The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their displacement by the Franks. Their domain lay within the southern fringes of the Silva Arduenna, a part of the vast Silva Carbonaria, in what are now Luxembourg, southeastern Belgium and western Germany. Celtic in language, according to Tacitus they claimed Germanic descent. Modern historians consider the Treveri to have been a mixed Gallic-Germanic tribe. Although early adopters of Roman material culture, the Treveri had a chequered relationship with Roman power, their leader Indutiomarus led them in revolt against Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars. On the other hand, the Treveri supplied the Roman army with some of its most famous cavalry, the city of Augusta Treverorum was home for a time to the family of Germanicus, including the future emperor Gaius. During the Crisis of the Third Century, the territory of the Treveri was overrun by Germanic Alamanni and Franks and formed part of the Gallic Empire.
Under Constantine and his 4th-century successors, Augusta Treverorum became a large, favoured and influential city that served as one of the capitals of the Roman Empire. During this period, Christianity began to succeed the imperial cult and the worship of Roman and Celtic deities as the favoured religion of the city; such Christian luminaries as Ambrose, Martin of Tours and Athanasius of Alexandria spent time in Augusta Treverorum. Among the surviving legacies of the ancient Treveri are Moselle wine from Luxembourg and Germany and the many Roman monuments of Trier and its surroundings, including neighbouring Luxembourg. Three Roman roads important for their role in transregional trade and military deployment capability, went through the territory of the Treveri: the first came from the south, connected Divodurum and Ricciacus with Augusta Treverorum and went further to the Rhine river in the northeast, the border of the Roman Empire the second came from the southwest and connected Durocortorum with Andethana and Augusta Treverorum the third went through the Ardennes in present-day Belgium and Luxembourg and connected Durocortorum to the major city and garrison of Colonia Agrippinensis on the Rhine river.
The spelling variants Treveri and Treviri are found in Latin texts from the time of Caesar's De Bello Gallico to Tacitus's Annales. Latin texts are in general agreement that the first vowel, however, is -e-. For their part, Ancient Greek texts give Τρηούϊροι. Variants such as Treberi and Τρίβηροι appear in Ptolemy, respectively. A few deviant variant forms are attested: Τριήροι in Ptolemy and Τρηοῦσγροι in Strabo; the name has been interpreted as referring to a "flowing river" or to "crossing the river". Rudolf Thurneysen proposes to interpret it as a Celtic trē-uer-o, followed by Xavier Delamarre with the element trē < *trei'through','across' and uer-o'to cross a river', so the name Treveri could mean'the ferrymen', because these people helped to cross the Moselle river. They had a special goddess of the ford called Ritona and a temple dedicated to Uorioni Deo. treuer- can be compared with the Old Irish treóir'guiding, passage through a ford','place to cross a river'. The word uer- / uar- can be related to an indo-European word meaning'stream','river', that can be found in many river-names in France: Var, Vire, Vière or in place-names like Louviers or Verviers, etc.
The first syllable is shown long and stressed in Latin dictionaries, according to its Celtic etymology, thus giving the Classical Latin pronunciation. The city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. In the time of Julius Caesar their territory extended as far as the Rhine north of the Triboci. Caesar mentions that the Segni and the Condrusi lived between the Treveri and the Eburones, that the Condrusii and Eburones were clients of the Treveri. Caesar bridged the Rhine in the territory of the Treveri, they were bordered on the north and west by Belgic tribes: the Tungri, the Remi. To the south their neighbours were the Mediomatrici; the Vangiones and Nemetes, whom ancient sources identify as Germanic, would settle to the east of the Treveri along the Rhine. In addition to this area, formed by the northern part of the Moselle river valley and the neighbouring Eifel region, the Treveri populated the area of the present-day Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the major part of the adjacent Belgian Province of Luxembourg.
