Lance James Henriksen is an American actor, voice actor and artist, best known for his roles in science fiction and horror films such as Bishop in the Alien film franchise, Frank Black in Fox television series Millennium. Henriksen is a voice actor who has voiced Kerchak the gorilla in the 1999 Walt Disney Feature Animation film Tarzan and Fleet Admiral Steven Hackett in BioWare's Mass Effect video game trilogy. Henriksen was born in Manhattan, his father, James Henriksen, was a Norwegian merchant sailor and boxer nicknamed "Icewater" who spent most of his life at sea. His mother, Margueritte Werner, struggled to find work as a dance instructor and model, his parents divorced when he was two years old, only his mother raised him and his brother. As he grew up, Henriksen developed a reputation for getting into trouble at various schools, spent time in a children's home, his last completed grade in school was first grade. He attained the rank of Petty Officer Third Class. Henriksen found work as a laborer on ships.
For a time, he worked in Europe. His first job in the theater world was as a designer of theatrical sets, it was around this time that Henriksen taught himself to read, as he was illiterate up to age 30. For his first role, he put the entire script to tape with the help of a friend, learning everyone's part in addition to his own. In his early 30s, Henriksen began acting in New York City. In film, Henriksen first appeared in It Ain't Easy in 1972; this was followed with a variety of supporting roles in films including Dog Day Afternoon, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Damien: Omen II. He played Police Chief Steve Kimbrough in Piranha Part Two: The Spawning, the astronaut Walter Schirra in The Right Stuff, actor Charles Bronson in the television film Reason for Living: The Jill Ireland Story; when James Cameron was writing The Terminator, he had envisioned Henriksen, with whom he had worked on Piranha II: The Spawning, playing the title role, a cyborg. However, the role went to Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Henriksen does appear in the supporting role of Sergeant Hal Vukovich. Henriksen played the android Bishop, an artificial life-form, in Aliens and Alien 3, as the unnamed designer of the Bishop android. Henriksen played Charles Bishop Weyland in Alien vs. Predator, he played the vampire leader Jesse Hooker in Kathryn Bigelow's cult film Near Dark. Henriksen portrays gunfighters in Westerns Dead Man and The Quick and the Dead and appears alongside British actor Bruce Payne in Aurora: Operation Intercept in 1995, he would appear alongside Payne again in Face the Evil in 1997 and the dystopian classic Paranoia 1.0 in 2004. That same year, he played the role of Sheriff Doug Barnum in the film Powder. In 1996, Henriksen starred in the television series Millennium and produced by Chris Carter, the creator of The X-Files. Henriksen played Frank Black, a former FBI agent who possessed a unique ability to see into the minds of killers. Carter created the role for the actor, his performances on Millennium earned him critical acclaim, a People's Choice Award nomination for Favorite New Male TV Star, three consecutive Golden Globe nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a TV Series.
The series was cancelled in 1999. On television, Henriksen appeared in the ensemble of Into the West, a miniseries executive-produced by Steven Spielberg, he appeared in a Brazilian soap opera, Caminhos do Coração from Rede Record, aired in 2007–2008. Henriksen guest-starred on a Season 6 episode of NCIS playing an Arizona sheriff, appeared in a recurring role as The Major on NBC's The Blacklist. In the years after Millennium, Henriksen has become an active voice actor, lending his distinctive voice to a number of animated features and video game titles. In Disney's Tarzan and its direct-to-video followup, he is Kerchak, the ape who serves as Tarzan's surrogate father, he provided the voice for the alien supervillain Brainiac in Superman: Brainiac Attacks and for the character Mulciber in Godkiller. Henriksen is the voice of the character Molov in the video game Red Faction II and has contributed to GUN, Run Like Hell, the canceled title Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, the role-playing game Mass Effect as Admiral Hackett of the Human Systems Alliance.
