Stage management is a broad field, defined as the practice of organization and coordination of an event or theatrical production. Stage management may encompass a variety of activities including the overseeing of the rehearsal process and coordinating communications among various production teams and personnel. Stage management requires a general understanding of all aspects of production and offers organisational support to ensure the process runs smoothly and efficiently. A stage manager is an individual who has overall responsibility for stage management and the smooth execution of a theatrical production. Stage management may be performed by an individual in small productions, while larger productions employ a stage management team consisting of a head stage manager, or production stage manager, one or more assistant stage managers; the title of Stage Manager was not used until the 18th century. Though the concept and need for someone to fill the area of stage management can be seen with the Ancient Greeks.
The playwrights were responsible for production elements. Sophocles is the first known stage technician, supported by his employment as a scenic artist, playwright and producer. Moving into the Middle Ages there is evidence of a Conducteurs De Secrets, who oversaw collecting money at the door and serving as a prompter on stage; the prompter held the script and was prepared to feed performers their lines, this was a common practice of the time. Between the Renaissance and 17th century the actors and playwright handled stage management aspects and stage crew. During the Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre there were two roles that covered the stage management: Stage Keeper and Book Keeper; the Stage Keeper was responsible for the maintenance of the theater, taking props on and off stage, security of performance space. The Book Keeper was responsible for the stage script, obtaining necessary licenses, copying/providing lines for the performers, marking entrances and exits, tracking props, marking when sound effects come in, cueing props and sound effects.
Between the Renaissance and the 16th century and playwrights took upon themselves the handling of finances, general directorial duties, stage management. Stage management first emerged as a distinct role in the 17th century during Shakespeare's and Molière's time. During Shakespeare’s time the roles of stage management were left to apprentices, young boys learning the trade. There is still evidence of a prompter at this time. Though it wasn't until the 18th century in England that the term Stage Manager was used; this was the first time a person other than actors and playwright was hired to direct or manage the stage. Over time, with the rise in complexity of theatre due to advances such as mechanized scenery, quick costume changes, controlled lighting, the stage manager's job was split into two positions—director and stage manager. Many playwrights and actors have worked as an assistant stage manager. Writer and director Preston Sturges, for example, was employed as an ASM on Isadora Duncan's production of Oedipus Rex at the age of 16 and a half: When one is responsible for giving an offstage cue the simplest ones, like the ring of a telephone or a birdcall, demand considerable sangfroid, the job is nervewracking.
One is much aware that everything depends on the delivery of the cue at the right microsecond. One stands there, knees bent, breathing heavily... Sturges didn't last long in this job, due to his calling for thunder and lightning instead of lightning and thunder, but 16 years Brock Pemberton hired him as an ASM on Antoinette Perry's production of Goin' Home, which led to the first mounting of one of Sturges' plays on Broadway, The Guinea Pig, in 1929. Pre-Rehearsal Preparation: Create a contact sheet with information on everyone in the production Collect all conflicts to create a Rehearsal Schedule Send out that Rehearsal Schedule to the actors and creative team Knowing the rehearsal and stage layout Understanding the ground plan of the set Should acquire all rehearsal props that are needed in rehearsals First Rehearsal Have the actors fill out emergency contact forms and other information needed by the production team Assigning scripts to everyone in the production Make detailed notes on the blocking of the production Make sure the production team members who need to explain the set, actors equity association reps, directors concept, more First read through of show SM reads the stage directions Responsible for the wellbeing & safety of everyone and should have basic first aid kit at all rehearsals Rehearsal Period Responsible for any questions or changes the director thinks of during rehearsal to bring up during Production Meetings SM’s are responsible for following along the script, prompting when actors forget their lines and taking line notes Monitor time to make sure company get their breaks at specific intervals Noting any changes or edits to the script Responsible for creating the running script that includes tech cues that are used by the SM Writing daily rehearsal reports that detail what happened in rehearsal that day and what notes, if any, the Sm/director have for the production team.
