To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence. Traditionally, it is a technique employed by law enforcement agencies or private investigators, a person who works in such a role is referred to as an undercover agent. Undercover work has been used in a variety of ways throughout the course of history, but the first organized, but informal, undercover program was first employed in France by Eugène François Vidocq in the early 19th century, from the late First Empire through most of the Bourbon Restoration. At the end of 1811, Vidocq set up an informal plainclothes unit, the Brigade de la Sûreté, converted to a security police unit under the Prefecture of Police; the Sûreté had eight twelve, and, in 1823, twenty employees.
One year it expanded again, to 28 secret agents. In addition, there were eight people who worked secretly for the Sûreté, but instead of a salary, they received licences for gambling halls. A major portion of Vidocq's subordinates were ex-criminals like himself. Vidocq trained his agents, for example, in selecting the correct disguise based on the kind of job, he himself still went out hunting for criminals too. His memoirs are full of stories about how he outsmarted crooks by pretending to be a beggar or an old cuckold. At one point, he simulated his own death. In England, the first modern police force was established in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel as the Metropolitan Police of London. From the start, the force employed plainclothes undercover detectives, but there was much public anxiety that these powers were being used for the purpose of political repression. In part due to these concerns, the 1845 official Police Orders required all undercover operations to be authorized by the superintendent.
It was only in 1869 that Police commissioner Edmund Henderson established a formal plainclothes detective division. The first Special Branch of police was the Special Irish Branch, formed as a section of the Criminal Investigation Department of the MPS in London in 1883 to combat the bombing campaign that the Irish Republican Brotherhood had begun a few years earlier; this pioneering branch was the first to be trained in counter terrorism techniques. Its name was changed to Special Branch as it had its remit expanded to incorporate a general role in counter terrorism, combating foreign subversion and infiltrating organized crime. Law enforcement agencies elsewhere established similar Branches. In the United States, a similar route was taken with the establishment of the Italian Squad in 1906 by the New York City Police Department under police commissioner William McAdoo to combat rampant crime and intimidation in the poor Italian neighborhoods. Various federal agencies began their own undercover programs shortly afterwards – the Federal Bureau of Investigation was founded in 1908.
There are two principal problems. The first is the maintenance of identity and the second is the reintegration back into normal duty. Living a double life in a new environment presents many problems. Undercover work is one of the most stressful jobs; the largest cause of stress identified is the separation of an agent from friends and his normal environment. This simple isolation can lead to anxiety. There is no data on the divorce rates of agents; this can be a result of a need for secrecy and an inability to share work problems, the unpredictable work schedule and lifestyle changes and the length of separation can all result in problems for relationships. Stress can result from an apparent lack of direction of the investigation or not knowing when it will end; the amount of elaborate planning and expenditure can pressure an agent to succeed, which can cause considerable stress. The stress that an undercover agent faces is different from his counterparts on regular duties, whose main source of stress is the administration and the bureaucracy.
As the undercover agents are removed from the bureaucracy, it may result in another problem. The lack of the usual controls of a uniform, constant supervision, a fixed place of work, or a set assignment could, combined with their continual contact with the organized crime, increase the likelihood for corruption; this stress may be instrumental in the development of alcohol abuse in some agents. They are more prone to the development of an addiction as they suffer greater stress than other police, they are isolated, drugs are very accessible. Police, in general, have high alcoholism rates compared to most occupational groups, stress is cited as a factor; the environment that agents work in involves a liberal exposure to the consumption of alcohol, which in conjunction with the stress and isolation could result in alcoholism. There can be some guilt associated with going undercover due to betraying those who have come to trust the officer; this can cause anxiety or in rare cases, sympathy with those being targeted.
This is true with the infiltration of political groups, as the agent will share similar characteristics with those they are infiltrating like class, ethnicity or religion. This could result in the conversion of some agents; the lifestyle led by undercover agents is different compared to other areas in law enforcement, it can be quit
The Pocket Guide to British Birds is a guide written by British naturalist and expert on wild flowers Richard Sidney Richmond Fitter, illustrated by Richard Richardson, first published by Collins in 1952. Reprinted in 1953 and 1954, a second more revised 287-page editions was published by Collins in 1966, in 1968; this guidebook is organized differently from most, by habitat and size, instead of by genus and species as in the Roger Tory Peterson and other guides. It provides Fitter's unique "key" system for identifying unfamiliar birds, first by plumage "structural features", behavior and habitat Despite Fitter's helpful advice how to identify a bird, the unfamiliar organization of his book limited its initial appeal.
