Not to be confused with the actor Victor Sen Yung, sometimes billed as Victor YoungVictor Young was an American composer, arranger and conductor. Young was born in Chicago on August 8, 1900, into a musical Jewish family, his father being a member of Joseph Sheehan's touring opera company; the young Victor began playing violin at the age of six, was sent to Poland when he was ten to stay with his grandfather and study at Warsaw Imperial Conservatory, achieving the Diploma of Merit. He studied the piano with Isidor Philipp of the Paris Conservatory. While still a teenager he embarked on a career as a concert violinist with the Warsaw Philharmonic under Juliusz Wertheim, assistant conductor in 1915–16; when he graduated from the Warsaw Conservatory, World War I prevented him from returning to the USA, so he remained in Poland, earning his keep by playing with the Philharmonic and in a quartet and a quintet. He gave lessons, his future wife, Rita Kinel, who met him in late 1918, used to smuggle food to him, for he had neither enough money to buy it nor time to eat it.
He returned to Chicago in 1920 to join the orchestra at Central Park Casino. He went to Los Angeles to join his Polish fiancée, finding employment first as a fiddler in impresario Sid Grauman's Million Dollar Theatre Orchestra going on to be appointed concert-master for Paramount-Publix Theatres. After turning to popular music, he worked for a while as violinist-arranger for Ted Fio Rito. In 1930 Chicago bandleader and radio-star Isham Jones commissioned Young to write a ballad instrumental of Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust", played, up until as an up-tempo number. Young slowed it down and played the melody as a gorgeous romantic violin solo which inspired Mitchell Parish to write lyrics for what became a much-performed love song. In the mid-1930s he moved to Hollywood where he concentrated on films, recordings of light music and providing backing for popular singers, including Bing Crosby, his composer credits include "When I Fall in Love", "Blue Star", "Moonlight Serenade" from the motion picture The Star, "Sweet Sue, Just You", "Can't We Talk It Over", "Street of Dreams", "Love Letters", "Around the World", "My Foolish Heart", "Golden Earrings", "Stella by Starlight", "Delilah", "Johnny Guitar" and "I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance with You".
Young was signed to Brunswick in 1931 where his studio groups recorded scores of popular dance music and semi-classics through 1934. His studio groups contained some of the best jazz musicians in New York, including Bunny Berigan, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Joe Venuti, Arthur Schutt, Eddie Lang, others, he used first-rate vocalists, including Paul Small, Dick Robertson, Harlan Lattimore, Smith Ballew, Helen Rowland, Frank Munn, The Boswell Sisters, Lee Wiley and others. One of his most interesting recordings was the January 22, 1932 session containing songs written by Herman Hupfeld: "Goopy Geer" and "Down The Old Back Road", which Hupfeld sang and played piano on. In late 1934, Young signed with Decca and continued recording in New York until mid-1936, when he relocated to Los Angeles. On radio, he was Harvest of Stars, he was musical director for many of Bing Crosby's recordings for the American branch of Decca Records. For Decca, he conducted the first album of songs from the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, a sort of "pre-soundtrack" cover version rather than a true soundtrack album.
The album featured Judy Garland and the Ken Darby Singers singing songs from the film in Young's own arrangements. He composed the music for several Decca spoken word albums, he received 22 Academy Award nominations for his work in film, twice being nominated four times in a single year, but he did not win during his lifetime. He received his only Oscar posthumously for his score of Around the World in Eighty Days. Thus, Victor Young holds the record for most Oscar nominations before winning the first award, his other nominated scores include Anything Goes, The Big Broadcast of 1937, Artists and Models, The Gladiator, Golden Boy, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Uninvited, Love Letters, So Evil My Love, The Emperor Waltz, The Paleface and Delilah, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, Our Very Own, September Affair, My Favorite Spy, Payment on Demand, The Quiet Man, Something to Live For, The Country Girl, A Man Alone, The Conqueror and The Maverick Queen. He contributed two tone poems, "White" and "Black", to the 1956 album Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color.