Henriksen was the voice behind PlayStation 3's internet promotional videos. In 2005, Henriksen was the voice of Andrei Rublev in Cartoon Network's IGPX; the actor lent his voice to the animated television series Transformers: Animated as the character Lockdown. In 2009, Henriksen voiced Lieutenant General Shepherd in the award-winning game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, he would voice Karl Bishop Weyland in Aliens vs. Predator. Henriksen voiced Master Gnost-Dural in Star Wars: The Old Republic, he reprised his role as Admiral Hackett in Mass Effect 3, he is the narrator of the recent Verizon Droid commercials. Henriksen reprised his role as Bishop in Aliens: Colonial Marines. Henriksen maintains a prominent role in live action television, he has starred in a 2003 series of Australian television commercials for Visa, titled Unexplained and Big Cats. In these commercials, Henriksen speaks as a Frank Black-type character about
The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)
The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. Considered to be one of the greatest films in cinema history, it is the best-known and most commercially successful adaptation of L. Frank Baum's 1900 children's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Directed by Victor Fleming, the film stars Judy Garland as Dorothy Gale alongside Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, Bert Lahr, Frank Morgan, Billie Burke and Margaret Hamilton with Charley Grapewin, Pat Walshe, Clara Blandick and Singer's Midgets as the Munchkins. Characterized by its legendary use of Technicolor, fantasy storytelling, musical score and memorable characters, the film has become an icon of American popular culture, it was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, but lost to Gone with the Wind directed by Victor Fleming. It did win in two other categories: Best Original Song for "Over the Rainbow" and Best Original Score by Herbert Stothart. While the film was considered a critical success upon release in August 1939, it failed to make a profit for MGM until the 1949 re-release, earning only $3,017,000 on a $2,777,000 budget, not including promotional costs, which made it MGM's most expensive production at that time.
The 1956 television broadcast premiere of the film on the CBS network reintroduced the film to the public. It was among the first 25 films that inaugurated the National Film Registry list in 1989, it is one of the few films on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. The film is among the top ten in the BFI list of the 50 films you should see by the age of 14; the Wizard of Oz is the source of many quotes referenced in contemporary popular culture. Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, Edgar Allan Woolf received credit for the screenplay, but uncredited contributions were made by others; the songs were written by Harold Arlen. The musical score and the incidental music were composed by Stothart. Dorothy Gale lives with her dog Toto on the Kansas farm of her Aunt Uncle Henry. Toto bites Miss Almira Gulch on the leg, she obtains an order from the sheriff for Toto to be euthanized, she takes Toto away on her bicycle, but he escapes and returns to Dorothy, she decides to run away. She meets Professor Marvel, a kindly fortune teller who uses his crystal ball to make Dorothy believe that Aunt Em may be dying of a broken heart.
Dorothy races home, arriving just as a tornado strikes. Locked out of the farm's storm cellar, she seeks shelter in her bedroom. Wind-blown debris knocks her unconscious and the house is sent spinning in the air, she awakens to see various figures fly by, including Miss Gulch on her bicycle, who transforms into a witch on a broomstick. The house lands in Munchkinland in the Land of Oz. Glinda the Good Witch of the North and the Munchkins welcome her as a heroine, as the falling house has killed the Wicked Witch of the East, her sister, the Wicked Witch of the West, arrives to claim the slippers, but Glinda transports them onto Dorothy's feet first. The Wicked Witch of the West swears revenge on Dorothy vanishes. Glinda tells Dorothy to keep the slippers on and follow the yellow brick road to the Emerald City, where she can ask the Wizard of Oz to help her get back home. On her journey, Dorothy meets the Scarecrow, who wants a brain, the Tin Woodman, who desires a heart, the Cowardly Lion, who needs courage.
