddy the piper", thus giving birth to "Roddy Piper" and the name stuck.
From 1973 to 1975, Piper was a jobber in the American Wrestling Association, NWA Central States territory surrounding Kansas City, in the Maritimes. He worked in Texas for Paul Boesch's NWA Houston Wrestling promotion, in Dallas for Fritz Von Erich's Big Time Rasslin. By late 1975 and early 1976, Piper was a top villain for Mike and Gene LeBell's NWA Hollywood Wrestling. In 1977–78, he started to work for Roy Shire's NWA San Francisco Wrestling in addition to remaining with the Los Angeles office, where Piper developed his Rowdy character. During this time, he made continuous insults directed at the area's Mexican community. Piper managed a stable of wrestlers in California. In the Los Angeles area, Piper feuded with his father Gory Guerrero. Piper and Chavo Guerrero faced each other in several matches for the Jules Strongbow Memorial Scientific Trophy. Piper defeated Chavo for the Americas Heavyweight Title. During the feud, Piper had his head shaved. Piper appeared in several loser leave town was forced to leave the territory.
He appeared in the territory as The Masked Canadian. In his first televised match as The Masked Canadian, Piper teamed with Chavo in a match against Black Gordman and Goliath for the Americas Tag Team Championship. Piper and Guerrero lost the match and faced each other two days with Piper defeating Guerrero for the Americas Heavyweight Championship. Piper wrestled as The Masked Canadian for several months. By late 1978-early 1979, Piper left the California promotions for more fame in Don Owen's Portland–based Pacific Northwest territory, he teamed with Killer Tim Brooks and Rick Martel to win the NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship. Piper won the NWA Pacific Northwest Heavyweight Championship with victories over both Lord Jonathan Boyd and "Playboy" Buddy Rose. In the early 1980s, Piper ventured to the Mid-Atlantic territory where he beat Jack Brisco for the Mid-Atlantic title, he defeated Ric Flair for the US belt which turned into a feud. From 1981–82, Piper served as a commentator on Georgia Championship Wrestling and feuded with the likes of Bob Armstrong, Dick Slater, Tommy Rich.
During the summer of
NWA World Tag Team Championship (Mid-America version)
The Mid-America version of the NWA World Tag Team Championship was a regional professional wrestling championship for tag teams, used in the National Wrestling Alliance's NWA Mid-America professional wrestling promotion from 1957 until 1977. The championship, promoted by Nick Gulas, was one of many NWA World Tag Team Championships in existence in the period between 1949 and 1992, each of, a regional championship restricted to an NWA territory and not a true "world" championship. At one point in 1957 there were at least 13 different, concurrently promoted NWA World Tag Team Championships across the United States; the Mid-America version was in use for 20 years, the second longest of any of the NWA World Tag Team Championships of that era, only behind the Central States version. Being a professional wrestling championship, the NWA World Tag Team Championship was not won or lost in competitive matches, but determined by the decision of the bookers of NWA Mid-America; the Mid-America version was defended in the Tennessee/Alabama territory also being defended in surrounding states.
The first recognized champions of the Mid-America branch of the championship were the Corsicans, who were presented as champions on February 5, 1957. Records do not specify if the team won a tournament of if they were awarded the championship by promoter Nick Gulas. There were at least 148 championship reigns between 1957 and 1977, when the championship was abandoned, split between 77 different teams and a total of 99 individual wrestlers. Mike Graham and Kevin Sullivan were the last Mid-America-recognized NWA World Tag Team Champions, having won the championship in April 1977, a short time before NWA Mid-America abandoned the championship. At that point the NWA Mid-America Tag Team Championship became the main championship in the territory; the reign of Len Rossi and Bearcat Brown from October 2, 1969 until some time in May 1970, lasted at least 211 days and as long as 241 days, making it the longest individual reign on record. The Von Brauners hold the records for most championship reigns, a total of 17 reigns that combined to at least 510 days more.
Karl Von Brauner held the championship with Luke Graham, making his 18 individual championship reigns the most of any wrestler. Due to lack of detail on a multiple championship reigns, it is impossible to determine which team had the shortest reign. Key Key Key List of NWA Championships Sources for 13 simultaneous NWA World Tag Team ChampionshipsNWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship NWA World Tag Team Championship General sources – Duncan, Royal. " Tennessee: NWA World Tag Team Title ". Wrestling title histories: professional wrestling champions around the world from the 19th century to the present. Pennsylvania: Archeus Communications. ISBN 0-9698161-5-4.
