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Undertone series

In music, the undertone series or subharmonic series is a sequence of notes that results from inverting the intervals of the overtone series. While overtones occur with the physical production of music on instruments, undertones must be produced in unusual ways. While the overtone series is based upon arithmetic multiplication of frequencies, resulting in a harmonic series, the undertone series is based on arithmetic division; the hybrid term subharmonic is used in music in a few different ways. In its pure sense, the term subharmonic refers to any member of the subharmonic series; when the subharmonic series is used to refer to frequency relationships, it is written with f representing some highest known reference frequency. As such, one way to define subharmonics is that they are "...integral submultiples of the fundamental frequency". The complex tones of acoustic instruments do not produce partials that resemble the subharmonic series. However, such tones can be produced artificially with audio software and electronics.

Subharmonics can be contrasted with harmonics. While harmonics can "...occur in any nonlinear system", there are "...only restricted conditions" that will lead to the "nonlinear phenomenon known as subharmonic generation". In a second sense, subharmonic does not relate to the subharmonic series, but instead describes an instrumental technique for lowering the pitch of an acoustic instrument below what would be expected for the resonant frequency of that instrument, such as a violin string, driven and damped by increased bow pressure to produce a fundamental frequency lower than the normal pitch of the same open string; the human voice can be forced into a similar driven resonance called “undertone singing”, to extend the range of the voice below what is available. However, the frequency relationships of the component partials of the tone produced by the acoustic instrument or voice played in such a way still resemble the harmonic series, not the subharmonic series. In this sense, subharmonic is a term created by reflection from the second sense of the term harmonic, which in that sense refers to an instrumental technique for making an instrument's pitch seem higher than normal by eliminating some lower partials by damping the resonator at the antinodes of vibration of those partials.

In a loose third sense, subharmonic is sometimes used or misused to represent any frequency lower than some other known frequency or frequencies, no matter what the frequency relationship is between those frequencies and no matter the method of production. The overtone series can be produced physically in two ways—either by overblowing a wind instrument, or by dividing a monochord string. If a monochord string is damped at the halfway point at 1/3 1/4, 1/5, etc. the string will produce the overtone series, which includes the major triad. If instead, the length of the string is doubled in the opposite ratios, the undertones series is produced. On a wind instrument, if the holes are spaced, each successive hole covered will produce the next note in the undertone series. In addition, undertones can be made through the use of a simple oscillator such as a tuning fork. If the oscillator is forced to vibrate against a sheet of paper "it will make contact at various audible modes of vibration." Because the tuning fork produces a sine tone, it vibrates at its fundamental frequency, but "momentarily", it will make contact only at every other oscillation, or at every third oscillation, so on.

This produces audible "subharmonic spectra". José Sotorrio claims it is possible to sustain these "subspectra" using a sine wave generator through a speaker cone making contact with a flexible surface, on string instruments "through skillful manipulation of the bow", but that this sustains noticeably beyond the "sub-octave or twelfth". String quartets by composers George Crumb and Daniel James Wolf, as well as works by violinist and composer Mari Kimura, include undertones, "produced by bowing with great pressure to create pitches below the lowest open string on the instrument." These require string instrument players to bow with sufficient pressure that the strings vibrate in a manner causing the sound waves to modulate and demodulate by the instruments resonating horn with frequencies corresponding to subharmonics. The tritare, a guitar with Y shaped strings, cause subharmonics too; this can be achieved by the extended technique of crossing two strings as some experimental jazz guitarists have developed.

Third bridge preparations on guitars cause timbres consisting of sets of high pitched overtones combined with a subharmonic resonant tone of the unplugged part of the string. Subharmonics can be produced by signal amplification through loudspeakers, they are a common effect in both digital and analog signal processing. Octave effect processors, in effect, use the undertone series to create an artificial bass line for an instrument by synthesizing a subharmonic tone at a fixed interval to the input. Subharmonic synthesizer systems used in audio mastering work on the same principle. By a similar token, analog synthesizers such as the Serge synthesizer and many modern Eurorack synthesizers can produce undertone series as a side effect of the solid state timing circuits in their envelope generators not being able to re-trigger until their cycle i

Dionisio Trillo

Dionisio Trillo was a Uruguayan military man and politician, who participated in the Argentine and Uruguayan civil wars, integrating the ranks of the General Manuel Oribe. Trillo was born in Montevideo, son of Ramón Trillo, born in Cartagena, Josefa de Alfao, of Barcelona, he began his military career, as a member of the Federal armies of Juan Manuel de Rosas, serving as Lieutenant in the Escuadrón de Dragones Orientales N.° 1. He was wounded and detained during a confrontation between Unitarians and Federals, returning after his release to the city of Montevideo. After being promoted to Colonel, Trillo served as Commander of the military detachments of the Uruguayan litoral, he was appointed as police chief of the department of the Salto, where he had a distinguished performance. In 1857, for an initiative of Colonel Trillo, was carried out in Salto, the Salto Company of River Steam Boat, a shipping company of British capitals; the company commissioned for the construction of two steamboat, named Montevideo and Salto to the English shipyards T. & J. Thompson.