His last scores were for the 1957 films Omar Khayyam, Run of the Arrow and China Gate, which were released after his death. The last was left unfinished at the time of his death and was finished by his long-time friend Max Steiner. "The Call of the Faraway Hills", which Young had composed for the film Shane, was used as the theme for the U. S. television series Shane. Young won a Primetime Emmy Award for his scoring of the TV special Light's Diamond Jubilee, which aired on all four American TV networks on October 24, 1954; as an occasional bit player, Young can be glimpsed in The Country Girl playing a recording studio leader conducting Bing Crosby while he tapes "You've Got What It Takes". Young died in Palm Springs, California after a cerebral haemorrhage at age 56, he is interred in the Beth Olam Mausoleum in Hollywood Forever Cemetery, Hollywo
John Mylong was an Austrian actor who settled in the United States. John Mylong on IMDb
Marc Lawrence was an American character actor who specialized in underworld types. He has been credited as F. A. Foss, Marc Laurence and Marc C. Lawrence. Lawrence was born in New York City, the son of a Polish Jewish mother, Minerva Norma, a Russian Jewish father, Israel Simon Goldsmith, he participated in plays in school attended the City College of New York. In 1930, he received a two-year scholarship to the repertory theater operated by Eva Le Gallienne. In 1930, Lawrence befriended John Garfield; the two appeared in a number of plays before Lawrence was given a film contract with Columbia Pictures. Lawrence's film debut came in 1933. Lawrence's pock-marked complexion, brooding appearance and New York street-guy accent made him a natural for heavies, he played scores of gangsters and mob bosses over the next six decades. Lawrence found himself under scrutiny for his political leanings; when called before the House Un-American Activities Committee, he admitted he had once been a member of the Communist Party.
He named Sterling Hayden, Lionel Stander, Anne Revere, Larry Parks, Karen Morley and Jeff Corey as Communists. He departed for Europe, where he continued to make films. Following the demise of the blacklist, he returned to America and resumed his position as a familiar and talented purveyor of gangland types, he played gangsters in two James Bond movies: 1971's Diamonds Are Forever opposite Sean Connery, 1974's The Man with the Golden Gun opposite Roger Moore. He portrayed a henchman opposite Laurence Olivier in Marathon Man and a stereotypical Miami mob boss alongside Jerry Reed and Dom DeLuise in the comedy Hot Stuff. One of his last roles was as Mr. Zeemo in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Badda-Bing Badda-Bang", which aired in February 1999, he played the elderly Gatherer Volnoth in the 1989 Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Vengeance Factor". His final film role was in Looney Tunes Back in Action, appearing as an Acme Corporation vice president. Lawrence directed Nightmare in the Sun.
In 1991 Lawrence's autobiography was published entitled Long Time No See: Confessions of a Hollywood Gangster. Lawrence was the subject of a novel, The Beautiful and the Profane. Lawrence married screenwriter Fanya Foss, they had two children and Toni. Lawrence died of heart failure on November 28, 2005 at the age of 95, he was buried at Westwood Memorial Park in California. Names You Never Remember, With Faces You Never Forget, by Justin Humphreys. BearManor Media, Albany, 2006. ISBN 1-59393-041-0. Marc Lawrence on IMDb Marc Lawrence at AllMovie Marc Lawrence at the Internet Broadway Database Marc Lawrence at Memory Alpha
Henry Louis Bouquet known as Henry Bouquet, was a prominent British Army officer in the French and Indian War and Pontiac's War. Bouquet is best known for his victory over a Native American force at the Battle of Bushy Run, lifting the siege of Fort Pitt during Pontiac's War. Bouquet was born into a moderately wealthy family in Rolle, Swiss Confederacy and the oldest of seven brothers; the son of a Swiss roadhouse owner and his well-to-do wife, he entered military service at the age of 17. Like many military officers of his day, Bouquet traveled between countries serving as a professional soldier, he began his military career in the army of the Dutch Republic and was in the service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In 1748, he was again in Dutch service as lieutenant colonel of the Swiss guards, he entered the British Army in 1754 as a lieutenant colonel in the 60th Regiment of Foot, a unit made up of members of Pennsylvania's German immigrant community. After leading the Royal Americans to Charleston, South Carolina to bolster that city's defences, the regiment was recalled to Philadelphia to take part in General John Forbes' expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1758.