– "National Wrestling Alliance World Tag Team Title ". Wrestling-Titles. Retrieved February 21, 2017
WrestleMania 2 was the second annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Federation. The event took place on Monday, April 7, 1986, making it the only WrestleMania, not held on the traditional Sunday; the events took place at three separate venues: the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, New York. Each venue had its own card; the main event at Uniondale, New York, was a boxing match pitting Mr. T against Roddy Piper. At Chicago, there was a 20-man battle royal involving WWF NFL football players; the main event, at Los Angeles, featured WWF World Heavyweight Champion Hulk Hogan defending his title against King Kong Bundy in a steel cage match. Matches on the respective undercards saw Intercontinental Heavyweight Champion "Macho Man" Randy Savage defending his title against George Steele, Tag Team Champions The Dream Team losing their titles against The British Bulldogs; the event announce teams in each location. The commentating teams consisted of Susan Saint James in New York.
The ring announcers were Howard Finkel, Chet Coppock, Lee Marshall. Ray Charles sang a rendition of "America the Beautiful" before the show at the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, New York. Celebrity guests in attendance for the New York segment of WrestleMania 2 included: Cab Calloway, Darryl Dawkins, G. Gordon Liddy, Joan Rivers, Joe Frazier, Lou Duva and Susan Saint James. Celebrity guests in attendance for the Chicago segment of WrestleMania 2 included: Clara Peller, Dick Butkus, Ed Jones, Ozzy Osbourne, Bill Fralic, Ernie Holmes, Harvey Martin, Jim Covert, Russ Francis, William Perry, Cathy Lee Crosby; the Los Angeles segment of WrestleMania 2 included celebrity guests Ricky Schroder, Robert Conrad, Tommy Lasorda, Elvira. The card featured ten matches, which resulted from scripted storylines and had results predetermined by the WWF. Building to the event, storylines between characters played out on WWF's primary television programs, Championship Wrestling, All-Star Wrestling, Saturday Night's Main Event and Prime Time Wrestling.
Three of the main-event feuds were set up on the March 1, 1986, broadcast of Saturday Night's Main Event. The main feud heading into WrestleMania 2 was between Hulk Hogan and King Kong Bundy, with the two battling over the WWF World Heavyweight Championship. Although they had wrestled before, their first nationally televised encounter was on the November 2, 1985, edition of Saturday Night's Main Event where Hogan teamed up with André the Giant against André's rivals Bundy and Big John Studd. Hogan and André won the match. On March 1, Hogan defended his WWF title against The Magnificent Muraco. Just as Hogan was about to pin Muraco, Bundy ran into the ring and—with Muraco's help—initiated a 2-on-1 assault on Hogan crushing him with his body weight to break his ribs. Hogan had a serious injury, while Bundy challenged Hogan for the title. With revenge on his mind, Hogan accepted the challenge; the second feud heading into the event was between Rowdy Roddy Piper. Piper established himself as the top heel in the WWF in 1984.
A year he joined Paul Orndorff and Bob Orton to feud with Hulk Hogan and Mr. T who defeated them in the main event of the first-ever WrestleMania; the Piper-Mr. T feud restarted in 1986 after their real-life hatred for each other became known, prompting the WWF to turn their animosity for one another into a feud. Piper and others had no wrestling skills. In response, Mr. T began competing in boxing matches. On the March 1 Saturday Night's Main Event, Mr. T defeated Orton in a boxing match. After the match, Piper distracted Mr. T, allowing Orton to attack from behind and start a 2-on-1 assault. Mr. T demanded revenge, leading to his boxing match against Piper; the third main feud heading into WrestleMania was between The Dream Team and The British Bulldogs over the WWF Tag Team Championship. On August 24, 1985, Beefcake and Valentine won the tag titles from The U. S. Express; the British Bulldogs challenged Beefcake and Valentine for their titles after their win. They retained their titles against the Bulldogs at a house show on September 11 by getting disqualified.
