Underground hip hop

Underground hip hop is an umbrella term for hip hop music outside the general commercial canon. It is associated with independent artists, signed to independent labels or no label at all. Underground hip hop is characterized by conscious, positive, or anti-commercial lyrics. However, there is no unifying or universal theme – AllMusic suggests that it "has no sonic signifiers". "The Underground" refers to the community of musicians and others that support non-commercial, or independent music. Music scenes with strong ties to underground hip hop include alternative hip hop and conscious hip hop. Many artists who are considered "underground" today were not always so, may have broken the Billboard charts. To gain fans, underground artists perform locally and worldwide, make tours, meet and greets, their performances are held anywhere, such in restaurants. Meet and greets are held in different cities, which gives a fan the opportunity to meet the artist for free. There the fan can buy clothing from the artist's clothing line or they can purchase tickets for future concerts.

Ticket prices range depending on the location, some artists have VIP passes, allowing the fan to have access to the stage and to meet them after the show. Some artists make their own clothing line to use the profit to continue making shows. Underground artists are found in YouTube, SoundClick and SoundCloud. Lastly, underground artists do everything themselves whether it's making songs, preparing shows, or selling gear. Underground hip-hop encompasses several different styles of music. Numerous acts in the book How to Rap are described as being both underground and politically or aware, these include – B. Dolan Brother Ali, Immortal Technique, Jedi Mind Tricks, Micranots, Mr. Lif, Little Brother, P. O. S and Zion I, among others. Underground artists with critically acclaimed albums include Atmosphere, Binary Star, Cannibal Ox, Company Flow, Del the Funky Homosapien, Freestyle Fellowship, Juggaknots, Jurassic 5, Kool Keith, Little Brother, MF DOOM, Non Phixion, Planet Asia, RJD2, MC TP, Ammar Kazi among many others.

Additionally, many underground hip hop artists have been applauded for the artistic and poetic use of their lyrics, such as Aesop Rock, Busdriver, CunninLynguists, Doomtree, El-P, Eyedea & Abilities, Illogic, Onry Ozzborn, MF DOOM, Rob Sonic, Sage Francis and Sleep, among others. Some underground artists produce music that celebrates the fundamental elements or pillars of hip hop culture, such as Classified, Dilated Peoples, People Under The Stairs, Fashawn whose music "recalls hip-hop's golden age". In hip hop's formative years, the vast majority of the genre was underground music, by definition. Although The Sugarhill Gang gained commercial success in 1979, most artists did not share such prominence until the mid-1980s. Ultramagnetic MCs debut album Critical Beatdown is seen as one of the earliest examples of "underground hip hop", it was described that the album was characteristic of what would be known as "underground hip hop". New York underground rapper Kool Keith received notable success with his album Dr. Octagonecologyst, gaining more attention than any contemporary independent hip hop album "in quite a while".

The Stretch Armstrong and Bobbito Show was a notable underground hip hop radio show, broadcast on WKCR, WQHT, in New York City from 1990 until 1999. It featured rappers such as The Notorious B. I. G. Big L, Jay-Z, Eminem, as well as groups like Wu-Tang Clan, Mobb Deep, Fugees, all before they gained any popularity. In 1999, Prince Paul and Breeze Brewin created one of the first rap opera albums, named A Prince Among Thieves. Rolling Stone gave the album a 4.5/5. Alternative hip hop Experimental hip hop Christian hip hop Conscious hip hop Horrorcore List of underground rappers Mumble rap / SoundCloud rap Nerdcore Political rap Rap opera 25. Www. Media related to Underground hip hop at Wikimedia Commons

Singles Bar

Singles Bar is a 1983 studio album from Swedish country and pop singer Kikki Danielsson. On the album charts, "Singles Bar" as best finished 13th in 35th in Sweden. In July 2009 the album was digitally released to iTunes. Produced and arranged by Anders Glenmark Recorded in "Glenstudio", Sweden, October 1983 Technician: Claes-Göran Persson Song, Kikki Danielsson drums and percussion: Magnus Persson Keyboards: Kjell Öhman Bass - Rutger Gunnarsson and Mats Englund Electric guitar - Henrik Jansson and Hasse Rosén Steel guitar - Mats Rosén Trumpet - Urban Agnes and Leif Lindvall Trombone - Nisse Landgren Saxophone - Glen Myerscough Choir - Karin Glenmark, Anders Glenmark and Lennart Sjöholm Strings - led by Anders Dahl

Roger E. Billings

Roger Billings is a scientist known for his high-tech innovations in the fields of energy, computer networking and education. As a student in high school, he invented the hydrogen car. Billings is the creator of the Acellus Learning System, described as a scholastic "equalizer" for students that are falling behind academically. Billings is the CEO and Chairman of Billings Energy Corporation, a company focused on the development of hydrogen energy technologies; the company is headquartered in Missouri. The company plans to build upon funded research and development efforts conducted over the past ten years to bring to market commercial hydrogen energy applications. Billings is the author of two books on hydrogen energy technology, Hydrogen from Coal: A Cost Estimation Guidebook and Hydrogen World View, the co-author of a technical networking book, WideBand Networking, he has authored numerous technical papers on hydrogen energy and on computer networking, including reports on his nano-latency data transfer research and development projects in conjunction with the US military, published in the SPIE conference proceedings.

Billings entered school and regional Science Fairs for each of the three years of high school. He tied for first place for his project on treating seeds with high frequency sound waves the first year, he took second place for his voice-controlled amplifier for laser communications the second year, he achieved first place as a high school senior for his hydrogen-burning automobile, he earned his Bachelor of Science degree in 1974 with a composite major in physics, electrical and chemical engineering. During his university studies, Billings was selected by Bill Lear, the creator of the Lear Jet, to be his protégé. Lear moved Billings and his young family to Reno, where, for nearly a year Lear mentored Billings in high-tech entrepreneurship. On June 9, 1988, Billings received his Doctor of Research Degree from the American Academy of Science, known as Institute of Science and Technology, he completed post-doctoral studies at MIT in Applied Cybersecurity. Billings generated interest in hydrogen technology by demonstrating a number of working prototypes, including cars, forklifts, a hydrogen-powered home.

In 1971, as an undergraduate student, Billings received a research grant from the Ford Motor Company and his own lab to continue his studies of the hydrogen-fueled automobile. In the summer of 1972, Billings headed a university team that won first prize for low emissions at the Urban Vehicle Design Competition held at the General Motors Proving Grounds in Ann Arbor, Michigan, their winning entry was a hydrogen powered Volkswagen. Billings established his own company Billings Energy Research Corp in 1972, The company converted 18 vehicles of various types to run on hydrogen. In 1975, Billings and his team built the “Hydrogen Homestead” prototype, a home which included hydrogen-run heat pump, water heater, range, fireplace log, outdoor grill, a car and tractor; the Homestead project resulted in the development of some innovative hydrogen applications and demonstrated that hydrogen was compatible with existing home appliances. Part of the Hydrogen Homestead Project, the hydrogen-fueled Cadillac Seville featured a dual-fuel system and gasoline, which could be switched back and forth.

This made the vehicle practical for everyday use at a time when hydrogen availability was not abundant. Its improved metal hydride storage system operated at a lower temperature than previous units, allowing a cost saving on construction material; the Cadillac was featured in the 1977 inaugural parade for President Jimmy Carter. After converting family car-sized vehicles to run on hydrogen, Billings turned to larger means of transportation. Billings’ hydrogen powered buses – converted to hydrogen first in 1976 and running in Provo, Utah in Riverside, California – were successful demonstrations of hydrogen as a fuel for mass transit vehicles; the Postal Jeep project in 1977 demonstrated the potential use of hydrogen as a practical and advantageous fuel for fleet vehicles. By 1979, he was working on coal-to-gas conversion plants. In 1991 Billings built the first automobile to be powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. Billings demonstrated this innovation in the practical development of hydrogen as a fuel for use in cars.

The Philadelphia unveiling of the car — LaserCel 1 — is the first reported functional fuel cell application in a small transportation vehicle. Billings was touted in the press for his contributions in developing hydrogen energy; the Enterprise business journal called Billings “The Father of Hydrogen Technology.” An Omni Magazine report on his work in 1982 dubbed him “The Hydrogen Man" and an article in the July 21, 2003, issue of Time Magazine referred to him as "Dr. Hydrogen". Billings has been involved in the development and launch of a number of computer technologies and products, he established the Billings Computer Corporation in 1977, which manufactured one of the first Personal Computers, the Billings Computer. The same year, Billings Computer Corporation paid the New Mexico start-up company, Microsoft, $340,000 to acquire usage rights for EBasic and to fund the development of Fortran and Cobol compilers. In 1982 Time Magazine featured a photo of the young Bill Gates in his office with the Billings Computer on his desk.

In 1978, Billings Computer Corporation hired Alan Ashton to help develop the Billings Word Processor, an award-winning program offered for the Billings MicroSystem, which provided a user friendly and intuitive interface. After the launch of the IBM PC in 1981, Alan Ashton released an enhanced word processor called Word Perfect. Billings founded Caldisk, Inc., i