Dorothy invites them to accompany her to the Emerald City, where they can ask the Wizard to help them too. Despite the Witch's attempts to foil their journey, they reach the Emerald City and are permitted to see the Wizard, who appears as a large ghostly head surrounded by fire and smoke, he agrees to grant their wishes. As the foursome and Toto make their way to the Witch's castle, the Witch captures Dorothy and plots her death in order to remove her slippers. Toto leads her three friends to the castle, they don the guards' uniforms, march inside and free Dorothy. The Witch and her guards surround them; the Witch sets fire to the Scarecrow, causing Dorothy to toss a bucket of water, inadvertently splashing the Witch, who melts away. The guards give Dorothy her broomstick; the Wizard stalls in fulfilling his promises, until Toto pulls back a curtain and exposes the "Wizard" as a middle-aged man operating machinery and speaking into a microphone. Admitting to being a humbug, he insists, he gives the Scarecrow a diploma, the Lion a medal and the Tin Man a ticking heart-shaped watch, helping them see that the attributes they sought were within them.
He offers to take Dorothy and Toto home in his hot air balloon. He reveals that he, too, is from Kansas, worked at a carnival when a tornado brought him to the Emerald City, he was accepted the job as Wizard due to hard times. As Dorothy and the Wizard prepare to depart, distracted by a cat, leaps from Dorothy's arms; as she pursues Toto, the balloon disembarks with the Wizard. Glinda appears and tells Dorothy the ruby slippers have the power to return her to Kansas if she taps her heels together three times repeating "There's no place like home." Dorothy wakes up in her bedroom surrounded by her family and friends, including Toto. Everyone dismisses her adventure as a dream, but Dorothy insists it was real and says she will never run away from home again, she declares: "There's no place like home!" Production on
Frank Alexander (actor)
Frank Alexander was an American silent film comedian and actor. Alexander, morbidly obese, was best known for playing villains in the films of Larry Semon, who are the father of Semon's love interest, he is best known to contemporary audiences for portraying a villainous interpretation of Uncle Henry proclaimed "Prince of Whales" upon reaching the Emerald City in Semon's Wizard of Oz. He was part of the comedy team called "A Ton Of Fun" with two other large actors, Kewpie Ross and Hilliard Karr. Richard M. Roberts's article in Classic Images listed the top ten ingredients of a Larry Semon film, which began with these four: Larry Semon A heroine A fat guy A fat guy He was proclaimed at the time as one of the three fattest actors to appear on the screen, with Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle as one of the others. By the Sad Sea Waves Rainbow Island Huns and Hyphens Bears and Bad Men Dull Care The Stage Hand The Bakery The Rent Collector The Fall Guy The Bell Hop The Sawmill The Show Her Boy Friend Kid Speed Wizard of Oz as Uncle Henry Hop to It!
The Perfect Clown Play Safe with Monty Banks The Barber Shop with W. C. Fields Frank Alexander on IMDb Frank Alexander at AllMovie Frank Alexander at Find a Grave
Wicked Witch of the West
The Wicked Witch of the West is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the antagonist in his classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In Baum's subsequent Oz novels, it is the Nome King, the principal villain; the witch's most popular depiction was in the classic 1939 film based on Baum's novel, where she was portrayed by Margaret Hamilton. Hamilton's characterization introduced green skin and this has been continued in literary and dramatic representations, including Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West and its musical stage adaptation Wicked, the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful, the television series Once Upon a Time and Emerald City; the Wicked Witch of the West is the malevolent ruler of the Winkie Country. Her castle is described as beautiful instead of being the sinister fortress shown in the movie. In all versions, she is aquaphobic; the Wicked Witch of the West was not related to the Wicked Witch of the East, but leagued together with her, the Wicked Witch of the South and Mombi to conquer the Land of Oz and divide it among themselves, as recounted in L. Frank Baum's Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.
She shows no interest in the death of the Eastern Witch, all she cares about is obtaining the Silver Shoes which will increase her power. W. W. Denslow's illustrations for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz depict her as a paunched old hag with three pigtails and an eye-patch. L. Frank Baum himself specified that she only had one eye, but that it "was as powerful as a telescope", enabling the witch to see what was happening in her kingdom from her castle windows. Other illustrators, such as Paul Granger, placed her eye in the center of her forehead, as a cyclops, she is shown wearing an eye patch, however some illustrations show her with two eyes. Most of her power resides in the creatures, she has a pack of wolves, a swarm of bees, a flock of crows, an army of Winkies. She possesses the enchanted Golden Cap, which compels the winged monkeys to obey her on three occasions. First, the witch commanded the creatures to help her enslave the Winkies and to seize control of the western part of the Land of Oz.