They again defended the titles against the Bulldogs Saturday Night's Main Event, where they emerged victorious against them. After the Bulldogs twice failed to win the titles, Dream Team agreed to defend their titles against them for a final time with a title match set at WrestleMania; the other major feud heading into WrestleMania 2 was Randy "Macho Man" Savage and George "the Animal" Steele. Its genesis came after Steele, who used a Neanderthal, "missing link"-type gimmick, became smitten with Savage's manager, the beautiful Miss Elizabeth, their first meeting took place on a Saturday Night's Main Event aired shortly before Savage won the Intercontinental Championship. Steele would be distracted by Elizabeth, which Savage used to his advantage. Along with former champion Tito Santana (who was
Vincent Kennedy McMahon is an American professional wrestling promoter and executive, American football executive, businessman. Since taking over the company from his father in the 1980s, he has worked in the corporate area of the WWE and behind the scenes, he serves as the majority owner, chairman and CEO of WWE as well as founder of Alpha Entertainment, the holding company of the American football league the XFL. McMahon has served as an announcer and professional wrestler in WWE—using a gimmick known by the ring name Mr. McMahon, based on his real life persona, he is a two-time world champion, having won the WWF Championship in 1999 and the ECW World Championship in 2007. He was the 1999 Royal Rumble winner, he headlined multiple WWF/WWE pay-per-view events from 1999 to 2000 and participated in the main event of WrestleMania 2000 as a cornerman for The Rock. In singles competition, he holds victories over former WWF/WWE Champions Ric Flair, The Undertaker, Shawn Michaels and Triple H, he continues his backstage and on-screen roles as the main authority figure along with the rest of the McMahon family.
Prior to this, he was the broadcast color commentator and chief broadcaster for the company. A third-generation wrestling promoter, McMahon is married to former WWE CEO and outgoing American SBA Administrator Linda McMahon, with whom he has two children, son Shane and daughter Stephanie, he is the father-in-law of WWE executive/wrestler Paul "Triple H" Levesque and has six grandchildren. Vincent Kennedy McMahon was born on August 24, 1945 in Pinehurst, North Carolina, the younger son of Victoria and Vincent James McMahon, his father left the family when McMahon was still a baby and took his elder son Rod with him, therefore McMahon did not meet him until age twelve. McMahon's paternal grandfather was promoter Roderick James "Jess" McMahon, whose parents were Irish emigrants from County Galway, his paternal grandmother, Rose Davis, was of Irish descent. McMahon was raised as Vinnie Lupton and spent the majority of his childhood living with his mother and a string of stepfathers, he claimed that one of his stepfathers, Leo Lupton, used to beat his mother and attacked McMahon when he tried to protect her.
He said, "It is unfortunate. I would have enjoyed that." He attended Fishburne Military School in Waynesboro, graduating in 1964. In his early life, he overcame dyslexia. McMahon first met the promoter for Capitol Wrestling Corporation, his father Vincent J. McMahon, at the age of 12. At that point, McMahon became interested in following his father's professional wrestling footsteps and accompanied him on trips to Madison Square Garden. McMahon wanted to be a wrestler, but his father did not let him, explaining that promoters did not appear on the show and should stay apart from their wrestlers. In 1968, McMahon graduated from East Carolina University with a business degree and after a nondescript career as a traveling salesman, he was eager to assume a managerial role in his father's World Wide Wrestling Federation promotion. In 1969, McMahon made his debut as an in-ring announcer for the WWWF's All-Star Wrestling. In 1971, he was assigned to a small territory in Maine, he became the play-by-play commentator for television matches after he replaced Ray Morgan in 1971, a role he maintained until November 1997.
Throughout the 1970s, McMahon became the prominent force in his father's company and, over the next decade, assisted his father in tripling TV syndication. He pushed for the renaming of the company to the World Wrestling Federation; the younger McMahon was behind the Muhammad Ali versus Antonio Inoki match of 1976. In 1979, the younger McMahon and his wife Linda founded their own company, Titan Sports, incorporated in the following year and in 1982 - when McMahon was aged 37 - acquired control of the Capitol Wrestling Co. from his ailing father. On February 21, 1980, McMahon founded Titan Sports, the company's headquarters were established in South Yarmouth, using the now defunct Cape Cod Coliseum as a home base for the company. At the time of his purchase of the WWF, professional wrestling was a business run by regional promotions; the various promoters shared an understanding that they would not invade each other's territories, as this practice had gone on undeterred for decades. In 1983, the WWF split from the National Wrestling Alliance a second time, after splitting from them in 1963 before rejoining them in 1971.
