A committee is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and the type of work that each committee does would depend on the type of organization, a deliberative assembly may form a committee consisting of one or more persons to assist with the work of the assembly. For larger organizations, much work is done in committees and they may have the advantage of widening viewpoints and sharing out responsibilities. They can be appointed with experts to recommend actions in matters that require specialized knowledge or technical judgment, a governance committee is formed as a separate committee to review the performance of the board and board policy as well as nominate candidates for the board. Coordination and administration A large body may have smaller committees with more specialized functions, examples are an audit committee, an elections committee, a finance committee, a fundraising committee, and a program committee.
Large conventions or academic conferences are organized by a coordinating committee drawn from the membership of the organization. Research and recommendations Committees may be formed to do research and make recommendations on a potential or planned project or change, discipline A committee on discipline may be used to handle disciplinary procedures on members of the organization. However, this could be considered a dilatory tactic, committees are required to report to their parent body. Committees do not usually have the power to act unless the body that created it gives it such power. When a committee is formed, a chairman is designated for the committee, sometimes a vice-chairman is appointed. It is common for the chairman to organize its meetings. The chairman is responsible for running meetings, duties include keeping the discussion on the appropriate subject, recognizing members to speak, and confirming what the committee has decided. Using Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised, committees may follow informal procedures, the level of formality depends on the size and type of committee, in which sometimes larger committees considering crucial issues may require more formal processes.
Minutes are a record of the decisions at meetings and they can be taken by a person designated as the secretary. For most organizations, committees are not required to keep formal minutes, some bodies require that committees take minutes, especially if the committees are public ones subject to open meeting laws. Committees may meet on a basis, such as weekly or more often. The frequency of the meetings depend on the work of the committee, when the committee completes its work, it provides the results in a report to its parent body
Israeli Declaration of Independence
It declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, which would come into effect on termination of the British Mandate at midnight that day. The event is celebrated annually in Israel with a national holiday Yom Haatzmaut on 5 Iyar of every year according to the Hebrew calendar, the possibility of a Jewish homeland in Palestine had been a goal of Zionist organizations since the late 19th century. After World War I, the United Kingdom was given a mandate for Palestine, in the face of increasing violence after World War II, the British handed the issue over to the recently established United Nations. The result was Resolution 181, a plan to partition Palestine into Independent Arab and Jewish States, the Jewish state was to receive around 56% of the land area of Mandate Palestine, encompassing 82% of the Jewish population, though it would be separated from Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by most of the Jewish population, the result was 33 to 13 in favour of the resolution, with 10 abstentions.
Resolution 181, PART I, Future constitution and government of Palestine, TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE, Clause 3 provides, Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem. Shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the forces of the mandatory Power has been completed. The first draft of the declaration was made by Zvi Berenson, a revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z. E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett, a second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon and Zisling produced the final text. On 12 May 1948, the Minhelet HaAm was convened to vote on declaring independence, three of the thirteen members were missing, with Yehuda Leib Maimon and Yitzhak Gruenbaum being blocked in besieged Jerusalem, while Yitzhak-Meir Levin was in the United States. The meeting started at 1,45 in the afternoon and ended after midnight, the decision was between accepting the American proposal for a truce, or declaring independence.
The latter option was put to a vote, with six of the ten members present supporting it, David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett, Peretz Bernstein, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Mordechai Bentov, Eliezer Kaplan, David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit. Chaim Weizmann, chairman of the World Zionist Organization and soon to be the first President of Israel, endorsed the decision, after reportedly asking What are they waiting for, the idiots. The draft text was submitted for approval to a meeting of Moetzet HaAm at the JNF building in Tel Aviv on 14 May. The meeting started at 13,50 and ended at 15,00, an hour before the declaration was due to be made, during the process, there were two major debates, centering on the issues of borders and religion. On the border issue, the draft had declared that the borders would be that decided by the UN partition plan. While this was supported by Rosen and Bechor-Shalom Sheetrit, it was opposed by Ben-Gurion and Zisling, with Ben-Gurion stating, We accepted the UN Resolution and they are preparing to make war on us.