In 1852, Dionisio Trillo was married in the parish of Nuestra Señora del Carmen to Carmen Aguiar, daughter of Juan Bernardo Aguiar y Fernandez and Francisca Tejedor Tena, belonging to a distinguished Uruguayan family of Galician and Catalan roots. He and his wife were the parents of Enriqueta Trillo Aguiar, wife of Isabelino Canaveris, a military man, who had had an active participation in the Uruguayan civil conflicts.


Naksha is a 2006 Indian fantasy action adventure film. The film is directed by Sachin Bajaj and stars Sunny Deol, Vivek Oberoi, Sameera Reddy and Jackie Shroff; this movie is a loose adaptation of 2003 American film The Rundown. Despite of getting negative reviews by critics film recovered its budget. Youngster Vicky Malhotra lives with his mother. A lawyer shows up to speak with his mother about her late husband's old bungalow in the Uttarakhand hills. Vicky discovers a secret cache behind one of the photographs, and in the cache lies a replica of a map, made by his father, once killed unlocking a mystery of treasure. Some of his father's murderers discover Vicky, abduct him. In the meantime, Vicky's mother visits her husband's first wife, her husband's son by this wife, Veer Malhotra, is a forest officer in Uttarakhand. Veer is Vicky's step-brother. Vicky's mother requests Veer's mother to seek Veer's assistance in finding Vicky and bringing him back. While thugs bring Vicky to Bali; as Bali is about to have Vicky executed, Veer rescues Vicky.

Determined to obtain the map at any cost, Bali's men give chase to Veer and Vicky: the chase takes them through the dense jungles of Uttarakhand to the foothills of the Himalayas. They rescue Riya from a river rafting accident. Bali and his men capture Veer and Vicky, slaughter the pygmies. Bali reveals that the map describes the location of a powerful device: the armour and earrings of the mythical warrior Karna; this armour will make the wearer all powerful. Veer and Vicky escape, they arrive at the final destination. Endowed with divine strength, the evil Bali overpowers them and prepares to kill them. Veer and Vicky exploit the flaw to restore the armour, they escape the temple just in time before it comes crashing down. Sunny Deol as Veer Malhotra Vivek Oberoi as Vicky Malhotra Sameera Reddy as Riya Jackie Shroff as Baali The music was composed by Pritam; the lyrics were written by Sameer apart from the song'U n I', penned by Mayur Puri. The album consisting of 11 tracks was released by Saregama on 24 July 2006.

All lyrics are written by Sameer. Naksha on IMDb Official website

Verena Rehm

Verena Carmen Rehm, born 14 May 1984 in Neuburg, Bavaria, is best known as the backing vocalist and pianist of the Eurodance dance group Groove Coverage. She has many song writing credits both within and outside the group and sings for many other German dance acts. After attending kindergarten, Verena discovered her passion for music. In her autobiography on the Suprime Records website, Verena states that her interest began with her father's old piano, which lead Verena to begin piano lessons. At 14, Verena joined the cover band Querbeet, she spent 4 years with them as their lead singer playing the keyboard. At the age of 18, Verena was approached by Axel Konrad and Ole Wierk, who asked her to join the team at Suprime Records. After debating against herself for a while, she accepted. Verena, along with Markus Shaffarzyk was one of the faces for Groove Coverage when they first started though she was not the lead singer; this was because Mell was pregnant and could not travel to the locations of live gigs, photo shoots, music video sets.

Verena has sung lead on a number of songs done by the group including, Lullaby for Love and Rock, has had solos during the bridge of songs such as Only Love and Because I Love You. She appeared in two of the group's music videos, God is a Girl and The End, although in both of these songs Mell sings the lead while Verena provides backing vocals. Verena was the stage performer miming the lyrics to their hit songs while lead vocalist Mell was pregnant. Since Verena has taken on a more behind the scenes or back seat role in the group, while she continues to write songs and record backing vocals she has been absent from video and photo shoots as well as live performances. Verena was one of the coproducers for the group's 21st Century album. Verena sings lead for the song Face 2 Face by Future Trace United, a group formed by the most successful DJs in Germany, including Axel Konrad and Special D, both of whom Verena has worked with separately. Working with Special D on his album Reckless, Verena wrote and provided lead vocals for the song Keep The Faith.