Second, she made the winged monkeys drive Oz out of the Winkie Country, when he attempted to overthrow her. When Dorothy Gale and her companions were sent by the Wizard to destroy her, the Witch attacked them with a pack of 40 great wolves, a flock of 40 crows, a swarm of black bees, a group of Winkie slaves; each of these attempts were thwarted, but the protagonists are subdued by the Witch's third and final permitted use of the Winged Monkeys. The old witch cannot kill Dorothy because the girl is protected by the Good Witch of the North's kiss, she therefore settles for enslaving Dorothy, tries to force the Cowardly Lion into submission by starving him, though Dorothy sneaks him food. Upon seeing the Silver Shoes on the girl's feet, the Wicked Witch decides to steal them, thereby acquire more power; when she succeeds in acquiring one silver shoe by making Dorothy trip over an invisible bar, the little girl angrily throws a bucket of water onto the Wicked Witch. This causes the old witch to melt away.
The Wicked Witch's dryness was enumerated in some clues before this. Furthermore, when Toto had bitten her, she had not bled. L. Frank Baum did not explain why water had this effect on her, nor did he imply that all evil witches could be destroyed. However, the wicked witch Mombi is disposed of in The Lost King of Oz and the wicked witch Singra is afraid of the same fate in the early chapters of The Wicked Witch of Oz; the most explanation of Baum making water the Achilles' heel of these witches is the long-held belief amongst major religions that water is effective for purifying the soul and combating evil. The Witch did not carry a broom in the novel, but rather an umbrella, which she uses on one occasion to strike Dorothy's dog Toto, her nature is a yet somewhat cowardly one. Despite her immense power, she avoids face-to-face contact with her enemies, is frightened of Dorothy at first when she sees the girl wearing the Silver Shoes, she is afraid of the dark in Baum's original story for reasons unknown.
For that reason, the Witch never tried to steal the Silver Shoes. Despite her fear of water and the dark, the Wicked Witch of the West was one of the most powerful witches in all of Oz. In ensuing Oz books, her power is described as having been so great that Glinda the Good Witch of the South feared her. In Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's 1939 novel The Wizard of the Emerald City, her given name is Bastinda. March Laumer uses this name for the witch in his novel Aunt Uncle Henry in Oz. Like in the 1939 movie, she is the sister of the Wicked Witch of the East. Sherwood Smith uses this name for a new Wicked Witch of the West in her 2005 book The Emerald Wand of Oz. Gregory Maguire's September 1996 revisionist novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West takes the familiar Oz story and inverts it, with the Wicked Witch as the novel's protagonist and Dorothy as a hapless child; the name is retained in the musical Wicked. In the novel The Unknown Witches of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Old Snarl-Spats.
In the comic book series Grimm Fairy Tales presents Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Lynessa. The 1910 silent film The Wonderful Wizard of Oz features a character similar to the Wicked Witch of the West, identified in intertitles as
Dorothy Gale is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the main protagonist in many of his Oz novels, she first appears in Baum's classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and reappears in most of its sequels. In addition, she is the main character in various adaptations, notably the classic 1939 film adaptation of the novel, The Wizard of Oz. In novels, the Land of Oz becomes more familiar to her than her homeland of Kansas. Indeed, Dorothy goes to live in an apartment in the Emerald City's palace but only after her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry have settled in a farmhouse on its outskirts, unable to pay the mortgage on their house in Kansas. Dorothy's best friend Princess Ozma, ruler of Oz makes her a princess of Oz in the novels. In the Oz books, Dorothy is raised by her uncle in the bleak landscape of a Kansan farm. Whether Aunt Em or Uncle Henry is Dorothy's blood relative remains unclear. Uncle Henry makes reference to Dorothy's mother in The Emerald City of Oz an indication that Henry is Dorothy's blood relative.