The Maritime Law Enforcement Academy is a United States Coast Guard school located at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Charleston, South Carolina. It was created from the relocation and merger of the former Law Enforcement School at Yorktown and the former Boarding Team Member School at Petaluma, California. Courses offered at the MLEA include: Boarding Officer Course: The purpose of the BOC is to prepare Boarding Officers for the arduous duties associated with enforcing laws and treaties at sea; the course consists of twenty three training days over five weeks and is open to U. S. Coast Guard personnel and foreign naval officers. Boarding Team Member Course: The BTM course consists of nine training days over two weeks and trains Coast Guard personnel to serve as Boarding Team Members under the supervision of a Boarding Officer. Radiation Detection Level II Operators Course: This is a three-day course that prepares Coast Guard personnel to conduct radiation detection operations on board vessels and ashore.
Ports and Coastal Security Course: This is a five-day program designed to provide boarding officers with the specific concepts and experience necessary to safely conduct Security Boardings and Law Enforcement Ashore at facilities in compliance with Coast Guard policy, U. S. law, international treaties. Training ranges from criminal law and the use of force to boarding team member certification to the use of radiation detection equipment. Much of the training is live; the Academy is home to the Maritime Enforcement Specialist "A" school. Joint Maritime Training Center
Greek Rally was a right-wing political party in Greece. Founded on 6 August 1951 by former field marshal Alexandros Papagos, the party encompassed a broad spectrum of the royalist conservative elements in Greek society and was modelled on the Charles de Gaulle's Rassemblement du Peuple Français. Throughout the years, the Greek right had become splintered. Papagos' new party managed to attract considerable support, the Populist Uniting Party and the New Party dissolved and merged with the Greek Rally. On, a large portion of the People's Party, the major right-wing party of the prewar era, defected to the Greek Rally; the popularity of Papagos, who had reinstated the autonomy of the Greek military during his tenure as its commander, enabled the party to eclipse the Populists. In the September 1951 general election, the Greek Rally garnered 114 parliamentary seats compared to only two for the People's Party—thus establishing itself as the major force of the right; this was well short of a majority, Papagos refused to enter a coalition.
In the subsequent November 1952 general election, the Greek Rally gained 240 out of 300 seats in the Greek Parliament, an achievement helped in no small way by a change in the electoral system. The party ended with the death of its leader in October 1955, his successor, relaunched the party as the National Radical Union. History of Greece Politics of Greece List of political parties in Greece
Elisa Delle Piane was a Uruguayan human rights activist and politician, a member of the Broad Front. She was married to politician Zelmar Michelini. Elisa Delle Piane was born in Montevideo on 27 March 1925, she married Zelmar Michelini and the couple had ten children, including senator Rafael Michelini and human rights lawyer Felipe Michelini. Zelmar was assassinated in Buenos Aires during the time of Argentina's military dictatorship, along with the president of the Chamber of Representatives Héctor Gutiérrez Ruiz and Tupamaros Rosario del Carmen Barredo and William Whitelaw Blanco, she was among the earliest members of the Broad Front and was president of the national pro-referendum commission in Uruguay. She dabbled in politics, was a substitute senator, sat on the same bench as Zelmar Michelini. Elisa Delle Piane died in Parque del Plata on 25 August 2008, at age 83
Ernst Wolfgang Caspari was a German-American geneticist known for his research on behavioral and developmental genetics. Caspari was born on October 1909 in Berlin, Germany, he was one of three children of Wilhelm Caspari, a physiologist, his wife Gertrud. Despite being from a Jewish family and Gertrud were Protestants, as were their children: Ernst and Irene. Ernst attended the Kaiser-Friedrich-Schule in Berlin, followed by the Goethe-Gymnasium zu Frankfurt, he decided he wanted to become a geneticist after reading a copy of Richard Goldschmidt's book Ascaris, eine Einführung in die Wissenschaft vom Leben für Jedermann as a Christmas present when he was 14. He emigrated to the United States in 1938, became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1944, he was trained by Alfred Kühn at the University of Göttingen, receiving his Ph. D. there in 1933. He was forced by the Nazis to leave his position in Kühn's lab that year. Caspari became a fellow of biology at Lafayette College in 1938, where he became an assistant professor of biology in 1941.
At Lafayette, he met L. C. Dunn, with whom he subsequently collaborated on several topics in mouse genetics research, he served as a professor of biology at Wesleyan University from 1949 to 1960, when he became professor and chairman of the Department of Biology at the University of Rochester. He remained on the faculty of the University of Rochester until his retirement in 1975, he was president of the Genetics Society of America in 1966 and the editor-in-chief of its journal, from 1968 to 1972. Caspari was named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1942, became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959, he was a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 1956-57 and in 1965-66. In 1979, he received the Dobzhansky Award from the Behavior Genetics Association