Distributing distribute it to all production team members Collecting the bios for the actors and production team for the show’s programs Responsible for contacting anyone, running late to rehearsal without notifying the SM Most rehearsals are closed, meaning no one outside of the production is welcome, it is the SM’s job to enforce this Creating a callboard for the actors to sign in during tech rehearsals and performance Creating cue sheets for everyone taking cues from the SM during the show (Sound makes it own
We Will Rock You (musical)
We Will Rock You is a rock musical based on the songs of British rock band Queen with a book by Ben Elton. The musical tells the story of a group of Bohemians who struggle to restore the free exchange of thought and live music in a distant future where everyone dresses and acts the same. Musical instruments and composers are forbidden, rock music is all but unknown. Directed by Christopher Renshaw and choreographed by Arlene Phillips, the original West End production opened at the Dominion Theatre on 14 May 2002, with Tony Vincent, Hannah Jane Fox, Sharon D. Clarke and Kerry Ellis in principal roles. Although the musical was at first panned by critics, it has become an audience favourite, becoming the longest-running musical at the Dominion Theatre, celebrating its tenth anniversary on 14 May 2012; the fifteenth longest-running musical in West End history, the London production closed on 31 May 2014 after a final performance in which Brian May and Roger Taylor both performed. A number of international productions have since followed the original, We Will Rock You has been seen in six of the world's continents.
Many productions are still active globally. According to Brian May, Queen's manager Jim Beach had spoken with the band about creating a jukebox musical with Queen's songs since the mid-1990s; the intent was to create a biographical story of Freddie Mercury. About this time, Robert De Niro's production company Tribeca expressed interest in a Queen musical, but it found the original idea difficult to work with. In 2000, Ben Elton was approached to start talks with Taylor on the project, he suggested taking the musical down a different path than imagined, creating an original story that would capture the spirit of much of their music. He worked with May and Taylor to incorporate Queen's songs into the story. Elton has stated that he was in part inspired by the computer-controlled dystopia of the science-fiction film The Matrix; the script was completed midway through 2001. London's critics uniformly panned the show, criticising the concept and direction; the Guardian wrote that the premise "really is as sixth form as it sounds", called the production "ruthlessly packaged and manufactured" and opined that the "sometimes funny" libretto exists to "devise more unlikely ways to wring out another Queen song."
The Daily Mirror wrote that "Ben Elton should be shot for this risible story." The Daily Telegraph described it as "guaranteed to bore you rigid" and "prolefeed at its worst." However, some individual performances received the production remains a popular success. The original production of We Will Rock You opened on 12 May 2002 at the Dominion Theatre, with previews beginning on 26 April. Tony Vincent played the lead role of Galileo, with Hannah Jane Fox as Scaramouche, Sharon D. Clarke as Killer Queen, Nigel Planer as Pop, Nigel Clauzel as Brit and Kerry Ellis as Meat. For her performance, Clarke was nominated for "Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical or Entertainment" at the 2003 Olivier Awards. On 17 August 2005 We Will Rock You became the longest running musical at that venue, surpassing the previous record-holder Grease; this is a notable achievement because the Dominion Theatre is one of the largest theatrical venues in West End, with a seating a capacity of 2,163 patrons.
At the 2011 Laurence Olivier Awards, the show won the Audience Award for Most Popular Show. Notable cast replacements include Mig Ayesa. Mazz Murray took over the role of Killer Queen after Sharon D. Clarke's departure in April 2004. Murray left the production in August 2011, which made her the longest running principal cast member, although she left the production in September 2010 for maternity leave. Brenda Edwards, an X-Factor semi-finalist in 2005, is performing the role of Killer Queen. On 22 September 2008 I'd Do Anything semi-finalist, Rachel Tucker, began performing in the role of Meat, she left the production on 19 September 2009. The role was taken on by Irish born performer Louise Bowden, who had performed in several prolific musicals including Mamma Mia!, Guys and Dolls and Mary Poppins. Bowden unexpectedly quit the production in May 2010, it was left to Amanda Coutts to perform the role Meat. Coutts was Bowden's understudy; the West End production featured a nine piece live band under the musical direction of Stuart Morley.
A national UK tour was launched in 2009 at the Palace Manchester. The 2009 tour cast included, Alex Gaumond as Galileo, Sarah French-Ellis as Scaramouche, Brenda Edwards as Killer Queen, Georgina Hagen as Meat, Jonathan Wilkes as Khashoggi, Kevin Kennedy as Pop. Gaumond and French-Ellis returned to play their characters in the West End and were Galileo and Scaramouche. A second UK tour launched in December 2010 at the Palace Manchester. On 11 March 2014 it was announced the West End production would close on 31 May 2014, shortly after its 12th Anniversary, after 4600 performances at the Dominion Theatre; the Show is due to embark on a further tour of the UK and Ireland in 2019, beginning at Bromley Churchill Theatre on 16 September 2019 and ending on 30 May 2020 at Stoke Regent Theatre. The first international production premiered at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne, Australia on 7 August 2003; the cast included Michael Falzon as Galileo, Kate Hoolihan as Scaramouche and Annie Crummer as Killer Queen.