The NWA was the governing body for all the regional territories across the country and as far away as Japan. He began expanding the company nationally by promoting in areas outside of the company's Northeast U. S. stomping grounds and by signing talent from other companies, such as the American Wrestling Association. In 1984, he recruited Hulk Hogan to be the WWF's charismatic new megastar, the two drew the ire of industry peers as the promotion began traveling and broadcasting into rival territories. McMahon created The Rock'n' Wrestling Connection by incorporating pop music stars into wrestling storylines; as a result, the WWF was able to expand its fanbase into a national mainstream audience as the promotion was featured on MTV programming. On March 31, 1985, he ran the first WrestleMania at Madison Square Garden, available on closed circuit television in various markets throughout the U. S. During the late 1980s, McMahon shaped the WWF into a unique sports entertainment bra
Jerry Blackwell was an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name "Crusher" Jerry Blackwell. Blackwell competed in the 1979 World's Strongest Man contest, but withdrew early in the competition due to an injury, he was a main event star in the American Wrestling Association where he feuded with Mad Dog Vachon, Hulk Hogan, The Crusher, Bruiser Brody and Sheik Adnan Al-Kaissey. Nicknamed the "Mountain from Stone Mountain", "Crusher" Jerry Blackwell began his career in the 1970s. Despite his considerable bulk, Blackwell was quite nimble and a gifted worker, able to throw a standing dropkick and take bumps in the ring. In 1976, he wrestled in Pennsylvania, where he faced such wrestlers as Dominic DeNucci and Ivan Putski, he competed in the World Wide Wrestling Federation in 1978. He defeated such wrestlers as Larry Zbyszko, Dominic DeNucci and S. D. Jones but was unsuccessful in matches against high-profile stars such as André the Giant and WWF Champion Bob Backlund. In the 1980s, Blackwell settled in the AWA, where he became a main event star and feuded with Mad Dog Vachon, Hulk Hogan, the "Crusher" Reginald Lisowski.
Blackwell was tagged as the "Rattlesnake", given for his quick speed and aggression, a nickname which in the 1990s was bestowed upon Steve Austin. After a bloody, unsuccessful feud with the Crusher, Blackwell dropped his "Crusher" moniker and joined forces with hated AWA manager Sheik Adnan Al-Kaissey in 1983, wore Arab garments, formed a successful tag team with Ken Patera known as the Sheiks; the Sheiks feuded with Verne Gagne, as well as the High Flyers over the AWA world tag team title. The Sheiks beat the High Flyers for the tag team titles and remained champions for eleven months before being dethroned by the Crusher and Baron von Raschke. Blackwell's career reached new heights after the departure of Hulk Hogan from the AWA in late 1983. Verne Gagne tapped Blackwell to be Hogan's replacement as the top babyface in the AWA. Blackwell became a face after winning a battle-royal at the St. Paul Civic Center on June 10, 1984, when he was attacked and brutally triple-teamed by Al-Kaissey, Abdullah the Butcher and his tag team partner in Japan Bruiser Brody, which led to a post-match brawl involving Dusty Rhodes, Curt Hennig and the Fabulous Ones coming in on Blackwell's behalf.
Blackwell began a historic feud with Brody and Al-Kaissey, established a new image as a solid fan favorite as well. Blackwell went on to receive numerous title shots against AWA World Heavyweight champions Stan Hansen and Curt Hennig throughout 1986 and 1987; as a result, Blackwell stopped wrestling full-time. Blackwell made his last appearance in the AWA during a television taping in Rochester, Minnesota in October 1989, wrestling in a singles match against Tom Stone and in a 6-man tag team match with Bobby Fulton and Jackie Fulton against Johnny Valiant, Mike Enos, Wayne Bloom; the AWA took the opportunity to push an angle between Blackwell and Adnan's new protégé Kokina Maximus, but the match never took place. Blackwell considered joining the World Wrestling Federation during the promotion's expansion in 1984. Before being signed, wrestlers were required to record promos, but the large number of wrestlers wanting to join the WWF made for a long lineup on a day while the interviews were being recorded.