The Rhine valley was removed from Treveran authority with the formation of the province of Germania Superior in the 80s CE. The valley of the Ahr would have marked their northern boundary. Colonia Augusta Treverorum was the capital of their civitas under the Empire. There is strong evidence that the excavated oppidum on the
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast. The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori "on/at sea", made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica "Place by the Sea"; the suffix -ika was first used to create adjectival forms and names. The original designation was vague, including a large part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations, the whole of the coast down to the Garonne; the term became restricted to Brittany. In Breton, which belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Insular Celtic languages, along with Welsh and Cornish, "on sea" is war vor, but the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad for the inland regions; the cognate modern usages suggest that the Romans first contacted coastal people in the inland region and assumed that the regional name Aremorica referred to the whole area, both coastal and inland.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the older name for Aquitania and states Armorica's southern boundary extended to the Pyrenees. Taking into account the Gaulish origin of the name, correct and logical, as Aremorica is not a country name but a word that describes a type of geographical region, one, by the sea. Pliny lists the following Celtic tribes as living in the area: the Aedui and Carnuteni as having treaties with Rome. Trade between Armorica and Britain, described by Diodorus Siculus and implied by Pliny was long-established; because after the campaign of Publius Crassus in 57 BC, continued resistance to Roman rule in Armorica was still being supported by Celtic aristocrats in Britain, Julius Caesar led two invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 in response. Some hint of the complicated cultural web that bound Armorica and the Britanniae is given by Caesar when he describes Diviciacus of the Suessiones, as "the most powerful ruler in the whole of Gaul, who had control not only over a large area of this region but of Britain" Archaeological sites along the south coast of England, notably at Hengistbury Head, show connections with Armorica as far east as the Solent.
This'prehistoric' connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, the typical Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead. Archaeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, surveyed by Philip de Jersey. Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, which had its capital in Lugdunum; when the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the second and third divisions of Lugdunensis. After the legions retreated from Britannia the local elite there expelled the civilian magistrates in the following year. At the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451 a Roman coalition led by General Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic King Theodoric I clashed violently with the Hunnic alliance commanded by King Attila the Hun. Jordanes lists Aëtius' allies as including German tribes; the "Armorican" peninsula came to be settled with Britons from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries.
In distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlers, whether refugees or not, made the presence felt of their coherent groups in the naming of the westernmost, Atlantic-facing provinces of Armorica and Domnonea; these settlements are associated with leaders like Saints Samson of Dol and Pol Aurelian, among the "founder saints" of Brittany. The linguistic origins of Breton are clear: it is a Brythonic language descended from the Celtic British language, like Welsh and Cornish one of the Insular Celtic languages, brought by these migrating Britons. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain— Cornish and Welsh— and Celtic Breton are far from settled. Martin Henig suggests that in Armorica as in sub-Roman Britain: There was a fair amount of creation of identity in the migration period. We know that the mixed, but British and Frankish population of Kent repackaged themselves as'Jutes', the British populations in the lands east of Dumnonia seem to have ended up as'West Saxons'.
In western Armorica the small elite which managed to impose an identity on the population happened to be British rather than'Gallo-Roman' in origin, so they became Bretons. The process may have been the same." According to C. E. V. Nixon, the collapse of Roman power and the depredations of the Visigoths led Armorica to act "like a magnet to peasants, coloni and the hard-pressed" who deserted other Roman territories, further weakening them. Vikings settled in the Cotentin peninsula and the lower Seine
The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul. The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa and Matrona, along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle; the Remi were known to be a rather overweight tribe because of their vast supply of food available on the Champagne Plain. In fact, being obese was an honor in the Remi tribe, their capital was at Durocortum the second largest oppidum on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones, they were renowned for their horses and cavalry. During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar, they maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
A founding myth preserved or invented by Flodoard of Reims makes Remus, brother of Romulus, the eponymous founder of the Remi, having escaped their fraternal rivalry instead of dying in Latium. List of peoples of Gaul List of Celtic tribes
The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a general way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Triboci or Tribocci, Treviri. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri. Divodurum was the capital of the Mediomatrici. Besides Metz, settlements in France include the oppidum of Hérapel, the well-preserved examples of Pierrevillers and Vitry-sur-Orne. Other settlements and oppida in Germany were thought to be Saarbrücken, Speyer and Rodalben, although today the ascription of Speyer, Homburg und Rodalben is hotly disputed; the name "Mediomatrici" has been explained as "the people between the Matrona and the Matra." The diocese of Metz represents their territory, accordingly west of the Vosges, but Caesar makes the Mediomatrici extend to the Rhine, in his time they occupied the country between the Vosges and the Rhine. This agrees with Strabo, who says that the Sequani and Mediomatrici inhabit the Rhine, among whom are settled the Triboci, a Germanic nation which had crossed over from their own country.