Along with her small black dog, Dorothy is swept away by a tornado to the Land of Oz and, much like Alice of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, they enter an alternative world filled with talking creatures. In many of the Oz books, Dorothy is the main heroine of the story, she is seen with her best friend and the ruler of Oz, Princess Ozma. Her trademark blue and white gingham dress is admired by the Munchkins because blue is their favorite color and white is worn only by good witches and sorceresses, which indicates to them that Dorothy is a good witch. Dorothy has a forthright and take-charge character, exhibiting no fear when she slaps the Cowardly Lion, organizing the Winkies' rescue mission of her friends who have been dismembered by the winged monkeys, she is not afraid of angering the Wicked Witch of the West, as shown when the Witch stole one of Dorothy's slippers, in retaliation, Dorothy hurled a bucket of water over her, not knowing water was fatal to the witch. She brazenly rebuffs Princess Langwidere's threat to take her head for her collection — "Well, I b'lieve you won't.".
This aspect of her character was somewhat lessened by her companionship of Ozma, in whom Baum placed the greater level of wisdom and dignity. Yet this is complicated by her associations with her cousin, Zeb of Hugson's Ranch, a rugged, manly boy who does not take well to Oz and cannot think of anything much more interesting than defeating the Munchkins' wrestling champion, which he proves unable to do. Dorothy has several other pets, including Eureka. Popular in crossword puzzles is Dorothy's cow, from the 1902 stage version, is implied, though unnamed, in the 1910 film. Eric Shanower's novel, The Giant Garden of Oz, features a cow named Imogene. In the sixth Oz book by Baum, The Emerald City of Oz, when Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are unable to pay the mortgage on the new farmhouse built at the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy brings them to live in Oz, she becomes princess of Oz. Dorothy is a standard character, having at least a cameo role in thirteen of the fourteen Oz books written by L. Frank Baum and is at least a frequent figure in the nineteen that followed by author Ruth Plumly Thompson, getting at least a cameo in all her books except Captain Salt in Oz.
Major subsequent appearances by Dorothy in the "Famous Forty" are in The Lost Princess of Oz, Glinda of Oz, The Royal Book of Oz, Grampa in Oz, The Lost King of Oz, The Wishing Horse of Oz, Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz, The Magical Mimics in Oz. Most of the other books focus on different child protagonists, some Ozite, some from other Nonestican realms, some from the United States, as such, her appearances in the main series become more and more limited. In Jack Snow's The Magical Mimics in Oz, Ozma places Dorothy on the throne of Oz while she is away visiting Queen Lurline's fairy band; the magic of Oz keeps Dorothy young. In The Lost King of Oz, a Wish Way carries Dorothy to a film set in California, she begins to age rapidly to her late 20s, making up for at least some of the years that have passed. The Wish Way carries her back to Oz and restores her to her younger self, but she learns that it would be unwise for her to return to the outside world. Baum never states Dorothy's age, but he does state in The Lost Princess of Oz that she is a year younger than Betsy Bobbin and a year older than Trot, whose age was specified as 10 in Ruth Plumly Thompson's The Giant Horse of Oz. Thompson's Oz books show a certain intolerance in Dorothy.
In The Cowardly Lion of Oz, circus clown Notta Bit More arrives in the Emerald City "disguised" as a traditional witch, Dorothy starts dumping buckets water on
Piper Laurie is an American stage and screen actress known for her roles in the films The Hustler and Children of a Lesser God, all of which brought her Academy Award nominations. She is known for her performances as Kirsten Arnesen in the original TV production of Days of Wine and Roses and as Catherine Martell in the cult television series Twin Peaks, for which she won a Golden Globe Award in 1991. In 2018, she appeared in the film White Boy Rick. In addition, she appeared with Dana Andrews, Rex Reason, William Talman, Milburn Stone, Douglas Spenser, others in the 1956 Western "Smoke Signal". Piper Laurie was born Rosetta Jacobs on January 22, 1932, in Michigan, she was Alfred Jacobs, a furniture dealer. Her grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Poland on her father's side and Russia on her mother's, she was delivered, according to her 2011 autobiography Learning to Live Out Loud, where she lived in a one-bedroom walk-up on Tyler Street in Detroit. Alfred Jacobs moved the family to California in 1938, where she attended Hebrew school.