While Bouquet travelled down the road from Fort Bedford, his troops were attacked by French and Indians at Loyalhanna, near present Ligonier, but the attack was repulsed and they continued on to Fort Duquesne, only to find it razed by the fleeing French. In 1763, bands of Native Americans joined forces to remove the British from their territory in what is most called Pontiac's War. Pontiac, an Ottawa war leader, began urging the Indian tribes, allied to the French during the French and Indian War to join together to continue the fight to remove the British from the territory. Pontiac initiated attacks on the western-most frontier forts and settlements, believing the defeated French would rally and come to their aid; the start of the conflict is described as the siege of Fort Detroit on 10 May 1763. Fort Sandusky, Fort Michilimackinac, Fort Presque Isle, numerous other frontier outposts were overrun. Several frontier forts in the Ohio Country had fallen to the allied tribes, Fort Pitt, Fort Ligionier, Fort Bedford along Forbes's road were besieged or threatened.
Bouquet, in Philadelphia, threw together a hastily organised force of 500 men Scots Highlanders, to relieve the forts. On 5 August 1763, Bouquet and the relief column were attacked by warriors from the Delaware, Mingo and Wyandot tribes near a small outpost called Bushy Run, in what is now Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. In a two-day battle, Bouquet defeated Fort Pitt was relieved; the battle marked a turning point in the war. It was during Pontiac's War. In a series of letters during the summer of 1763 between Bouquet and his commander, General Jeffery Amherst, the idea was proposed and agreed upon to infect the Indians near Fort Pitt with smallpox by giving them infected blankets from the fort's smallpox hospital. Amherst wrote to Bouquet in Lancaster, on about 29 June 1763: "Could it not be contrived to send the small pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them." Bouquet agreed, replying to Amherst on 13 July: "I will try to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets that may fall in their hands, taking care however not to get the disease myself."
Amherst responded on 16 July: "You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race."The journal of William Trent, the commander of the militia at the fort, has provided additional evidence that this plan was carried out, though it appears that the plan had been carried out before Amherst had proposed it to Bouquet.: 24th The Turtles Heart a principal Warrior of the Delawares and Mamaltee a Chief came within a small distance of the Fort Mr. McKee went out to them and they made a Speech letting us know that all our as Ligonier was destroyed, that great numbers of Indians that out of regard to us, they had prevailed on 6 Nations attack us but give us time to go down the Country and they desired we would set of immediately; the Commanding Officer thanked them, let them know that we had everything we wanted, that we could defend it against all the Indians in the Woods, that we had three large Armys marching to Chastise those Indians that had struck us, told them to take care of their Women and Children, but not to tell any other Natives, they said they would go and speak to their Chiefs and come and tell us what they said, they returned and said they would hold fast of the Chain of friendship.
Out of our regard to them we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope, they told us that Ligonier had been attacked, but that the Enemy were beat of. It is unknown if Amherst and Bouquet had knowledge of Captain Ecuyer, McKee and Trent's actions when they were discussing the idea or if they had been given orders to carry out the plan from Bouquet, Amherst, or someone else or if they came up with the same plan on their own. What is known is that an outbreak of smallpox did occur among the Indians of the area. Since the smallpox incident at Fort Pitt, it is estimated that 400,000-500,000 Native Americans - men and children - died during and years after the Pontiac's War from smallpox given by the British and some in the outside infected areas than in combat; the incident at Fort Pitt was one of the first known cases of deliberate biological warfare in North
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Navies of several nations used forced recruitment by various means; the large size of the British Royal Navy in the Age of Sail meant impressment was most associated with Britain. It was used by the Royal Navy in wartime, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early 19th centuries as a means of crewing warships, although legal sanction for the practice can be traced back to the time of Edward I of England; the Royal Navy impressed many merchant sailors, as well as some sailors from other European, nations. People liable to impressment were "eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 55 years". Non-seamen were impressed as well. Impressment was criticized by those who believed it to be contrary to the British constitution. Though the public opposed conscription in general, impressment was upheld by the courts, as it was deemed vital to the strength of the navy and, by extension, to the survival of the British influence and realm.