Amanda Harrison, who originated Oz in this Melbourne production, had been in the ensemble of the original London production. The production closed at this venue on 4 March 2004 to make way for Australian tour stops at Burswood Theatre, Queensland Performing A
Shirley MacLaine is an American film and theater actress, dancer and author. An Academy Award winner, MacLaine received the 40th AFI Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute in 2012, received the Kennedy Center Honors for her lifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts in 2013, she is known for her New Age beliefs, has an interest in spirituality and reincarnation. She has written a series of autobiographical works that describe these beliefs, document her world travels, describe her Hollywood career, her first film was Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble With Harry in 1955. A six-time Academy Award nominee, MacLaine received a nomination for Best Documentary Feature for The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir, Best Actress nominations for Some Came Running, The Apartment, Irma la Douce, The Turning Point, before winning Best Actress for Terms of Endearment, she twice won the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress, for Ask Any Girl, The Apartment. She has won five competitive Golden Globe Awards, received the Golden Globe Cecil B.
DeMille Award at the 1998 ceremony. Named after actress Shirley Temple, Shirley MacLean Beaty was born on April 24, 1934, in Richmond, Virginia, her father, Ira Owens Beaty, was a professor of psychology, public school administrator, real estate agent, her mother, Kathlyn Corinne, was a drama teacher from Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. MacLaine's younger brother is the actor and director Warren Beatty, their parents raised them as Baptists. Her uncle was a Communist member of the Ontario legislature in the 1940s. While MacLaine was still a child, Ira Beaty moved his family from Richmond to Norfolk, to Arlington and Waverly back to Arlington taking a position at Arlington's Thomas Jefferson Junior High School in 1945. MacLaine played baseball on an all-boys team, holding the record for most home runs, which earned her the nickname "Powerhouse". During the 1950s, the family resided in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington; as a toddler, she had weak ankles and would fall over with the slightest misstep, so her mother decided to enroll her in ballet class at the Washington School of Ballet at the age of three.
This was the beginning of her interest in performing. Motivated by ballet, she never missed a class. In classical romantic pieces like Romeo and Juliet and The Sleeping Beauty, she always played the boys' roles due to being the tallest in the group and the absence of males in the class, she had a substantial female role as the fairy godmother in Cinderella. She decided against making a career of professional ballet because she had grown too tall and was unable to acquire perfect technique, she explained that she didn't have the ideal body type, lacking the requisite "beautifully constructed feet" of high arches, high insteps and a flexible ankle. Realizing ballet's propensity to be too all-consuming, limiting, she moved on to other forms of dancing and musical theater, she attended Washington-Lee High School, where she was on the cheerleading squad and acted in school theatrical productions. The summer before her senior year of high school, MacLaine went to New York City to try acting on Broadway, having minor success in the chorus of Oklahoma!
After she graduated, she returned and was in the dancing ensemble of the Broadway production of Me and Juliet. Afterwards became an understudy to actress Carol Haney in The Pajama Game. A few months after, with Haney still injured, film producer Hal B. Wallis saw MacLaine's performance, signed her to work for Paramount Pictures. MacLaine made her film debut in Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble with Harry, for which she won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress; this was followed by her role in the Martin and Lewis film Artists and Models. Soon afterwards, she had a role in Around the World in 80 Days; this was followed by a leading role in Some Came Running. Her second Oscar nomination came two years for The Apartment, starring with Jack Lemmon; the film won five Oscars, including Best Director for Billy Wilder. She said, "I thought I would win for The Apartment, but Elizabeth Taylor had a tracheotomy." She starred in The Children's Hour starring Audrey Hepburn and James Garner, based on the play by Lillian Hellman, directed by William Wyler.
She was again nominated, this time for Irma la Douce, which reunited her with Lemmon. Don Siegel, her director on Two Mules for Sister Sara, said of her: "It's hard to feel any great warmth to her. She's too unfeminine, has too much balls. She's very hard." At the peak of her success, she replaced Marilyn Monroe in Irma la Douce and What a Way to Go!. Other films from this period include Gambit, with Michael Caine, the film version of the musical Sweet Charity, based on the script for Fellini's Nights of Cabiria released a decade earli
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright consisting of dialogue or singing between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well as university or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read; the term "play" can refer to both the written texts of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. Comedies are plays. Comedies are filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups. Comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies. An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, or for a more modern example the skits from Saturday Night Live. A nonsensical genre of play, farces are acted and involve humor.
An example of a farce includes William Shakespeare's play The Comedy of Errors, or Mark Twain's play Is He Dead?. A satire play takes a comic look at current events people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption. An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogol's The Government Inspector and Aristophanes' Lysistrata. Satire plays are one of the most popular forms of comedy, considered to be their own genre entirely. Restoration comedy is a genre that explored relationships between men and women, was considered risqué in its time. Characters featured in restoration comedy included stereotypes of all kinds, these same stereotypes were found in most plays of this genre, so much so that most plays were similar in message and content. However, since restoration comedy dealt with unspoken aspects of relationships, it created a type of connection between audience and performance, more informal and private, it is agreed that restoration comedy has origins in Molière’s theories of comedy, but differs in intention and tone.
The inconsistency between restoration comedy’s morals and the morals of the era is something that arises during the study of this genre. This may give clues as to why, despite its original success, restoration comedy did not last long in the seventeenth century. However, in recent years, it has become a topic of interest for theatre theorists, who have been looking into theatre styles that have their own conventions of performance; these plays contain darker themes such as disaster. The protagonist of the play has a tragic flaw, a trait which leads to their downfall. Tragic plays convey all emotions and have dramatic conflicts. Tragedy was one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece; some examples of tragedies include William Shakespeare's Hamlet, John Webster's play The Duchess of Malfi. These plays focus on actual historical events, they can be tragedies or comedies, but are neither of these. History as a separate genre was popularized by William Shakespeare. Examples of historical plays include Friedrich Schiller's Demetrius and William Shakespeare's King John.
Ballad opera, a popular theatre style at the time, was the first style of musical to be performed in the American colonies. The first musical of American origin was premiered in Philadelphia in 1767, was called “The Disappointment”, this play never made it to production. Around the 1920s, theatre styles were beginning to be defined more clearly. For musical theatre, this meant that composers gained the right to create every song in the play, these new plays were held to more specific conventions, such as thirty-two-bar songs; when the Great Depression came, many people left Broadway for Hollywood, the atmosphere of Broadway musicals changed significantly. A similar situation occurred during the 1960s, when composers were scarce and musicals lacked vibrancy and entertainment value. By the 1990s, there were few original Broadway musicals, as many were recreations of movies or novels. Musical productions have songs to help move the ideas of the play along, they are accompanied by dancing. Musicals can be elaborate in settings and actor performances.
Examples of musical productions include Fiddler on the Roof. This theatre style originated in the 1940s when Antonin Artaud hypothesized about the effects of expressing through the body as opposed to “by conditioned thought.” In 1946, he wrote a preface to his works in which he explained how he came to write what and the way he did. Above all, Artaud did not trust language as a means of communication. Plays within the genre of theatre of cruelty are abstract in content. Artaud wanted his plays to accomplish something, his intention was to symbolise the subconscious through bodily performances, as he did not believe language could be effective. Artaud considered his plays to be an enactment rather than a re-enactment, which meant he believed his actors were in reality, rather than re-enacting reality, his plays dealt with heavy issues such as patients in psych wards, Nazi Germany. Through these performances, he wanted to “make the causes of suffering audible”, audiences reacted poorly, as they were so taken aback by what they saw.
Much of his work was banned in France at the time. Artaud did not believe that conventional theatre of the time would allow the audience to have a cathartic experience and help heal the wounds of World War II. For this reason, he moved towards radio-based theatre, in which the audience could use their imagination to connect the word
Martine Kimberley Sherrie McCutcheon is an English singer, television personality and actress. McCutcheon's first television role was the role of Mandy in the television show Bluebirds in 1989, she had minor success as one third of the pop group Milan in the early 1990s, but it was her role as Tiffany Mitchell in the BBC's EastEnders that she is best known for, as well as her role in the 2003 romantic comedy Love Actually. For the former she won the 1997 National Television Award, while for the latter she received the 2004 Empire Award and the 2004 MTV Movie Award, she was written out of EastEnders at the end of 1998 and embarked on a pop career, this time as a solo artist. McCutcheon's debut studio album You Me & Us peaked at number two in the UK, was certified platinum and spawned the UK number one single "Perfect Moment" and two other top 10 hits, her second studio album, was less successful, charting at number 25. However, it was certified gold, her pop career stalled because of the poor reception of her third album, Musicality in 2002, which only reached number 55 in the UK and received silver certification.
She has since appeared on various television programmes, in films and on stage in My Fair Lady, where her portrayal of Eliza Doolittle won her a Laurence Olivier Award in 2002. She released her autobiography Who Does She Think She Is? in 2000. In 2017, she returned to music with the album Lost and Found, which peaked at number 17 in the UK, becoming her highest-charting album since her debut. Martine Kimberley Sherrie Ponting was born on 14 May 1976 at the Salvation Army Mothers' Hospital in the London Borough of Hackney to Jenny Ponting and Thomas "Keith" Hemmings. While in a relationship with Keith, Jenny experienced domestic violence, which continued for many years after their split. After one of many incidents in which he attempted to kill both Jenny and Martine, he was arrested and charged and remanded in custody for six months. Jenny met John McCutcheon, whom she married; when Martine was nine, Keith asked for access to her. Jenny refused prompting him to seek sole custody of Martine through the courts.
He lost the case, was denied any access to Martine until she was 18, told that he could not apply for it again due to his past behaviour. Shortly after, her surname was changed to McCutcheon; when Martine was sixteen, her mother gave birth to her half-brother, Laurence "LJ". Jenny and John divorced, she married Alan Tomlin in 2000. McCutcheon attended a nursery school in Colchester and the Shacklewell Infants' School in Hackney, where she performed in her first play Away in a Manger, before progressing to the Shacklewell Juniors' School at the age of six, where she appeared in more plays, including Noah's Ark. At the age of five, she began to attend extra dance classes, enrolled in a dance school in Stoke Newington. Shortly before her tenth birthday, she auditioned for a place at the Italia Conti Academy of Theatre Arts. However, due to the changing policy of the Inner London Education Authority she was no longer eligible for the grant she was supposed to receive for coming second in the audition, with no financial support she was forced to withdraw.
Instead, she began to attend Italia Conti's Saturday lessons. The Reeves Foundation, a Church of England charity based in Moorgate, offered McCutchon a grant, she was able to enrol at the Italia Conti Academy of Theatre Arts, she finished school with nine GCSEs. At the age of 12, McCutcheon obtained her first acting role and was paid £350 to appear in an American television commercial for the drink Kool-Aid, followed by modelling assignments and bit parts in television shows, she was given the part of Mandy in the television series Bluebirds alongside Barbara Windsor, played Susan, Jane's sister, in the Anthony Newly directed production of Stop the World – I Want to Get Off, at the Churchill Theatre in Bromley, London transferred to the West End Lyric Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue. This was followed by two guest appearances on the ITV police drama The Bill in 1991 and 1992. McCutcheon appeared in the music video for the song "Caribbean Blue" by Irish singer Enya. By the time she was 15, she was part of an all-girl group, with two fellow pupils, landed a record contract with Polydor and a gig touring as the warm-up act for the British boyband, East 17.
Milan were reasonably successful. Three of their singles: "Is It Love You're After", "Affectionately Mine" and "Lead Me On", charted in the top ten of the dance charts, with the latter making it to the top 100 of the UK Singles Chart. However, they were not successful enough to make a disbanded. In 1994, McCutcheon was offered the small part of Tiffany Raymond on the popular BBC soap opera EastEnders; the role of Tiffany grew as did McCutcheon's popularity and 22 million viewers tuned in to see her final scenes in Albert Square in 1998 when her character was killed off in a special episode screened on New Year's Eve. In reality, McCutcheon had decided to leave the soap in order to embark on a pop career and the death of her character was not viewed favourably by the actress as she had intended to return. Since leaving the show, McCutcheon has publicly slammed the BBC's "Controller of Continuing Drama Series", Mal Young, who made the decision to kill her character, she accused him of treating her unfairly and bringing her role in the soap to an end so irrevocably as punishment for leaving.
