Social Security Administration
To qualify for most of these benefits, most workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings, the claimants benefits are based on the wage earners contributions. Otherwise benefits such as Supplemental Security Income are given based on need, the Social Security Administration was established by a law codified at 42 U. S. C. Its current commissioner, Nancy Berryhill, was appointed January 19,2017, SSA is headquartered in Woodlawn, just to the west of Baltimore, at what is known as Central Office. The agency includes 10 regional offices,8 processing centers, approximately 1300 field offices, as of 2007, about 62,000 people were employed by SSA. Headquarters non-supervisory employees of SSA are represented by American Federation of Government Employees Local 1923, Social Security is the largest social welfare program in the United States. For the year 2014, the net cost of security was 906.4 billion dollars which accounted for 21% of government expenditure. It has been named the 9th best place to work in the federal government, the Social Security Act created a Social Security Board, to oversee the administration of the new program.
It was created as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal with the signing of the Social Security Act of 1935 on August 14,1935, the Board consisted of three presidentially appointed executives, and started with no budget, no staff, and no furniture. It obtained a temporary budget from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration headed by Harry Hopkins, the first Social Security office opened in Austin, Texas, on October 14,1936 Social Security taxes were first collected in January 1937, along with the first one-time, lump-sum payments. The first person to receive monthly retirement benefits was Ida May Fuller of Brattleboro and her first check, dated January 31,1940 was in the amount of US$22.54. In 1939, the Social Security Board merged into a cabinet-level Federal Security Agency, which included the SSB, public Health Service, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and other agencies. In January 1940, the first regular ongoing monthly benefits were begun, in 1946, the SSB was renamed the Social Security Administration under President Harry S.
Trumans Reorganization Plan. In 1972, Cost of Living Adjustments were introduced into SSA programs to deal with the effects of inflation on fixed incomes. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was abolished and SSA was placed under the Department of Health and Welfare, which became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1980. In 1994, President Bill Clinton signed into law 42 U. S. C. §901 returning SSA to the status of an independent agency in the branch of government. It was located in Baltimore initially due to the need for a building that was capable of holding the unprecedented amount of records that would be needed. Nothing suitable was available in Washington in 1936, so the Social Security Board selected the Candler Building on Baltimores harbor as a temporary location, soon after locating there, construction began on a permanent building for SSA in Washington that would meet their requirements for record storage capacity. However, by the time the new building was completed, World War II had started, by the time the war ended, it was judged too disruptive to relocate the agency to Washington
For conceptual models of social well-being, see Social welfare function. Welfare is the provision of a level of well-being and social support for citizens without current means to support basic needs. The welfare state expands on this concept to include such as universal healthcare. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month, Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajans program brought acclaim from many, including Pliny the Younger, the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and paupers graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching, early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act.
It was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that a system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries. Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes, in Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee. The United States inherited Englands poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway, esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories, Social Democratic and Liberal. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century. The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans, according to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred.
Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as payments and vouchers. A persons eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions, Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both. Funding for welfare usually comes from government revenue, but when dealing with charities or NGOs. Some countries run conditional cash transfer welfare programs where payment is conditional on behaviour of the recipients, the 1890s economic depression and the rise of the trade unions and the Labor parties during this period led to a movement for welfare reform. In 1900, the states of New South Wales and Victoria enacted legislation introducing non-contributory pensions for those aged 65, a national invalid disability pension was started in 1910, and a national maternity allowance was introduced in 1912
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Henry George was an American political economist and philosopher. His most famous work and Poverty, sold millions of copies worldwide, George was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to a lower-middle-class family, the second of ten children of Richard S. H. George and Catharine Pratt George. His father was a publisher of religious texts and a devout Episcopalian, George chafed at his religious upbringing and left the academy without graduating. Instead he convinced his father to hire a tutor and supplemented this with avid reading and attending lectures at the Franklin institute. His formal education ended at age 14 and he went to sea as a foremast boy at age 15 in April 1855 on the Hindoo, bound for Melbourne and Calcutta. He ended up in the West in 1858 and briefly considered prospecting for gold, in California, George fell in love with Annie Corsina Fox, an eighteen-year-old girl from Sydney who had been orphaned and was living with an uncle. The uncle, a prosperous, strong-minded man, was opposed to his nieces impoverished suitor, but the couple, defying him and married in late 1861, with Henry dressed in a borrowed suit and Annie bringing only a packet of books.