To combat her shyness, her parents provided her with weekly elocution lessons. For much of her early childhood, her parents placed Laurie and her older sister in a children's home, which they both despised. In 1949, Rosetta Jacobs signed a contract with Universal Studios, changed her screen name to Piper Laurie, which she has used since then. At Universal, she met other soon-to-be familiar actors James Best, Julie Adams, Tony Curtis and Rock Hudson, her breakout role was in Louisa, with Ronald Reagan, whom she dated a few times before his marriage to Nancy Davis. In her autobiography, she claimed. Several other roles followed: Francis Goes to the Races. To enhance her image, Universal Studios told gossip columnists that Laurie bathed in milk and ate flower petals to protect her luminous skin. Discouraged by the lack of substantial film roles, she moved to New York to study acting and to seek work on the stage and in television, she appeared in Twelfth Night, produced by Hallmark Hall of Fame. She was again lured to Hollywood by the offer to co-star with Paul Newman in The Hustler, released in 1961.
She played Newman's girlfriend, Sarah Packard, for her performance she received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress. Substantial movie roles did not come her way after The Hustler, so she and her husband moved to New York. In 1964, she appeared in two medical dramas — as Alicia Carter in The Eleventh Hour episode "My Door Is Locked and Bolted", as Alice Marin in the Breaking Point episode "The Summer House". In 1965, she starred in a Broadway revival of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie, opposite Maureen Stapleton, Pat Hingle, George Grizzard. Laurie did not appear in another feature film until she accepted the role of Margaret White in the horror film Carrie, she received an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in that role, it, along with the commercial success of the film, relaunched her career. Her co-star, Sissy Spacek, praised her acting skill: "She is a remarkable actress, she never does what you expect her to do—she always surprises you with her approach to a scene."In 1979, she appeared as Mary Horton in the Australian movie Tim opposite Mel Gibson.
After her 1981 divorce, Laurie relocated to California. She received a third Oscar nomination for her portrayal of "Mrs. Norman" in Children of a Lesser God; that same year, she was awarded an Emmy for her performance in Promise, a "Hallmark Hall of Fame" television movie, co-starring James Garner and James Woods. She had a featured role in the Off-Broadway production of The Destiny of Me in 1992, returned to Broadway for Lincoln Center's acclaimed 2002 revival of Paul Osborn's Morning's at Seven, with Julie Hagerty, Buck Henry, Frances Sternhagen and Estelle Parsons. In 1990-91, she starred as the devious Catherine Martell in David Lynch's television series Twin Peaks, she appeared in Other People's Money with Gregory Peck, in horror maestro Dario Argento's first American film, Trauma. She played George Clooney's character's mother on ER. In 1997, she appeared in the film A Christmas Memory with Patty Duke, in 1998, she appeared in the sci-fi thriller The Faculty, she made guest appearances on television shows such as Frasier, State of Grace, Will & Grace.
Laurie appeared in Cold Case and in a 2001 episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit entitled "Care", in which she played an adoptive mother, foster grandmother, who killed one of the foster granddaughters in her daughter's charge, who abused her adoptive son and foster grandchildren. She returned to the big screen for independent films, such as Eulogy and The Dead Girl, opposite actress Toni Collette. Laurie has been married once, to New York Herald Tribune entertainment writer Joe Morgenstern, they met shortly after the release of The Hustler in 1961 when Morgenstern interviewed her during the film's promotion. They soon began dating, nine months after the interview, they were married on January 21, 1962; when no substantial roles came her way after The Hustler and Morgenstern relocated to Woodstock, New York. In 1971, they had a
The Emerald City is the capital city of the fictional Land of Oz in L. Frank Baum's Oz books, first described in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Located in the center of the Land of Oz, the Emerald City is the end of the famous yellow brick road, which starts in Munchkin Country. In the center of the Emerald City is the Royal Palace of Oz. In the first book, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the walls are green. However, when they enter, everyone in the Emerald City is made to wear green-tinted eyeglasses; this is yet another "humbug" created by the Wizard. In this book, the Wizard describes the city as having been built for him within a few years after he arrived, it was he who decreed that everyone in the Emerald City must wear green eyeglasses, since the first thing he noticed about Oz after he landed in his hot air balloon was how green and pleasant the country was. In the second book, The Marvelous Land of Oz, the characters are required to wear the glasses at first, but halfway through the book, no more eyeglasses appear and no more mention is made of the brilliance, but the city is still described as green.
This is continued throughout the series. The only allusions to the earlier conception appeared in The Road to Oz, where the Little Guardian of the Gates wears green spectacles, the only character to do so. Furthermore, although at one point the character Tip describes it as being built by the Wizard, at another the Scarecrow explains that the Wizard had usurped the crown of Pastoria, the former king of the city, from the Wizard the crown had passed to him; the book concerns itself with finding the rightful heir to the crown of the city. Princess Ozma remained the king's heir, though both she and the original king were transformed to the ruler of all Oz. However, the story reverted to the Wizard's having built the city in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, with the four wicked witches having usurped the king's power before the Wizard's arrival; the Oz books describe the Emerald City as being built of green glass and other jewels. In the earlier books, it was described as green, but in ones, green was the predominating color.
In the first book, one scene of the Emerald City is of particular note in the development of Oz: Dorothy sees rows of shops, selling green articles of every variety, a vendor who sells green lemonade, from whom children bought it with green pennies. This contrasts with the description of Oz, in which money does not feature. Interpreters have argued that the Wizard may have introduced money into the city, but this is not in the text itself; the Emerald City of Oz, the sixth book in the Oz series, describes the city as having 9654 buildings and 57,318 citizens. Baum may have been inspired in his creation of the Emerald City by the White City of the World Columbian Exposition of 1893, which he visited having moved to Chicago in anticipation of the event. W. W. Denslow, the illustrator of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, was familiar with the White City, as he had been hired to sketch and document the exposition for the Chicago Times; the quick building of the White City, in less than a year, may have been an element in the quick construction of the Emerald City in the first book.
It is likely that Baum's favored haunt, the Hotel Del Coronado, influenced its description in books. Scholars who interpret The Wizard of Oz as a political allegory see the Emerald City as a metaphor for Washington, D. C. and unsecured "greenback" paper money. In this reading of the book, the city's illusory splendor and value are compared with the value of paper money, which has value only because of a shared illusion or convention. Here, Dorothy gains entry to the Emerald City wearing the witch's silver slippers, taking the Yellow Brick Road, met the Wizard, whose power was revealed to be an illusion, it is likely that the Hotel del Coronado influenced its description in books, as well as in the artwork by John R. Neill. There are scholars who interpret the Emerald City as a benevolent vision of America with its new priorities and values that emerged with the onset of the industrial order; some claim, for instance, that it is 1890s Chicago, which rose on a plain, subsuming unto itself much of the Midwestern creative aspiration so that it becomes the Garden of the West that has long struggled in its prairies.
This interpretation focused on the affirmative descriptions of the city, which reveal the benefits and rewards of the new culture urban abundance and the economy of consumption. Notta Bit More's Tent – A tent outside the Royal Palace of Oz where Notta Bit More resides. Prison – This is the only prison in the Land of Oz and is occupied due to lack of crime, it is run by Tollydiggle. Ojo was the only notable prisoner here. Royal Palace of Oz – The Royal Palace of Oz is at the center of the Emerald City; this is. It contains a throne room, the royal gardens, the royal suites for the guests to the Royal Palace. David Williamson wrote; the term is used as a metaphor by the character Elaine Ross, who