Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost. It involves a complete or near-complete lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli. Loss of consciousness should not be confused with the notion of the psychoanalytic unconscious or cognitive processes that take place outside awareness, with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium, normal sleep and other altered states in which the person responds to stimuli. Unconsciousness may occur as the result of traumatic brain injury, brain hypoxia, severe poisoning with drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, severe fatigue and other causes. In jurisprudence, unconsciousness may entitle the criminal defendant to the defense of automatism, i.e. a state uncontrollably of one's own actions, an excusing condition that allows a defendant to argue that they should not be held criminally liable for their actions or omissions. In most countries, courts must consider whether unconsciousness in a situation can be accepted as a defense.
Hence epileptic seizures, neurological dysfunctions and sleepwalking may be considered acceptable excusing conditions because the loss of control is not foreseeable, but falling asleep, may not be because natural sleep overcomes an ordinary person without warning. In many countries, it is presumed that someone, less than conscious cannot give consent to anything; this can be relevant in cases of sexual behavior, euthanasia or patients giving informed consent with regard to starting or stopping a treatment
Lycanthropy is the first studio album by English-Irish singer-songwriter Patrick Wolf and was recorded over the eight years between 1994 and 2002. It was critically acclaimed at the time of its release, as was Wind in the Wires. "Prelude" – 1:31 "Wolf Song" – 3:28 "Bloodbeat" – 3:51 "To the Lighthouse" – 4:04 "Pigeon Song" – 3:34 "Don't Say No" – 4:02 "The Childcatcher" – 4:30 "Demolition" – 6:06 "London" – 3:54 "Paris" – 4:44 "Peter Pan" – 1:53 "Lycanthropy" – 4:10 "A Boy Like Me" – 3:28 "Epilogue" – 2:06 The album has more sampling and distortion than Wolf's subsequent albums. The album features acoustic guitar on a number of the tracks, an instrument Patrick would abandon on his albums in favour of the baritone ukulele. Although has now began playing guitar more with his live performances; some of the songs have a connection to wolves or werewolves, although not all are apparent. A number of the songs have dark or "mature" undertones, such as the song "The Childcatcher", which tells the story of a boy targeted by a paedophile, "Lycanthropy", which examines gender dysphoria through abstract lyrics.
The album was met with positive reviews. Kenyon Hopkin describes the debut as "relentlessly resourceful, never failing to reveal a new instrument." Dan Lett of Pitchfork praises the album, describing it as "folk-pop musings in lush blankets of violin, viola and harpsichord, tricks out the mix with aggressive electronic textures." Lett compliments Wolf's vocals and "A Boy Like Me" as a thoughtful pop songs "for the ubiquitous dissolute youth." Although Lett praises much of the album overall, he notes that the only complaint against the album is its lack of subtlety, "as it's possessed by a heady, pubescent intoxication that can result in some indiscriminate vocalizing." Nick Southall from Stylus Magazine offers the most critical evaluation of the album with tongue-in-cheek references to Wolf's canine inspiration, but describes the album in general as "Bizarre and whimsical and freakish and compelling in equal measure." A reviewer at Almost Cool Music reviews offers a similar interpretation of the album, citing it as "both literary and pretentious," but describes it as one of the best debuts.
DIY writer George Boorman called Lycanthropy an "arty album of folktronica"
East Coast Sneaky Flute Music is the third full-length album by Boston indie rock band Swirlies. The album comprises remixes of songs from their previous album, They Spent Their Wild Youthful Days in the Glittering World of the Salons, along with soundbites and forays into experimental music. Taang! Records released Strictly East Coast Sneaky Flute Music in 1998 on CD, re-packaged most of it as the first disc of a double LP. with the bulk of Salons as the second. Swirlies released their first dance remix following their first LP in 1993 and soon began incorporating more electronic instruments into their live set and in composing their next album; as band members' academic pursuits fueled line-up changes, the group found themselves drummerless for a spell and adopted a drum machine to fill out its rhythm section. Remaining guitarist Damon Tutunjian and bassist Andy Bernick took this as an opportunity to explore further possibilities for collaboration, so invited several East Coast electronica artists to remix their songs.