The marriage was a one and four children were born to them. Foxs mother was Irish Catholic, and while George remained an Evangelical Protestant, on November 3,1862 Annie gave birth to future United States Representative from New York, Henry George, Jr. Early on, even with the birth of future sculptor, Richard F. George, which remained required reading in California schools for decades. George climbed the ranks of the Times, eventually becoming managing editor in the summer of 1867, George worked for several papers, including four years as editor of his own newspaper San Francisco Daily Evening Post and time running the Reporter, a Democratic anti-monopoly publication. The George family struggled but Georges increasing reputation and involvement in the newspaper industry lifted them from poverty, Georges other two children were both daughters. The first was Jennie George, to become Jennie George Atkinson, Georges other daughter was Anna Angela George, who would become mother of both future dancer and choreographer, Agnes de Mille and future actress Peggy George.
George began as a Lincoln Republican, but became a Democrat and he was a strong critic of railroad and mining interests, corrupt politicians, land speculators, and labor contractors. He first articulated his views in an 1868 article entitled What the Railroad Will Bring Us and this had led to him earning the enmity of the Central Pacific Railroads executives, who helped defeat his bid for election to the California State Assembly. One day in 1871 George went for a ride and stopped to rest while overlooking San Francisco Bay. He wrote of the revelation that he had, I asked a passing teamster, for want of something better to say, what land was worth there. He pointed to some cows grazing so far off that they looked like mice, and said, I dont know exactly, like a flash it came over me that there was the reason of advancing poverty with advancing wealth
Ronald Harry Coase was a British economist and author. He was for much of his life the Clifton R. Musser Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Chicago Law School, after studying with the University of London External Programme in 1927–29, Coase entered the London School of Economics, where he took courses with Arnold Plant. He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1991, who believed economists should study real markets and not theoretical ones, established the case for the corporation as a means to pay the costs of operating a marketplace. Additionally, Coases transaction costs approach is currently influential in modern organizational economics, Ronald Harry Coase was born in Willesden, a suburb of London, on 29 December 1910. His father, Henry Joseph Coase was a telegraphist for the post office, as was his mother, Rosalie Elizabeth Coase, as a child, Coase had a weakness in his legs, for which he was required to wear leg-irons. Due to this problem, he attended the school for physical defectives, at the age of 12, he was able to enter the Kilburn Grammar School on scholarship.
At Kilburn, Coase completed the first year of his BComm degree, Coase married Marion Ruth Hartung of Chicago, Illinois in Willesden, England,7 August 1937. Coase attended the London School of Economics, where he received a bachelor of degree in 1932. During his undergraduate studies, Coase received the Sir Ernest Cassel Travelling Scholarship and he used this to visit the University of Chicago in 1931–1932 and studied with Frank Knight and Jacob Viner. Coase’s colleagues would admit that they did not remember this first visit, between 1932–34, Coase was an assistant lecturer at the Dundee School of Economics and Commerce, which became part of the University of Dundee. Subsequently, Coase was an assistant lecturer in commerce at the University of Liverpool between 1934–1935 before returning to London School of Economics as a member of staff until 1951. He started to work at the University at Buffalo and retained his British citizenship after moving to the United States in the 1950s, in 1958, he moved to the University of Virginia.
Coase settled at the University of Chicago in 1964 and became the editor of the Journal of Law and he was for a time a trustee of the Philadelphia Society. He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1991, nearing his 100th birthday, Coase was working on a book concerning the rise of the economies of China and Vietnam. An interview with Coase was conducted by Wang Ning 28–29 December 2010, in the interview, Coase explained the mission of the Coase China Society and his vision of economics and the part to be played by Chinese economists. Coase was honoured and received a doctorate from the University at Buffalo Department of Economics in May 2012. Coase died in Chicago on 2 September 2013 and his wife had died on 17 October 2012. The Washington Post called his work over eight decades impossible to summarize while recommending five of his papers to read, given that production could be carried on without any organization at all, Coase asks and under what conditions should we expect firms to emerge
Labor theory of value
Both David Ricardo and Karl Marx tried to quantify and embody all labor components in order to develop a theory of the real price, or natural price of a commodity. But this value is subject to supply and demand at a particular time, the real price of every thing, what every thing really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it. Smiths theory of price has nothing to do with the past labor spent in producing a commodity and it speaks only of the labor that can be commanded or saved at present. If there is no use for a whip, the item is economically worthless in trade or in use. Value in use is the usefulness of this commodity, its utility, a classical paradox often comes up when considering this type of value. The one may be called value in use, the other, nothing is more useful than water, but it will purchase scarce any thing, scarce any thing can be had in exchange for it. A diamond, on the contrary, has any value in use. Value in exchange is the proportion with which this commodity exchanges for another commodity.