Blackwell got so frustrated with standing in line that he left, claiming that he was a wrestler and did not want to feel like he was punching a time clock for a corporation. Blackwell was known for his feats of strength. One of the most famous, which he performed during interviews was driving nails into a 2x4 with his head. While Blackwell was regarded as an easy wrestler to work with, willing to sell his opponent's moves, he was involved in at least two matches in which his opponent was injured. Maurice Vachon sustained three broken ribs and two broken vertebrae in a match with Blackwell and was unable to compete again for three years; the Crusher suffered nerve damage to his arm and was forced to take about a year off after Blackwell performed a move from the top rope and landed awkwardly on him. Jerry Blackwell died on January 22, 1995, at the age of 45, due to complications from injuries sustained in a December 1994 automobile accident. American Wrestling Association AWA World Tag Team Championship – with Ken Patera Central States Wrestling NWA World Tag Team Championship – with Buck Robley Continental Wrestling Association CWA Super Heavyweight Championship Southeastern Championship Wrestling NWA Southeastern Tag Team Championship – with The Invader, Dick Slater St. Louis Wrestling Club NWA Missouri Heavyweight Championship Pro Wrestling Illustrated PWI ranked him # 116 of the 500 best singles wrestlers during the "PWI Years" in 2003 PWI ranked him # 75 of the 100 best tag teams during the "PWI Years" – with Ken Patera in 2003 List of premature professional wrestling deaths Jerry Blackwell on IMDb
Glossary of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms. A-show A wrestling event where a company's biggest draws wrestle. Compare B-show and C-show. A-team A group of a wrestling promotion's top stars who wrestle at an A-show. Compare B-team. Abort To discontinue a feud, angle, or gimmick due to a lack of fan interest without explanation. Ace A term only used in Japanese puroresu for a wrestler designated as the face of the promotion. Not the same as the top champion. Examples of aces include Hayabusa in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, Hiroshi Tanahashi in New Japan Pro Wrestling and Suwama in All Japan Pro Wrestling.
Agent Also producer. A management employee a former wrestler, who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, relay instructions from the bookers. Agents act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may help in training younger wrestlers, they are referred to by WWE as "producers". Alliance A cooperative relationship developed between two or more wrestlers, whether wrestling as a tag team or in individual matches. Differentiates from a stable and a faction as the wrestlers are not packaged together, but are presented as a group of individuals working together for a common short term goal. Alliances are formed for the specific purpose of retaining titles between the members of the alliance, or to counter a specific foe or group of foes; the formation of an alliance can be a storyline of its own. Angle A fictional storyline. An angle begins when one wrestler attacks another, which results in revenge. An angle may be as small as a vendetta that lasts for years.
It is not uncommon to see an angle become retconned due to it not getting over with the fans, or if one of the wrestlers involved in the angle is fired. Apter mag An old-style professional wrestling magazine; the term refers to the magazines at one time connected to journalist Bill Apter, such as Pro Wrestling Illustrated. B-show A wrestling event featuring the middle and lower-level talent of a wrestling promotion. Sometimes includes well-known wrestlers making a return or finishing up their career. Compare A-show and C-show. B-team The group of wrestlers on a B-show; the B-team will wrestle at a venue the same night wrestlers on the A-team are wrestling in a different event, although a promotion will sometimes schedule an event with B-team wrestlers to test a new market. Compare A-team. Babyface See face. Beat down An angle in which a wrestler or other performer is the recipient of a one-sided beating by a group of wrestlers. Blading Also juicing and getting color. A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves to provoke bleeding to sell the opponent's offense.
Blind tag 1. A tag made in a tag team match where the wrestler on the apron tags his partner unbeknownst to them or without their consent. 2. A tag where the tagger's opponent is unaware a tag has occurred, leaving them open to a blindside attack. Most occurs when the partner in the ring is thrown against the ropes or backed into their own corner. Blown spot See missed spot. Blow off The final match in a feud. While the involved wrestlers move onto new feuds, sometimes it is the final match in the promotion for one or more of the wrestlers. Blow up To become exhausted during a match. Book Also booking. To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling card; the person in charge of setting up matches and writing angles is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion; the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as " any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions".
Booking is the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show. Botch Something which does not go as planned due to a mistake. Bret's rope The second rope of a wrestling ring, the middle rope. Broadway Also going broadway. A match that ends in a time limit draw. Bump To fall on the mat or ground. A flat back bump is a bump in which a wrestler lands solidly on their back with high impact, spread over as much surface as possible. A "phantom bump" occurs when a referee takes a bump without a plausible reason. Burial Also buried; the worked lowering of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a push, it is the act of a promoter or booker causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in squash matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no-sell or kick out of said wrestler's finisher, or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or gimmick.
Business Professional wrestling. Bust
Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra