Game Boy Color
The Game Boy Color is a handheld game console manufactured by Nintendo, released on October 21, 1998, in Japan, released in November of the same year to international markets. It continued in the Game Boy family; the GBC features a color screen rather than monochrome. It is thicker and taller and features a smaller screen than the Game Boy Pocket, its immediate predecessor in the Game Boy line; as with the original Game Boy, it has a custom 8-bit processor made by Sharp, considered a hybrid between the Intel 8080 and the Zilog Z80. The spelling of the system's name, Game Boy Color, remains consistent throughout the world, with its American English spelling of "color"; the Game Boy Color was part of the fifth generation of home consoles. The GBC's primary competitors in Japan were the grayscale 16-bit handhelds, Neo Geo Pocket and the WonderSwan, though the Game Boy Color outsold these by a wide margin. SNK and Bandai countered with the Neo Geo Pocket Color and the Wonderswan Color but this did little to change Nintendo's sales dominance.
With Sega discontinuing the Game Gear in 1997, the Game Boy Color's only competitor in the United States was its predecessor, the Game Boy, until the short-lived Neo Geo Pocket Color was released in August 1999. The Game Boy and the Game Boy Color combined have sold 118.69 million units worldwide making it the 3rd best-selling system of all time, a metric that includes Game Boy units. It was discontinued in 2003, shortly after the release of the Game Boy Advance SP, so competed with the Game Boy Advance, released in 2001, its best-selling game was Pokémon Gold and Silver, which shipped 14.51 million combined in Japan and the US. The Game Boy Color was a response to pressure from game developers for a more sophisticated handheld platform, as they felt that the Game Boy in its latest incarnation, the Game Boy Pocket, was insufficient; the resultant product was backward compatible, a first for a handheld system, leveraged the large library of games and installed base of the predecessor system.
This became a major feature of the Game Boy line, since it allowed each new launch to begin with a larger library than any of its competitors. On March 23, 2003, the Game Boy Color was discontinued. Tetris DX Wario Land II Pocket Bomberman The technical specifications for the console are as follows: Main processor: Sharp Corporation LR35902 Processor speed: 1.0485 or 2.097 MHz Resolution: 160 × 144 pixels Palette colors available: 32,768 Colors on screen: Supports 10, 32 or 56 Maximum sprites: 40 total, 10 per line, 4 colors per sprite Sprite size: 8×8 or 8×16 Tiles on screen: 512 Audio: 2 square wave channels, 1 wave channel, 1 noise channel, mono speaker, stereo headphone jack RAM: 32 kB VRAM: 16 kB Power: internal: 2 AA batteries, up to 10 hours of gameplay external: 3V DC 0.6W indicator: Red LED Input: 8-way Control Pad 4 buttons Volume potentiometer Power switch Serial I/O: 512 kbit/s with up to 4 connections in serial Infra-red I/O: Less than 2 m distance at 45° Cartridge I/O Dimensions: Metric: 133.5 × 78 × 27.4 mm Imperial: 5.25 × 3.07 × 1.07 in Weight: 138 gGame Paks manufactured by Nintendo have the following specifications: ROM: 8 MB maximum Cartridge RAM: 128 kBThe processor, a Zilog Z80 workalike made by Sharp with a few extra instructions, has a clock speed of 8 MHz, twice as fast as that of the original Game Boy.
The Game Boy Color has three times as much memory as the original. The screen resolution was the same as the original Game Boy, 160×144 pixels; the Game Boy Color featured an infrared communications port for wireless linking. The feature was only supported in a small number of games, so the infrared port was dropped from the Game Boy Advance line, to be reintroduced with the Nintendo 3DS, though wireless linking would return in the Nintendo DS line; the console was capable of showing up to 56 different colors on screen from its palette of 32,768, could add basic four-, seven- or ten-color shading to games, developed for the original 4-shades-of-grey Game Boy. In the 7-color modes, the sprites and backgrounds were given separate color schemes, in the 10-color modes the sprites were further split into two differently-colored groups; this method of upgrading the color count resulted in graphic artifacts in certain games. Manipulation of palette registers during display allowed for a used "high color mode", capable of displaying more than 2,000 colors on the screen simultaneously.
For dozens of popular Game Boy titles, the Game Boy Color has an enhanced palette built in featuring up to 16 colors - four colors for each of the Game Boy's four layers. If the system does not have a palette stored for a game, it defaults to a palette of green, salmon and white. However, when the user turns on the system, they may choose one of 12 built in color palettes by pressing certain button combinations (namely a direction key and optionally A or
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Hayward is a city located in Alameda County, California in the East Bay subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area. With a 2014 population of 149,392, Hayward is the sixth largest city in the Bay Area and the third largest in Alameda County. Hayward was ranked as the 37th most populous municipality in California, it is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont Metropolitan Statistical Area by the US Census. It is located between Castro Valley and Union City, lies at the eastern terminus of the San Mateo–Hayward Bridge; the city was devastated early in its history by the 1868 Hayward earthquake. From the early 20th century until the beginning of the 1980s, Hayward's economy was dominated by its now defunct food canning and salt production industries. Human habitation of the greater East Bay, including Hayward, dates from at least 4000 BC; the most recent pre-European inhabitants of the Hayward area were the Native American Ohlone people. In the 19th century, the land, now Hayward became part of Rancho San Lorenzo, a Spanish land grant to Guillermo Castro, in 1841.
The site of his home was on the former El Camino Viejo, or Castro Street between C and D Streets, but the structure was damaged in the 1868 Hayward earthquake, with the Hayward Fault running directly under its location. Most of the city's structures were destroyed in the earthquake, the last major earthquake on the fault. In 1930, that site was chosen for the construction of the City Hall, which served the city until 1969. William Dutton Hayward arrived during the gold rush and "squatted" as he began to build a house next to the creek at the site of the old Polamares School. Guillermo Castro's Vaqueros told Hayward to get off of Castro's property. William did leave, but asked to buy a piece of his land. Castro sold him the area of what was east of Castro Street, now Mission Blvd and north side of A Street. William Hayward built a grand hotel on the property, he and his wife ran the hotel, which burned to the ground around 1916. Hayward was known as "Hayward's" as "Haywood" as "Haywards", as "Hayward".
There is some disagreement as to. Most historians believe it was named for William Dutton Hayward, who opened a hotel there in 1852; the U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System states the city was named after Alvinza Hayward, a millionaire from the California Gold Rush. Regardless of which Hayward the area was named for, the name was changed to "Haywood" when the post office was first established in 1860. Castro emigrated to Chile with most of his family in 1864, his name survives in the community of Castro Valley, located in the valley next to Hayward, which Castro used to pasture his cattle. The ranch was sold to various locals, William Hayward among them. William Hayward's fortunes took a turn for the grander when he constructed a resort hotel, which grew to a hundred rooms; the surrounding area came to be called "Hayward's" after the hotel. William Hayward became the road commissioner for Alameda County, he used his authority to influence the construction of roads in his own favor.
He was an Alameda County supervisor. In 1876, a town was chartered by the State of California under the name of "Haywards"; the name of the post office was able to change because of the loss of the apostrophe before the "s". This change occurred in 1880, it remained "Haywards" until 1910 when the "s" was dropped. William Hayward died in 1891. Hayward grew throughout the late 19th century, with an economy based on agriculture and tourism. Important crops were tomatoes, peaches and apricots. Hunt Brothers Cannery opened in 1895. Chicken and pigeon raising played important roles in the economy. A rail line between Oakland and San Jose, the South Pacific Coast Railroad, was established, but was destroyed in the 1868 earthquake; the Hayward shore of the Bay was developed into extensive salt evaporation ponds, was one of the most productive areas in the world, with Leslie Salt one of the largest companies. The first San Mateo–Hayward Bridge opened in 1929, connecting the city to the San Francisco Peninsula.
During the 1930s, the Harry Rowell Rodeo Ranch, now within the bounds of Castro Valley, drew rodeo cowboys from across the continent, western movie actors such as Slim Pickens and others from Hollywood. Prior to World War II, Hayward had a high concentration of Japanese Americans, who were subject to the Japanese-American internment during the war; the war brought an economic and population boom to the area, as factories opened to manufacture war material. Many of the workers stayed after the end of the war. Two suburban tract housing pioneers, Oliver Rousseau and David D. Bohannon, were prominent builders of postwar housing in the area; the Hayward Area Recreation and Park District was formed in 1944. California State University, Hayward opened in the Hayward Hills in 1957. Southland Mall was dedicated in 1964; the second San Mateo–Hayward Bridge opened in 1967. The City Center Building opened in 1969 and acted as the new city hall until 1989 when the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake damaged the building and forced the city government to move out.