It appears that part of the territory of the Mediomatrici had been occupied by Germans before Caesar's time. Elements of the Mediomatrici may have settled near Novara, in northern Italy, where place-names allude to their presence, e.g. Mezzomerico; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Belgae". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
The Aresaces were a Celtic people related to, originally part of, the Treveri. They inhabited the left bank of the Rhine in the Mainz-Bingen area, once the easternmost part of Treveran territory; the Aresaces are not mentioned by ancient writers, such as geographers or Julius Caesar, but are known from three inscriptions dating to the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Two of these come from Rhenish Hesse, while the third is from Augusta Treverorum, the capital of the Treveri. A grave monument from Mainz-Weisenau that identifies the two deceased children as Treveri has been explained as evidence that the Aresaces continued to regard themselves as a subdivision of the Treveri. Another Celtic tribe in Rhenish Hesse, known from an inscription as well as ancient literature, was the Cairacates. According to current scholarship, the Aresaces would have been organized as a pagus or sub-unit of the Treveri, settled in Rhenish Hesse in the area south and east of Mainz, their neighbours to the south were the Celtic Mediomatrici, while on the opposite bank of Rhine dwelled the Germanic Vangiones, Triboci and the Mattiaci in the area around present-day Wiesbaden.
This area was only sparsely settled during the late La Tène period, with larger settlements to be found in the second half of the 1st century BCE. One possible cultural and administrative centre of the Aresaces might have been the oppidum on the Donnersberg, which would have marked the southeasternmost centre of Treveran influence. Urbanization was only to increase noticeably at the time of, or shortly before, the Roman presence in the region. At the time of the Romans' arrival in greater Mainz in 13–12 BCE, there were two or more lesser civilian settlements there that can be attributed to the Aresaces. One such at Mainz-Weisenau emerged either shortly before or at the same time as the Roman army camp at Mainz, while a village-like settlement at Mainz-Bretzenheim straddled the banks of the Zaybach. There is further evidence for settlement at Mainz-Finthen near the Aubach. A Celtic and Roman temple district between Klein-Winternheim and Ober-Olm near Mainz was dedicated to Mars Loucetius and Nemetona.
Under Domitian, if not before, the Romans administratively separated the area of Treveran territory on the left bank of the Rhine from the civitas Treverorum and the province of Gallia Belgica, attaching the Rhenish Hesse region to the newly organized province of Germania Superior. The Aresaces were to have been organized as a separate civitas from the Treveri at this stage, if not earlier, as were their neighbours the Cairacates. Meanwhile, the city of Mainz—known in Latin as Mogontiacum—flourished as a legionary headquarters for a number of Roman legions and the capital of the province of Germania Superior; the territory of the Aresaces was thought to have belonged to the Vangiones, who would thus have occupied quite a large tract on the left bank of the Rhine. However, this interpretation is now considered superseded in light of archaeological discoveries; the Vangiones' settlement on the left bank of the Rhine, in the area of present-day Worms, is now considered to have taken place only under the aegis of the Roman administration during the Augustan period.
Maximilian Ihm. "Aresaces". Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband I. Stuttgart. P. 125. Alfred Franke. "Aresaces". Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementband VI. Stuttgart. Pp. 12f
Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age, inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica and Aquitania. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC. Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486.
While the Celtic Gauls had lost their original identities and language during Late Antiquity, becoming amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture, Gallia remained the conventional name of the territory throughout the Early Middle Ages, until it acquired a new identity as the Capetian Kingdom of France in the high medieval period. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin; the Greek and Latin names Galatia and Gallia are derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. The Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people"; the English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. The name Gaul is derived from the Old Frankish *Walholant "Land of the Foreigners/Romans", in which *Walho- is reflex of Proto-Germanic *walhaz, "foreigner, Romanized person", an exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin-speaking people indiscriminately, making it cognate with the names Wales and Wallachia.
The Germanic w- is rendered as gu- / g- in French, the historic diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. French Gaule or Gaulle cannot be derived from Latin Gallia, since g would become j before a, the diphthong au would be unexplained. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived from the name of the Volcae. Unrelated, in spite of superficial similarity, is the name Gael; the Irish word gall did mean "a Gaul", i.e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to "foreigner", to describe the Vikings, still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib; as adjectives, English has the two variants: Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as "pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls", although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish. There is little written information concerning the peoples that inhabited the regions of Gaul, save what can be gleaned from coins.