In turn, Young has hit back at McCutcheon, saying her anger only arose because she wanted him to keep her role in EastEnders open as a "safe
The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London. The Proms were founded in 1895, are now organised and broadcast by the BBC; each season consists of concerts in the Royal Albert Hall, chamber music concerts at Cadogan Hall, additional Proms in the Park events across the UK on the Last Night of the Proms, associated educational and children's events. The season is a significant event in British culture. In classical music, Jiří Bělohlávek described the Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival". Prom is short for promenade concert, a term which referred to outdoor concerts in London's pleasure gardens, where the audience was free to stroll around while the orchestra was playing. In the context of the BBC Proms, promming refers to the use of the standing areas inside the hall for which ticket prices are much lower than for the seating. Proms concert-goers those who stand, are sometimes referred to as "Prommers" or "Promenaders".
Promenade concerts had existed in London's pleasure gardens since the mid 18th century, indoor proms became a feature of 19th century musical life in London from 1838, notably under the direction of Louis Antoine Jullien and Sir Arthur Sullivan. The annual series of Proms continuing today had their roots in that movement, they were inaugurated on 10 August 1895 in the Queen's Hall in Langham Place by the impresario Robert Newman, experienced in running similar concerts at His Majesty's Theatre. Newman wished to generate a wider audience for concert hall music by offering low ticket prices and an informal atmosphere, where eating and smoking were permitted to the promenaders, he stated his aim to Henry Wood in 1894 as follows: I am going to run nightly concerts and train the public by easy stages. Popular at first raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music. George Cathcart, an otolaryngologist, gave financial backing to Newman for the series on condition that Henry Wood be employed as the sole conductor.
Wood, aged 26, seized this opportunity and built the "Queen's Hall Orchestra" as the ensemble specially devoted to performing the promenade concerts. Cathcart stipulated the adoption of French or Open Diapason concert pitch, necessitating the acquisition of an new set of wind instruments for the orchestra, the re-tuning of the Queen's Hall organ; this coincided with the adoption of this lower pitch by concert series. Although the concerts gained a popular following and reputation, Newman went bankrupt in 1902, the banker Edgar Speyer took over the expense of funding them. Wood received a knighthood in 1911. In 1914 anti-German feeling led Speyer to surrender his role, music publishers Chappell & Co. took control of the concerts. Although Newman remained involved in artistic planning, it was Wood's name which became most associated with the Proms; as conductor from the first concert in 1895, Sir Henry was responsible for building the repertoire heard as the series continued from year to year. While including many popular and less demanding works, in the first season there were substantial nights devoted to Beethoven or Schubert, a programme of new works was given in the final week.
Distinguished singers including Sims Reeves and Signor Foli appeared. In the first two decades Wood established the policy of introducing works by contemporary composers and of bringing fresh life to unperformed or under-performed works. A bronze bust of Sir Henry Wood recovered from the ruins of the bombed-out Queen's Hall in 1941, now belonging to the Royal Academy of Music, is still placed in front of the organ for the whole Promenade season. Though the concerts are now called the BBC Proms, are headlined with the BBC logo, the tickets are subtitled "BBC Music presents the Henry Wood Promenade Concerts". In 1927, following Newman's sudden death in the previous year, the BBC – based at Broadcasting House next to the hall – took over the running of the concerts; this arose because William Boosey managing director of Chappell & Co. detested broadcasting and saw the BBC's far-reaching demands and intentions in the control of musical presentation as a danger to the future of public concerts altogether.