If we defeat them and capture western Galilee or territory on both sides of the road to Jerusalem, these areas become part of the state
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue, the practical authority given to the court is known as its jurisdiction – the courts power to decide certain kinds of questions or petitions put to it. It is usual in the courts to have barristers, and attorneys or counsel, as assistants, often, courts consist of additional barristers, reporters. The term the court is used to refer to the presiding officer or officials. The judge or panel of judges may be referred to as the bench. In the United States, and other common law jurisdictions, the court by law is used to describe the judge himself or herself. In the United States, the authority of a court to take action is based on personal jurisdiction, subject-matter jurisdiction. The English word court is a cognate of the Latin word hortus, the verb to court, meaning to win favor, derives from the same source since people traveled to the sovereigns court to win his favor.
The word jurisdiction comes from juris and dictio, jurisdiction is defined as the official authority to make legal decisions and judgements over an individual or materialistic item within a territory. Whether a given court has jurisdiction to preside over a case is a key question in any legal action. Three basic components of jurisdiction are jurisdiction over the person (personal jurisdiction, jurisdiction over the subject matter or thing. Other concepts of jurisdiction include general jurisdiction, exclusive jurisdiction, territorial jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction, trial courts are courts that hold trials. Sometimes termed courts of first instance, trial courts have varying original jurisdiction, trial courts may conduct trials with juries as the finders of fact or trials in which judges act as both finders of fact and finders of law. Juries are less common in court systems outside the Anglo-American common law tradition, appellate courts are courts that hear appeals of lower courts and trial courts.
Some courts, such as the Crown Court in England and Wales may have both trial and appellate jurisdictions, the two major legal traditions of the western world are the civil law courts and the common law courts. These two great legal traditions are similar, in that they are products of western culture although there are significant differences between the two traditions, civil law courts are profoundly based upon Roman Law, specifically a civil body of law entitled Corpus iuris civilis. Civil law is firmly ensconced in the French and German legal systems, Common law courts were established by English royal judges of the Kings Council after the Norman Invasion of Britain in 1066
Treaty of Union
The details of the Treaty were agreed on 22 July 1706, and separate Acts of Union were passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the Treaty and put it into effect. Queen Elizabeth I of England died without issue on 24 March 1603, the throne fell immediately and uncontroversially to her double first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, a member of House of Stuart and son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He assumed the throne of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland as King James I in the Union of the Crowns in 1603 and this personal union somewhat assuaged constant English fears of Scottish cooperation with France, especially in a hypothetical French invasion of Britain. After that personal union, people discussed the idea of uniting the Kingdom of Scotland. Nevertheless, Acts of Parliament attempting to unite the two failed in 1606, in 1667, and in 1689. The colonisation began in 1698 and ended in a confrontation with the Spanish in 1700, however. England was at war with France and hence did not want to offend Spain, England was under pressure from the London-based East India Company, who were keen to maintain their monopoly over English foreign trade.
It therefore forced the English and Dutch investors to withdraw and this left no source of finance but Scotland itself. This economic disaster for the investing Scottish elites diminished the resistance of the Scottish political establishment to the idea of union with England. The Scottish nobility ultimately supported the union despite some opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow. Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne ever since she acceded to the throne in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in negotiations for a union treaty in 1705. Each country appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations, the Scottish Parliament had originally begun to organise an election of the commissioners they would have nominated to negotiate on behalf of Scotland. The commissioners were nominated on the advice of the Duke of Queensberry, of the 31 Scottish commissioners who were appointed,29 were members of the government Court Party and one was a member of the Squadron Volante.