Impressment was a Royal Navy practice, reflecting the size of the British fleet and its substantial manpower demands. While other European navies applied forced recruitment in times of war, this was done as an extension of the practice of formal conscription applied by most European armies from the Napoleonic Wars on; the U. S. Continental Navy applied a form of impressment during the American War of Independence; the impressment of seamen from American ships caused serious tensions between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in the years leading up to the Revolutionary War. One of the 27 colonial grievances directly highlights the practice, it was again a cause of tension leading up to the War of 1812. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, Britain ended the practice. Working and living conditions for the average sailor in the Royal Navy in the 18th century were harsh by modern standards. Naval pay was attractive in the 1750s, but towards the end of the century its value had been eroded by rising prices.
Sailors' pay on merchant ships was somewhat higher during peacetime, could increase to double naval pay during wartime. Until 19th-century reforms improved conditions, the Royal Navy was additionally known to pay wages up to two years in arrears, it always withheld six months' pay to discourage desertion. Naval wages had been set in 1653, were not increased until April 1797 after sailors on 80 ships of the Channel Fleet based at Spithead mutinied. Despite this, there were many volunteers for naval service; the work for individual sailors was less than on merchant ships as the naval crew size was determined by the number needed to man guns, around four times the number of crew needed to sail the ship. While the food supplied by the Navy was plentiful and good by the standards of the day and governments estimated that 50% of the sailors on a given voyage would die due to scurvy; the main problem with recruitment, was a shortage of qualified seamen during wartime, when the Navy had to recruit an extra 20,000 to 40,000 men.
Privateers, the Royal Navy, the Merchant Navy all competed for a small pool of ordinary and able seamen in wartime, all three groups were short-handed. The recruitment figures presented to Parliament for the years 1755–1757 list 70,566 men, of whom 33,243 were volunteers, 16,953 pressed men, while another 20,370 were listed as volunteers separately. Although there are no records that explain why volunteers were separated into two groups, it is these were pressed men who became "volunteers" to get the sign-up bonus, two months' wages in advance and a higher wage. Volunteering protected the sailor from creditors, as the law forbade collecting debts accrued before enlistment; the main disadvantage was that enlisted deserters who were recaptured would be hanged, whereas pressed men would be returned to service. Other records confirm similar percentages throughout the 18th century. Average annual recruitment 1736–1783 All three groups suffered high levels of desertion. In the 18th century, British desertion rates on naval ships averaged 25% annually, with slight difference between volunteers and pressed men.
The rate of desertion started high fell after a few months on board a ship, became negligible after a year — because Navy pay ran months or years in arrears, desertion might mean not only abandoning companions in the ship's company, but the loss of a large amount of money earned. If a naval ship had taken a prize, a deserting seaman would forfeit his share of the prize money. In a report on proposed changes to the RN written by Admiral Nelson in 1803, he noted that since 1793 more than 42,000 sailors had deserted; the Impress Service was formed to force sailors to serve on naval vessels. There was no concept of "joining the navy" as a fixed career-path for non-officers at the time since seamen remained attached to a ship only for the duration of its commission, they were encouraged to stay in the Navy after the commission but could leave to seek other employment when the ship was paid off. Impressment relied on the legal power of the King to call men to military service, as well as to recruit volunteers (who were paid a bounty upon joining, unlike presse