Guest DJs included Swirlies producer Rich Costey, trip-hop artist DJ Spooky, Swirlies then-new drummer Adam Pierce from American shoegaze outfit Mice Parade. About half of the album's tracks are DJ remixes of released Swirlies songs; the others are experiments by individual band members, archival practice recordings of the band jamming, or field recordings like those that appear on other Swirlies records. The compact disc version of the album closes with a hidden track of Swirlies covering the song "Glue" by 1980s Boston hardcore punk band S. S. Decontrol. Performed live at a music festival, the song was a mainstay for Swirles' original line up, harkening back to the members' punk rock roots; the album charted on both CMJ's "Radio 200" and 1998 "Core Radio" lists. Compact disc 1 "Untitled" 2. "Version. In Harmony Retrograde Transposition" 3. "Sea Wolf Edit" 4. "Sunn. Drunk In Your Sled Version" 5. "Sterling Moss Slippy Mix" 6. "T. Fuzz Mix" 7. "... Not Like A Geese, Like A Swan!" 8. "A Sneaky Flute Field Recognized rding 9.
"Version. France vs. Sebring" 10. "Version. San Cristobal De Las Casas" 11. "Excerpt. Boys, Protect Yourselves From Aliens" 12. "Who Was In Scituate on the Fourth of July? Mix""Symphony of the Sneaky Flutes" br> 13. "Adagio Affettuaso Ed Appassionato" 14. "Scherzo Allegro" 15. "Andante" 16 "Torr's Empathy Jam"Double LPTracks 1–4 and 6–8 comprised side A and tracks 9 and 11–15 made up side B of the album's vinyl release. Most of the group's previous album, They Spent Their Wild Youthful Days in the Glittering World of the Salons, appeared as sides C and D. Alan Douches: Mastering Rich Costey: Engineer, Producer, Programming Rudi Reitberg: Design Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Composer Swirlies official discography – links to a download
Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel are rural Bedouin communities in the Negev and the Galilee which the Israeli government does not recognize as legal. They are referred to as "unrecognized villages"; the exact number of unrecognized villages is unknown. Different bodies use different definitions of the term "village"; as a result, numbers offered by them differ, but there is an increase in the last decade, in spite of a slow recognition process of some of these communities. According to Maha Qupty, representing the Bedouin advocacy organization RCUV, in 2004 there were 45 unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev. According to the Human Rights Watch report based upon the 2006 statistics offered by the Adva Center half of Bedouin citizens of Israel live in 39 such villages. According to another Bedouin advocacy organization The Association of Forty, in 2013 there were about 92 unrecognized villages in Israel, 59 of them were Bedouin villages in the Negev. According to the head of the Bedouin Administration, Yaakov Katz, geographer Arnon Soffer, in the Negev area alone, there were about 1000 illegal Bedouin concentrations with over 64,000 homes in 2011, with about 2200-2000 new buildings adding every year.
For comparison, in 2008 the Goldberg Commission stated that there were 50,000 illegal buildings in the Negev, about 1,500 to 2,000 more were built every year. Testifying before the Goldberg Committee in 2010, Israeli right-wing NGO Regavim reported 2,100 separate concentrations in Negev of 3–400 constructions each, covering over 800,000 dunams. According to the Israel Land Administration, Negev Bedouin claim area 12 times bigger than that of Tel Aviv. According to Prof. Sofer, the Bedouin make up about 2% of the Israeli population, but the unrecognized Bedouin communities spread on a vast territory and occupy more than 10 percent of Israel – north and east to Be'er Sheva. According to him, the Negev Bedouin started to settle west of Be'er Sheva and close to Mount Hebron, their communities spread south towards the Judean Desert. They occupy large spaces near Retamim and Revivim and get close to the Gaza Strip, occupy land in the central Negev near Mitzpe Ramon, close to the central area. In 2010 alone about 66 illegal Bedouin settlements were established in the area of Rehovot and Rishon LeZion.
According to Arnon Sofer, the illegal Bedouin expansion continues in all directions and occupies spaces that Israel did not know before. Between 1994 and 2007, Israel recognized 21 Arab townships with a similar illegal status until then. In the Galilee, most of the illegal villages were regulated and recognized, from a population of 90,000 Bedouin in the north, a few hundred still live in unrecognized villages. In the south, it is estimated; the unrecognized villages were built without official permission and thus remain ineligible for municipal services, such as connection to the electrical grid, water mains or trash-pickup, they cannot elect government representatives. They are scattered all over the Northern Negev and are situated adjacent to military fire zones, natural reserves, etc. For example, the unrecognized Bedouin village of Wadi al-Na'am is surrounded by an IDF munitions factory and military fire zone, the Efrat Oil Terminal – an oil-storage site, the Israel Electric Corporation and Mekorot – the national water carrier site.