He decided to disband the New Queen's Hall Orchestra, which played for the last time at a Symphony concert on 19 March 1927. He found it more expedient to let the Queen's Hall to the broadcasting powers, rather than to continue the Promenade concerts and other big series independently in an unequal competition with what was the Government itself. So the Proms. were saved, but under a different kind of authority. The personnel of the New Queen's Hall Orchestra continued until 1930 as'Sir Henry J. Wood and his Symphony Orchestra.' When the BBC Symphony Orchestra was formed in 1930, it became the main orchestra for the concerts. At this time the season consisted of nights dedicated to particular composers. There were no Sunday performances. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the BBC withdrew its support; however private sponsors stepped in to maintain the Proms, always under Sir Henry Wood's direction, until the Queen's Hall was devastated beyond repair during an air raid in May 1941.. The concerts moved (until
Jesus Christ Superstar (film)
Jesus Christ Superstar is a 1973 American musical drama film directed by Norman Jewison and co-written by Jewison and Melvyn Bragg based on the Andrew Lloyd Webber/Tim Rice rock opera of the same name. The film, featuring a cast of Ted Neeley, Carl Anderson, Yvonne Elliman, Barry Dennen, Bob Bingham, Kurt Yaghjian, centers on the conflict between Judas and Jesus during the week before the crucifixion of Jesus. Neeley and Anderson were nominated for two Golden Globe Awards in 1974 for their portrayals of Jesus and Judas, respectively. Although it attracted criticism from some religious groups, reviews for the film were positive; the film is framed as a group of performers who travel to the desert to re-enact the Passion of Christ. The film begins with them assembling their props and getting into costume. One of the group puts on a white robe and emerges as Jesus; this story begins with Judas, worried about Jesus' popularity. The other disciples badger Jesus for information about his plans for the future, but Jesus will not give them any.
Judas' arrival and subsequent declaration that Jesus should not associate with Mary dampens the mood. Angrily, Jesus tells Judas, he accuses all the apostles of not caring about him. That night at the Temple, Caiaphas is worried that the people will crown Jesus as king, which the Romans will take for an uprising. Annas tries to allay his fears, but he sees Caiaphas' point and suggests that he convene the council and explain his fears to them; as Jesus and his apostles settle for the night, Mary soothes him with some expensive ointment, but Judas says that the money spent should have been given to the poor. Jesus rebukes him again, telling him that the poor will be there always but Jesus will not; the next day at the Temple of Jerusalem, the council of the priests discuss their fears about Jesus. Caiaphas tells them that there is only one solution: like John the Baptist, Jesus must be executed for the sake of the nation; as Jesus and his followers joyfully arrive in Jerusalem, Caiaphas orders Jesus to disband the crowd for fear of a riot.
Jesus speaks to the crowd instead. The apostle Simon Zealotes and a crowd of followers voice their admiration for Jesus. Jesus appreciates this, but becomes worried when Simon suggests directing the crowd towards an uprising against their Roman occupiers. Jesus sadly dismisses this suggestion. Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea, reveals that he has dreamed about a Galilean man and that he will be blamed for this man's death. Jesus and his followers arrive at the temple, taken over by money changers and prostitutes. To Judas' horror and as the priests watch in the background, a furious Jesus destroys the stalls and forces them to leave. Jesus wanders alone outside the city, but is surrounded by a crowd of lepers, all wanting to be healed. Jesus tries to heal as many of them as possible, but is overwhelmed by the sheer numbers and gives up, screaming at them to leave him alone. Mary comforts Jesus and Jesus goes to sleep. Mary is confused because he is so unlike any other man she has met. Judas goes to the priests and expresses his concerns, but he is worried about the consequences of betraying Jesus.
The priests offer him money if he will lead them to Jesus. Judas refuses, but Caiaphas and Annas win him over by reminding him that he could use the money to help the poor. Judas reveals. At the Last Supper, Jesus reveals that he knows Peter will deny him and Judas will betray him. A bitter argument between Jesus and Judas ensues, in which Judas berates Jesus for destroying their hopes and ideals and threatens to ruin Jesus' ambition by staying there without helping him to reach the Glory; as the apostles fall asleep, Jesus goes to Gethsemane to pray about his imminent death and reluctantly agrees to go forward with God's plan. Jesus waits for Judas, who arrives, accompanied by guards, betrays him with a kiss; the disciples offer to fight the guards. Jesus is found guilty of blasphemy and sent to Pilate. Peter, fearfully denies Jesus three times after being accused of being one of Jesus' followers. Jesus is taken to Pilate's house, where the governor, unaware that Jesus is the man from his dream, mocks him.
Since he does not deal with Jews, Pilate sends him to Herod. The flamboyant King Herod is excited to meet Jesus, for he has heard the hype, he tries to persuade Jesus to perform various miracles. When Jesus refuses to answer, Herod orders the guards to take him back to Pilate; the apostles and Mary Magdalene remember how things began and wish that they had not gotten so out of hand. Jesus is flung into a cell, where he is seen by Judas, who runs to tell the priests that he regret