Therefore, the early history of the Gauls is predominantly a work in archaeology and the relationships between their material culture, genetic relationships and linguistic divisions coincide. Before the rapid spread of the La Tène culture in the 5th to 4th centuries BC, the territory of eastern and southern France participated in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture out of which the early iron-working Hallstatt culture would develop. By 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. Out of this Hallstatt background, during the 7th and 6th century representing an early form of Continental Celtic culture, the La Tène culture arises under Mediterranean influence from the Greek and Etruscan civilizations, spread out in a number of early centers along the Seine, the Middle Rhine and the upper Elbe. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads across the entire territory of Gaul; the La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia and Hungary.
Farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. The major source of materials on the Celts of Gaul was Poseidonios of Apamea, whose writings were quoted by Timagenes, Julius Caesar, the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus, the Greek geographer Strabo. In the 4th and early 3rd century BC, Gallic clan confederations expanded far beyond the territory of what would become Roman Gaul, into Pannonia, northern Italy and Asia Minor. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans descr
Alesia was the capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gallic tribes allied with the Aedui. The Celtic oppidum was conquered by Julius Caesar during the Gallic Wars and afterwards became a Gallo-Roman town, its location was controversial for a long time. It is today considered to have been located on Mont-Auxois, near Alise-Sainte-Reine in Burgundy, France. Alesia is best known for being the site of the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC that marked the defeat of the Gauls under Vercingetorix by the Romans under Julius Caesar. Caesar described the battle in detail in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico; the battle's outcome determined the fate of all of Gaul: in winning the battle, the Romans won both the Gallic Wars and dominion over Gaul. The enormous measures taken during the battle were impressive: in only six weeks, Caesar's troops built a ring of fortifications 15 km long around Alesia and an additional ring 21 km long around that to stop reinforcements from reaching the Gauls. After being conquered by Caesar, Alesia became a Gallo-Roman town.
It featured a town centre with monumental buildings such as a forum. There was a theatre. For a long time after the abandonment of the Roman town, the location of Alesia and thus the site of the important battle was unknown and subject to speculation. In the 19th century, Emperor Napoleon III developed an interest in the location of this crucial battle in pre-French history, he was writing a biography of Caesar and saw the command of Vercingetorix over all Gaulish armies as a symbol of the French nation. At the same time he realized that the future French nation was influenced by the Roman victory and centuries of rule over Gaul. In 1838, a find with the inscription: IN ALISIIA, had been discovered near Alise-Sainte-Reine in the department Côte-d'Or near Dijon. Napoleon ordered an archaeological excavation by Eugène Stoffel around Mont-Auxois; these excavations in 1861–65 concentrated on the vast Roman siege lines and indicated that the historical Alesia was indeed located there. The oppidum was located on a plateau of c. 97 hectares, around 200 metres above the valley floor, surrounded by steep cliffs in every direction except at the eastern and western extremities.
It was protected by a wall enclosing an area of up to 140 hectares, pierced by at least two pincer gates and in 52 BC it had a population of 80,000 including refugees and men under the command of Vercingetorix. Archaeological analysis at Alise-Sainte-Reine has corroborated the described siege in detail; the remains of siege rings said to match Caesar’s descriptions have been identified by archaeologists using aerial photography. Franco-German excavations led by Michel Reddé and Siegmar von Schnurbein in 1991–97 confirmed these findings and ended the long debate among archaeologists about the location of Alesia. There have been other theories about Alesia's location that claimed it was in Franche-Comté or around Salins-les-Bains in Jura. In the 1960s, a French archaeologist, André Berthier, proposed that the location of Alesia is at Chaux-des-Crotenay in Franche-Comté, at the gate of the Jura mountains—a place that better suits the descriptions in Caesar's Gallic Wars—and indeed, Roman fortifications have been found at that site.
In total, around 40 towns and other locations have claimed to be the site of Alesia. The uncertainty surrounding Alesia's location is humorously parodied in the Asterix comic book Asterix and the Chieftain's Shield, in which, in this case because of Gaulish pride, characters deny that they know its location: "I don't know where Alesia is! No one knows where Alesia is!". Part of the area has become the MuséoParc Alésia. Not much of the Gallic oppidum is visible today. Most of the ruins date to the town’s Roman period. A large copper statue of Vercingetorix, made in 1865 by Aimé Millet stands at the western end of the plateau. Triumphal entry into Jerusalem Triumphal Arch of Orange Museumpark at Alesia The Siege of Alesia