The building was closed with the new Hayward City Hall opening the same year. BART began operating in the Bay Area with stations in downtown Hayward and south Hayward; the Hunt Brothers Cannery closed in 1981. The Russell City Energy Center began operating in 2013 at the Hayward shoreline; the city's downtown area was slated for redevelopment in 2012 and 2013, with landscaping, new businesses opening up, a
Fox Sports College Hoops '99
Fox Sports College Hoops'99 is a college basketball sports video game developed by Z-Axis and published by Fox Interactive under the brand name Fox Sports Interactive for the Nintendo 64. It was released in North America on October 31, 1998. Jeff Sheppard of the University of Kentucky is featured on the cover; the game features 120 college basketball teams, multiplayer support for two players, many of the college championships including the NCAA men's basketball championship. It was the first college sports game for the Nintendo 64; as of 2010, College Hoops'99 has received a compilation score of 55.27% from GameRankings. The game allows the player to play a single game between any two teams in an exhibition mode, or to play a season mode as the manager of a college basketball team. College Hoops'99 only supports up to two player multiplayer, unlike comparable games of the time which supported four player multiplayer; the season mode contains most of the major college tournaments including early-season tournaments, although the National Invitation Tournament was not included.
The game uses Fox Sports's TV set-up. However, there is no commentary and there are no fight songs or other university-specific songs in the game. Fox Sports College Hoops'99 received mediocre reviews from critics, who felt that the game was dated compared to contemporary basketball games. GamePro felt that the game had intelligent artificial intelligence and praised the game overall. IGN's Peer Schneider criticized the arcade-style slowdown. GameSpot's Nelson Taruc called the game an "incomplete work in progress". IGN's Matt Casamassina noted that the game compared poorly against other contemporary basketball titles, such as NBA Jam
Thrasher Presents Skate and Destroy
Thrasher Presents Skate and Destroy is a skateboarding video game developed by Z-Axis and released in 1999 for the Sony PlayStation. A Game Boy Color version was developed, but was cancelled. Despite having less recognition, it received high scores from both IGN and GameSpot, being seen as "technically superior to Tony Hawk" and an "almost sim-like approach to the sport". Aside from less advanced graphics, this was one of the reasons Thrasher was ignored, as the learning curve is steep compared to the'pick up and play' style of the Tony Hawk games; the objective of the game is to take one of the six fictional skaters and work through a total of 12 levels across the globe, gaining sponsors and clothing, appearing on the front of Thrasher magazine - from which the game takes its name. Reviewers noted the more realistic style and different control layout, compared to Tony Hawk, which added to the overall difficulty of the game; because it is more of a simulation of skateboarding as a whole, the focus of the game is on technical tricks and to perform tricks efficiently, a formula that the future skateboarding Skate series of video games would build on, whereas the Tony Hawk series from its outset, had a focus on arcade style gameplay and is rather more forgiving.
Like the other Z-Axis developed sports titles, the game features ragdoll physics. In keeping with the realistic nature of the game, players can break their skateboard and bones if they crash hard enough. Breaking their skateboard will mean the player has to restart their run and will lose their score, so it is in their best interest to use the'bail' button combination, as well as the'tuck' button, while in the air to minimize the damage; this is the main gameplay mode, where the player advances through 12 different levels in a series of two-minute runs. When the player enters a level, there is no time limit so they are free to explore the whole area before starting their run with the Select button; the player has two minutes to get the high score necessary to complete the level without breaking their board, or being arrested by the police officer. The player is seen from behind, with a policeman's arm extended out ready to grab the skater, who must leave the level through one of the designated exit doors.
If the skater is caught their score is annulled and the run must be done again. In the competition levels, the player's objective is to gain score, except this time they are being judged on "high difficulty and style". Repeating the same tricks in the same areas devalues their point score, so the player must use a wide selection of different tricks and objects in the level, as well as avoiding bails to progress. At certain points in the game, the player is offered choices of sponsors. Three are available at once, but only one can be chosen, which gives the player new decks, shirts and shoes to outfit their skater with. Once the player has completed the game on the Expert setting, they are classified as a'Pro Skater'. However, to complete the game and to feature on the cover of Thrasher Magazine, the player must go back through the levels and once again complete them. At the end of the runs, the player is able to take a photo of any tricks performed in that run to feature on the cover. Completing all of this lets the player feature in the'Skater of the Year' issue of the magazine, which marks the end of the game.
There are 7 total multiplayer game types available for 2 players. In the same way as Dave Mirra Freestyle BMX, the players do not skate instead they take turns; the game types are identical to Dave Mirra, just renamed. Each game takes place on a different level associated with the specific challenge; the game types are follows: Sessions: Each player has a two-minute run to beat the other player's score. Nickel Bag: Players take turns doing single tricks; the highest scoring single trick wins. H. O. R. S. E.: One player does a trick the other must match it. If they do not, they are assigned one of the letters of'HORSE'; the first player to get all the letters, spelling out the whole word, loses. Top Dog: Each player takes turns doing different tricks at five different spots; the highest total point score wins. Sick Fix: Taking advantage of the ragdoll physics, the players take turns inflicting the most damage to the player by crashing into different objects in the level; the highest score wins. Long Grind: Longest grind in the level wins.