It is relative to labor as explained by Adam Smith, The value of any commodity, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities. Value is the labor embodied in a commodity under a structure of production. Marx defined the value of the commodity by the third definition, in his terms, value is the socially necessary abstract labor embodied in a commodity. To Ricardo and other economists, this definition serves as a measure of real cost, absolute value, or a measure of value invariable under changes in distribution. Ricardo, other economists, and Marx began their expositions with the assumption that value in exchange was equal to or proportional to this labor value. They thought this was a good assumption from which to explore the dynamics of development in capitalist societies, other supporters of the labor theory of value used the word value in the second sense, to represent exchange value. The value of a commodity increases in proportion to the duration, part of what the LTV means by socially necessary is that the value only increases in proportion to this labor as it is performed with average skill and average productivity.
Each unit still bears the same value as all the others of the class of commodity. By working sloppily, unskilled workers may drag down the average skill of labor, production not only involves labor, but certain means of labor, materials, power plants and so on. These means of labor—also known as means of production—are often the product of another labor process as well, so the labor process inevitably involves these means of production that already enter the process with a certain amount of value
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham, and contributed significantly to the theory of the scientific method. A member of the Liberal Party, he was the first Member of Parliament to call for womens suffrage. John Stuart Mill was born on Rodney Street in the Pentonville area of London, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher and economist James Mill, John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given a rigorous upbringing, and was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings. Mill was a precocious child. He describes his education in his autobiography, at the age of three he was taught Greek. By the age of eight, he had read Aesops Fables, Xenophons Anabasis, and the whole of Herodotus and he had read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic and astronomy.
At the age of eight, Mill began studying Latin, the works of Euclid, and algebra and his main reading was still history, but he went through all the commonly taught Latin and Greek authors and by the age of ten could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease. His father thought that it was important for Mill to study, one of Mills earliest poetic compositions was a continuation of the Iliad. In his spare time he enjoyed reading about natural sciences and popular novels, such as Don Quixote. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father, who was a close friend of his father, used to invite the young Mill to his house for a walk in order to talk about political economy. At the age of fourteen, Mill stayed a year in France with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, the mountain scenery he saw led to a lifelong taste for mountain landscapes. The lively and friendly way of life of the French left an impression on him. In Montpellier, he attended the courses on chemistry, logic of the Faculté des Sciences.
While coming and going from France, he stayed in Paris for a few days in the house of the renowned economist Jean-Baptiste Say, there he met many leaders of the Liberal party, as well as other notable Parisians, including Henri Saint-Simon. Mill went through months of sadness and pondered suicide at twenty years of age, according to the opening paragraphs of Chapter V of his autobiography, he had asked himself whether the creation of a just society, his lifes objective, would actually make him happy. His heart answered no, and unsurprisingly he lost the happiness of striving towards this objective, the poetry of William Wordsworth showed him that beauty generates compassion for others and stimulates joy
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. The company publishes approximately 1,800 journals &5,000 new books each year, Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit, the firm originated in 1836, when Camden bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsand with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. The company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledges son, Robert Warne Routledge, Frederick Warne eventually left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865. In July 1865, his son Edmund Routledge became a partner, by 1902 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C.
In 1912 the company merged with Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner and it was soon particularly known for its titles in the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, just two year later and Routledges directors accepted a deal for Routledges acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger, Routledge has grown considerably as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint. The famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was an editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe author of Love, Nina worked at the company as a Commissioning Editor in the 1990s, the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series.
Competitors to the series are Verso Books Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006. Some of its publications were, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge, Europa World Year Book, many of Routledges reference works are published in print and electronic formats as Routledge Handbooks and have their own dedicated Web site, Routledge Handbooks Online. Records of Routledge & Kegan Paul - Correspondence files covering the period 1935 to 1990, as well as review files 1950s-1990s, Special Collections, archives of George Routledge & Company 1853-1902, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd,1973. 6 reels of microfilm and printed index, archives of Kegan Paul, Trench and Henry S. King 1858-1912, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd,1973
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a technological problem and is a product or a process. Patents are a form of intellectual property, the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right and these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country, the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means to lay open. More directly, it is a version of the term letters patent.
Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the granted to anyone who invents any new, useful. The additional qualification utility patent is used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents, the period of protection was 10 years. These were mostly in the field of glass making, as Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. This led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries, by the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies, the Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere.
Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of property right. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand, in the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colonys legislature
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Adam Smith FRSA was a Scottish economist and author. He was a philosopher, a pioneer of political economy. He is best known for two works, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, and An Inquiry into the Nature. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, after graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh, leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy, and during this time he wrote, in his life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day. Smith laid the foundations of free market economic theory. The Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the academic discipline of economics. In this and other works, he developed the concept of division of labour, Smith was controversial in his own day and his general approach and writing style were often satirised by Tory writers in the moralising tradition of William Hogarth and Jonathan Swift.
In 2005, The Wealth of Nations was named among the 100 Best Scottish Books of all time, the minor planet 12838 Adamsmith was named in his memory. Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, in the County of Fife and his father, Adam Smith, was a Scottish Writer to the Signet and prosecutor and served as comptroller of the Customs in Kirkcaldy. In 1720 he married Margaret Douglas, daughter of the landed Robert Douglas of Strathendry and his father died two months after he was born, leaving his mother a widow. The date of Smiths baptism into the Church of Scotland at Kirkcaldy was 5 June 1723, and this has often been treated as if it were his date of birth, Smith was close to his mother, who probably encouraged him to pursue his scholarly ambitions. He attended the Burgh School of Kirkcaldy—characterised by Rae as one of the best secondary schools of Scotland at that period—from 1729 to 1737, he learned Latin, history, Smith entered the University of Glasgow when he was fourteen and studied moral philosophy under Francis Hutcheson.
Here, Smith developed his passion for liberty, reason, in 1740 Smith was the graduate scholar presented to undertake postgraduate studies at Balliol College, under the Snell Exhibition. Adam Smith considered the teaching at Glasgow to be far superior to that at Oxford, according to William Robert Scott, The Oxford of time gave little if any help towards what was to be his lifework. Nevertheless, Smith took the opportunity while at Oxford to teach several subjects by reading many books from the shelves of the large Bodleian Library. When Smith was not studying on his own, his time at Oxford was not a happy one, near the end of his time there, Smith began suffering from shaking fits, probably the symptoms of a nervous breakdown
Earned income tax credit
The United States federal earned income tax credit or earned income credit is a refundable tax credit for low- to moderate-income working individuals and couples, particularly those with children. The amount of EITC benefit depends on an income and number of children. For a person or couple to claim one or more persons as their child, requirements such as relationship, age. In the 2013 tax year, working families, if they have children, childless workers that have incomes below about $14,340 can receive a very small EITC benefit. U. S. tax forms 1040EZ, 1040A, or 1040 can be used to claim EITC without qualifying children, to claim the credit with qualifying children, forms 1040A or 1040 must be used along with Schedule EITC attached. EIC phases in slowly, has a plateau, and phases out more slowly than it was phased in. Since the credit phases out at 21% or 16%, it is preferable to have one more dollar of actual salary or wages considering the EITC alone. For tax year 2013, the maximum EITC benefit for a person or couple filing without qualifying children is $487.
The maximum EITC with one qualifying child is $3,250 and these amounts are indexed annually for inflation. On December 4,2014, The Atlantic reported that the EITC will reduce revenue to the government by about $70 billion in 2015. The earned income tax credit has been part of debates in the United States regarding whether raising the minimum wage or increasing EITC is a better idea. Today, the EITC is one of the largest anti-poverty tools in the United States, most income measures, including the poverty rate, do not account for the credit. A qualifying child can be a daughter, stepchild, or any further descendant or a persons brother, half sister, half brother, stepsister. A qualifying child can be in the process of being adopted provided he or she has been lawfully placed, foster children count provided either the child has been officially placed or is a member of one’s extended family. A younger single parent cannot claim EIC if he or she is claimable as a child of their parent or another older relative.
This restriction does not apply to a couple who is claiming EIC with a child. A person claiming EIC must be older than his or her child unless the “child” is classified as permanently and totally disabled for the tax year. A qualifying “child” can be up to and including age 18, a qualifying “child” who is a full-time student can be up to and including age 23