Verena works with fellow Groove Coverage producer and Suprime Records label owner Axel Konrad. Axel operates under many different aliases for his music including: Age Pee, Renegade Masterz, Spring Break. In 2012, she recorded the song My Party with DJane Rameez, she didn't got credit on it for an unknown reason but, she performed the song live in The Dome 62 along DJane HouseKat and the British rapper Rameez. Verena provides vocals for the songs: Hymn, Out of the Dark, When the Rain Begins to Fall, Because of You Verena provides vocals for the songs: Crystal Ship, Nasty Girl Verena provides vocals for the songs: Shut up, Big Bad Love Verena runs a music school called Fashion Music, where she teaches students singing and the art of music composition. Discogs Profile

Gorgas Medal

The Gorgas Medal was established as an annual award in 1915 by the Medical Reserve Corps Association of New York in honor of Surgeon General William C. Gorgas, U. S. Army; the award was based on a writing competition open to members of the U. S. Army Medical Corps, the U. S. Army Medical Reserve Corps, to Medical Corps members of other “organized militia”. Surgeon General Gorgas appointed Colonel Charles Richard, Lieutenant Colonel Champe C. McCulloch, Jr. and Major Eugene R. Whitmore, Medical Corps, to form a review board and act as judge and jury for the writing competition; these officers were members of the Army Medical School faculty. In 1942, the Gorgas Medal was established by Wyeth Laboratories of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to honor Major General William Crawford Gorgas; the award was to be presented annually for ‘distinguished work in preventative medicine’. The award consisted of a Silver Medal, a scroll, an honorarium of $500. In 2010, the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States restructured the awards program and the Gorgas Medal and Prize was no longer awarded.

AMSUS took over administering the Gorgas Medal for Wyeth and renamed the award the William Gorgas Preventive Medicine Award. AMSUS is the Society of Federal Health Professionals; the award was given to an individual for'distinguished work in preventive medicine, clinical application, education or research'. To be eligible for the award, nominees had to be veterinarians, environmental engineers or sanitation engineers, or from other discipline not from other individual professional award categories from any of the five health agencies represented by AMSUS; the criteria for receiving the award required the individual to have demonstrated accomplishments in accordance with the following objectives: AMSUS. "AMSUS Annual Awards Program". 1949, Dental Director H. Trendley Dean, USPHS 1948, Major General Edgar Erskine Hume, MC, USA 1947, Major General Paul R. Hawley, USA Ret. 1946, Brig. General Raymond A. Kelser, USA Ret. 1945, Captain L. T. Coggeshall, MC USNR 1944, Commander James J. Sapero, MC USN 1943, Surgeon Geneneral Hugh S. Cumming, USPHS Ret.

1942, Rear Admiral E. R. Stitt, USN Ret. 1942, Brig. General Jefferson Randolph Kean, USA Ret. 1942, Brig. General Frederick Fuller Russell, MC USAR List of medicine awards Association of Military Surgeons of the United States

Sara Howard (speech therapist)

Sara Howard FRCSLT is a British speech therapist and Professor Emerita of Clinical Phonetics at the University of Sheffield. Howard earned a BA in English and an MA in Linguistics at the University of Leeds before receiving a BSc in Speech & Language Therapy at Leeds Metropolitan University and a PhD in Clinical Phonetics at the University of Sheffield, she works in the area of the phonetics/phonology interface in developmental speech impairments. Between 2010 and 2012 Howard completed an ESRC Research Fellowship on "Connected speech and word juncture in typical and atypical speech development". Howard was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists in 2015, as a life member of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 2016 of which she was president from 2006 to 2014. Howard, S. J. 2013.'A phonetic investigation of single word versus connected speech production in children with persisting speech difficulties relating to cleft palate'. Cleft Palate – Craniofacial Journal, 50: 207-223.

Howard, S. J. & Lohmander, A. 2011. Cleft Palate Speech: Assessment and Intervention. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Howard, S. J. & Heselwood, B. C. 2011.'Instrumental and perceptual phonetic analysis: The case for two-tier transcriptions'. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 25, 940-948. Ball, M. J. Perkins, M. R. Mueller, N, & Howard, S. J. 2008. The Handbook of Clinical Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. Howard, S. J. 2007.'The interplay between articulation and prosody in children with impaired speech: observations from electropalatography and perceptual analysis'. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 9, 20-35