Big Wallride: The highest wallride in the level wins. There are six fictional characters. Players can re-clothe any skater if so desired; each player has different statistics, meaning. Each character has a special move, executed with a specific combination. All of the songs on the game are from the hip hop genre, represent a definitive selection of'classic' hip hop from the late 1980s and early 1990s. There is a two-page section in the game manual dedicated to the history of hip hop. While skating, two songs can be chosen at a time - one for freeskate, one for the timed run; the game was well received within the gaming press, gaining an average of 73.03% from 15 review sites. IGN: 8.5/10 GameSpot: 8.1/10 GamePro: 4/5, or 8/10 Official Thrasher: Skate and Destroy website Thrasher Presents Skate and Destroy at MobyGames
The Nintendo 64, stylized as NINTENDO64 and abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America and Brazil, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France, it is the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until Nintendo's seventh console, the Nintendo Switch, released in 2017. The console was discontinued in mid-2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001, it is the first Nintendo console to feature true 3D effects. Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64 were made to show this off. Codenamed "Project Reality", the Nintendo 64 design was complete by mid-1995, but its launch was delayed until 1996, when Time named it Machine of the Year, it was launched with Pilotwings 64 and Saikyō Habu Shōgi. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn.
The suggested retail price at its United States launch was US$199.99, 32.93 million units were sold worldwide. The console was released in a range of designs over its lifetime. In 2015, IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time. Around the end of the 1980s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System. Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES, was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies. Silicon Graphics, Inc. a long-time leader in graphics visualization and supercomputing, was interested in expanding its business by adapting its technology into the higher volume realm of consumer products, starting with the video game market.
Based upon its MIPS R4000 family of supercomputing and workstation CPUs, SGI developed a CPU requiring a fraction of the resources—consuming only 0.5 watts of power instead of 1.5 to 2 watts, with an estimated target price of US$40 instead of US$80–200. The company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an well established partner in that market. Jim Clark, founder of SGI offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, the CEO of Sega of America; the next candidate would be Nintendo. The historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were "quite impressed" with SGI's prototype, inviting their hardware team to travel from Japan to meet with SGI; the engineers from Sega Enterprises claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies. Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had decided against SGI's design.
Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the real reason for SGI's ultimate choice of partner is that Nintendo was a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis. Michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, "The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendo's phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume never dreamed of". Jim Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993. On August 23, 1993, the two companies announced a global joint development and licensing agreement surrounding Project Reality, projecting that the yet unnamed eventual product would be "developed for Nintendo, will be unveiled in arcades in 1994, will be available for home use by late 1995... below $250". This announcement coincided with Nintendo's August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show."Reality Immersion Technology" is the name SGI had given the set of core componentry, which would be first utilized in Project Reality: the MIPS R4300i CPU, the MIPS Reality Coprocessor, the embedded software.
Some chip technology and manufacturing was provided by NEC, Sharp. SGI had acquired MIPS Computer Systems, the two worked together to be responsible for the design of the Reality Immersion Technology chips under engineering director Jim Foran and chief hardware architect Tim Van Hook; the initial Project Reality game development platform was developed and sold by SGI in the form of its US$100,000–US$250,000 Onyx supercomputer loaded with the namesake US$50,000 RealityEngine2 graphics boards and four 150 MHz R4400 CPUs, with early Project Reality application and emulation APIs based upon Performer and OpenGL. This graphics supercomputing platform had served as the source design which SGI had reduced down to become the Reality Immersion Technology for Project Reality; the system's game controller was a Super NES controller modified to have a primitive analog joystick and Z trigger. Under maximal secrecy from the rest of the company, a LucasArts developer said his team would "furtively hide the prototype controller in a cardboard box while we used it.
In answer to the inevitable questions about what we were doing, we replied jokingly that it was a new type of controller—a bowl of liquid that absorbed your thoughts through your fingertips. Of course, you had to think in Japanese..."On June 23, 1994, Nintendo announced the new official name of the st
The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, 15 November 1995 in Australia; the console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles; the PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2; the PlayStation 2, backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier.
Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic, to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console; the new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. The inception of what would become the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, work began.
Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, it was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. Sony planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design; this was to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.
The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show. However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.
After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that’s a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware, they don't know. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom; as a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed.
However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were produced. By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and softw