According to a report by the Israeli NGO Adva Center, "The Bedouin living in the Negev constitute the only group of Arab citizens of Israel that still has a large-scale hold on the land, a hold that the state denies in principle, while recognizing in practice."According to the Israel Land Administration, some 60 per cent of the Negev Bedouin lived in seven permanent state-planned townships, such as Rahat, Tel as-Sabi, Shaqib al-Salam, Ar'arat an-Naqab, Kuseife and Hura, while the rest – "in illegal homes spread over hundreds of thousands of dunams". Since 2003 a number of illegal Bedouin communities were recognized by the state, several new ones were built totaling 12, they were united under Abu Basma Regional Council, split on 5 November 2012 into two newly created bodies: Neve Midbar Regional Council and al-Kasom Regional Council. As of July 2013, there are no updated official statistics on the number of Bedouin living outside the government-planned and recognized communities. During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the semi-arid region of the Negev was inhabited by semi-nomadic Bedouin tribes.
In 1858 the Turks enacted a law stating that all landowners names must be documented as a means of regulating matters relating to land in the Ottoman Empire. Most of the land in the Negev was classified as muwat; the Bedouin did not create a written record of their connection to the land, some argue that opposed to it, since it would make them subject to the Ottoman empire, what would require them to pay taxes and serve in the Ottoman army. When the publication of the Ottoman Lands Ordinance, the Negev area had no permanent settlement. By the year 1896 Negev Bedouin lived in complete freedom; the Ottomans did not intervene in the Negev and the Bedouins. According to Yosef Ben-Dor, only after a tribal war, the Turkish government marked tribal boundaries, but did not give the Bedouins in this agreement "ownership" of tribal territorial lands; the British government adopted the
Katharine Lente Stevenson was an American temperance reformer and editor. She was a successful platform speaker and officer of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union on whose behalf she visited Japan, India and other countries as a missionary. Katharine Lente was born in Copake, New York, May 8, 1853, her father was Marvin R. Lente. On the mother's side, she was of Jewish ancestry. In 1881, Stevenson graduated from Boston University School of Theology, the only woman in her class, pronounced by the dean "the best balanced mind in the school." The refusal of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church to recognize women as preachers terminated her ministry as associate pastor of the Methodist church in Allston, but it was her dream to be in charge of a church—Methodist if it may be, Independent if it must be. After marrying James Stevenson, a merchant of Boston, Massachusetts became her home until 1893, when she came to Chicago as editor of the department of Books and Leaflets for the Woman's Temperance Publishing Association, contributing editor to the Union Signal.
In November, 1894, the National WCTU showed its appreciation of her two years' service, 1891–93, as Corresponding Secretary of the Massachusetts WCTU by electing her to the same office in the national organization. In September 1909, she spoke on behalf of temperance. In November, the missionary, toured Australia in the interests of temperance reform, sent by the WCTU as a representative of the world's officers of the Union on a special mission to the educational institutions of the Far East, including India, China and Burma. Australia was not on her program, but when she had finished in China and Japan, she resolved, on her own account, to make a tour through Australia to see it, to help the temperance workers in the chief centers. Stevenson was a homemaker and step-mother to three daughters, she was a member of Good Templars Commonwealth Lodge of Boston. She died in 1919; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chapin, Clara Christiana Morgan. Thumb Nail Sketches of White Ribbon Women.
Woman's temperance publishing association. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Christian Advocate. Christian Advocate. 85. Christian Advocate; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Parker, B. F.. The International Good Templar. B. F. Parker. Tyler, Helen E.. Where Prayer and Purpose Meet: The WCTU Story, 1874-1949. Signal Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Woman's Christian Temperance Union. World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Mrs. Katherine Lent Stevenson, Special Representative. W. C. T. U. Tyrrell, Ian. Reforming the World: The Creation of America's Moral Empire. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1-4008-3663-8. Works by or about Katharine Lente Stevenson at Internet Archive
The Far West region of New South Wales, Australia refers to a flat and low-lying area in the western part of the state, too dry to support wheat or other crops or intensive pastoral endeavours. It is west of Central West and the Riverina, it is an area with limited rainfall, the only major rivers found in it are the Darling River and the Murray River, which originate in the Great Dividing Range to the east. The region corresponds to the combination of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's forecast areas of Upper Western and Lower Western, it corresponds to the Western Division established under the New South Wales Western Lands Act 1901. Its only city is Broken Hill, other significant towns are Bourke, Cobar and Wentworth. Ninety-five per cent of the region is uncleared; the major industries are extensive pasturing. During good seasons in the 1870s and 1880s, large sheep stations were established with high stocking rates in response to a widespread belief that the introduction of European agriculture would cause climate change in favour of European conditions.
This'rain follows the plough' myth was shattered by the droughts of the 1890s, many of the stations established during this period were subsequently abandoned. The Far West region is traversed by the Barrier Highway, the Silver City Highway, the Mitchell Highway, the Cobb Highway and the Sturt Highway and by the Sydney-Perth Railway