At the head of the list was Queensberry, and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, george Lockhart of Carnwath, a member of the opposition Cavalier Party, was the only commissioner opposed to union. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners, negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners began on 16 April 1706 at the Cockpit in London. The sessions opened with speeches from William Cowper, the English Lord Keeper, and Lord Seafield, the commissioners did not carry out their negotiations face to face, but in separate rooms. They communicated their proposals and counter-proposals to each other in writing, each side had its own particular concerns
The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943.
During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016.
Since the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911
Emperor of All Russia
Emperor of All Russia, Empress of All Russia was the title of the ruler of the Russian Empire from 1721 to 1917. It was created in connection with the victory in the Great Northern War, the suffix of All Russia was transformed from the previous version of All Rus. Article 1 of the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire stated that Emperor of All Russia is an autocratic, to obey his supreme authority, not only out of fear but out of conscience as well, God himself commands. The article points to the fact that Russia had an unrestricted monarchy, the full title of the emperor in the 20th century, The title of the Emperor of All Russia was introduced to Peter the Great. On November 2,1721 Peter I accepted the title, since the Russian State was referred to as the Russian Empire
Grand Duke of Finland
Grand Duke of Finland or the Grand Prince of Finland was from around 1580 to 1809 a title in use by most Swedish monarchs. Between 1809 and 1917, it was the title of the head of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. The anachronistic female form of the title in English is usually Grand Princess of Finland, the only women to have used the title were the Swedish Queens regnant Christina and Ulrika Eleonora. A few crown princes of Sweden were called Grand Prince of Finland, the use of Grand Prince on Johns behalf was a countermeasure to signify his mighty position as sovereign of Sweden, a multinational or multi-country realm, and equal to a Tsardom. Not only was Finland added, but Karelia, and it is said that the first use of the new title was in an occasion to contact Tsar Ivan. As the title had only subsidiary nature without any concrete meaning, the last Swedish monarch to use the title was Ulrika Eleonora who abdicated in 1720. However, in 1802, King Gustav IV Adolf gave the title to his son, Prince Carl Gustaf.
The Imperial Grand Prince ruled Finland through his governor and a native Senate appointed by him, although no Grand Prince ever explicitly recognized Finland as separate state in its own right, the country nevertheless enjoyed a high degree of autonomy, until its independence in 1917. Finland was declared an independent nation state on 6 December 1917, after the Civil War in 1918, there was a brief attempt to make Finland a kingdom from 9 October to 14 December 1918. In 1919, Finland was declared a republic, since then, all titles of monarchs are obsolete in the country. Today, there are no pretenders to the title of the Grand Prince of Finland, anjala conspiracy Dukes of Swedish Provinces Finnish Declaration of Independence Governor-General of Finland History of Finland List of Finnish monarchs Monarchy of Finland
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i. e. constitute, some constitutions are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from states to companies. A treaty which establishes an international organization is its constitution, within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a states rulers cannot cross, the term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. Later, the term was used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope. The Latin term ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials.
Ultra vires gives a justification for the forced cessation of such action. A violation of rights by an official would be ultra vires because a right is a restriction on the powers of government, and therefore that official would be exercising powers they do not have. It was never law, even though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, in such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC. Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered, for example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, and protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur, some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.
In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens, in 594 BC Solon, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution. It eased the burden of the workers, and determined that membership of the class was to be based on wealth. Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian constitution and set it on a footing in 508 BC. The most basic definition he used to describe a constitution in general terms was the arrangement of the offices in a state
A jurist, known as legal scholar or legal theorist, is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an academic, legal writer or law lecturer, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not necessarily a lawyer, nor a lawyer necessarily a jurist, both must possess an acquaintance with the term law. The work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law — work which can be wholly in the seclusion of the library. Any highly civilized society requires both lawyers and jurists, both philosophers and doers and it is important however to note the fundamental difference between the work of the lawyer and that of the jurist. The term jurist has another sense, which is wider, synonymous with legal professional, i. e. anyone professionally involved with law, in some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense.
This is a classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation