Brazilian Armed Forces
The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy and the Brazilian Air Force. Brazil's armed forces are the third largest in the Americas, after the United States and Colombia, the largest in Latin America by the level of military equipment, with 318,480 active-duty troops and officers. With no serious external or internal threats, the armed forces are searching for a new role, they are expanding their presence in the Amazon under the Northern Corridor program. In 1994 Brazilian troops joined United Nations peacekeeping forces in five countries. Brazilian soldiers have been in Haiti since 2004 leading the United Nations Stabilization Mission; the Brazilian military the army, has become more involved in civic-action programs, health care, constructing roads and railroads across the nation. Although the 1988 constitution preserves the external and internal roles of the armed forces, it places the military under presidential authority.
Thus, the new charter changed the manner. The Armed Forces of Brazil are divided into 3 branches: Brazilian Army Brazilian Navy Brazilian Air ForceThe Military Police alongside the Military Firefighters Corps are described as an auxiliary and reserve force of the Army. All military branches are part of the Ministry of Defence; the Brazilian Navy, the oldest of the Brazilian Armed Forces, includes the Brazilian Marine Corps and the Brazilian Naval Aviation. 19–45 years of age for compulsory military service. An increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals. South America is a peaceful continent in which wars are a rare event. Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbours and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile and Bolivia have with each other. However, Brazil is the only country besides China and Russia that has land borders with 10 or more nations. Moreover, Brazil has 16,880 kilometers of land borders and 7,367 km of coastline to be patrolled and defended.
Overall, the Armed Forces have to defend 8.5 million km2 of land and patrol 4.4 million km2 of territorial waters – or Blue Amazon, as the Brazilian Navy calls them. To achieve this mission, significant manpower and funding is required. Since 1648 the Brazilian Armed Forces have been relied upon to fight in defense of Brazilian sovereignty and to suppress civil rebellions; the Brazilian military has four times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government. The Brazilian Armed Forces were subordinated to its Commander-in-Chief, he was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in regard to matters concerning the Army and the Armada, respectively. Traditionally, the Ministers of War and Navy were civilians but there were some exceptions; the model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces observed unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while maintaining distance from political decisions and decisions referring to borders' security".
The military personnel were allowed to run and serve in political offices while staying on active duty. However, they did not represent the Army or the Armada but instead the population of the city or province where elected. Dom Pedro I chose nine military personnel as five to the State Council. During the Regency, two were chosen to the Senate and none to the State Council as there was no Council at the time. Dom Pedro II chose four military personnel to become Senators during the 1840s, two in the 1850s and three until the end of his reign, he chose seven military personnel to be State Counselors during the 1840s and 1850s and three after that. It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti and East Timor. Below a list of some of the historical events in which the Brazilian Armed Forces took part: First Battle of Guararapes: Decisive Brazilian victory that helped end Dutch occupation. Due to this battle, the year 1648 is considered as the year of the foundation of the Brazilian Army.
Invasion of Cayenne: Was a combined military operation by an Anglo-Portuguese-Brazilian expeditionary force against Cayenne, capital of the French South American colony of French Guiana in 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars. Luso-Brazilian invasion: Was an armed conflict between the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves and the partisans of José Artigas over the Banda Oriental, present-day Uruguay. Brazilian War of Independence: Series of military campaigns that had as objective to cement Brazilian sovereignty and end Portuguese resistance. Confederation of the Equator: Was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the northeastern region of Brazil during that nation's struggle for independence from Portugal. Cisplatine War: Armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or "Eastern Shore" between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and Empire of Brazil i
History of Brazil since 1985
Brazilian history since 1985 is the contemporary epoch in the history of Brazil, beginning when civilian government was restored after a 21-year-long military regime established after the 1964 coup d'état. The negotiated transition to democracy reached its climax with the indirect election of Tancredo Neves PMDB by Congress. Neves belonged to Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, an opposition party that had always opposed the military regime, he was the first civilian president to be elected since 1964. Neves was set to take over from General João Figueiredo, the last of the military junta presidents appointed by their predecessor; the transition was hailed as the dawn of a New Republic in contrast with República Velha, the first epoch of the Brazilian Republic, from 1889 until 1930. It became synonymous with the contemporary phase of the Brazilian Republic and the political institutions established in the wake of the country's re-democratization. President-elect Tancredo Neves could not attend it.
His running mate, José Sarney, was inaugurated as vice president and served in Neves' stead as acting president. As Neves died without having taken the oath of office, Sarney succeeded to the presidency; the first phase of the Brazilian New Republic, ranging from the inauguration of José Sarney in 1985 until the inauguration of Fernando Collor in 1990, is considered a transitional period as the 1967–1969 constitution remained in effect, the executive still had veto powers, the president was able to rule by decree. The transition was considered definitive after Brazil's current constitution, drawn up in 1988, entered full effect in 1990. In 1986, elections were called for a National Constituent Assembly that would draft and adopt a new Constitution for the country; the Constituent Assembly began deliberations in February 1987 and concluded its work on October 5, 1988. Brazil's current Constitution was completed the democratic institutions; the new Constitution replaced the authoritarian legislation that still remained from the military regime.
In 1989 Brazil held its first elections for president by direct popular ballot since the 1964 coup. Fernando Collor won the election and was inaugurated on March 15, 1990 as the first president elected under the 1988 Constitution. Since seven presidential terms have elapsed, without rupture to the constitutional order: the first term was served by Presidents Collor and Franco. Collor was impeached on charges of corruption in 1992 and resigned the presidency, being succeeded by Itamar Franco, his vice president the second and third terms corresponded to the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, from 1995 to 2002; the seventh term was started following Rousseff's 2014 reelection. Her second term was due to end in 2018, but she was impeached for violations of budgetary and fiscal responsibility laws in 2016, her vice-president, Michel Temer, succeeded her on 31 August 2016 following a lengthy period as acting president during Rousseff's impeachment trials and became President himself after the impeachment was completed.
The eight and current term is Jair Bolsonaro's administration. The last military president, João Figueiredo signed a general amnesty into law and turned Geisel's distensão into a gradual abertura, saying he wanted "to make this country a democracy"; the transition towards democracy that ended the military regime in 1985 and spurred the adoption of a new, Constitution in 1988, however, troubled. Hard-liners reacted to the abertura with a series of terrorist bombings. In April 1981 after a long string of bombings and other violence a bomb went off prematurely and killed one of the men in the car with it and badly injured the other, they were shown to be working with the DOI-CODI "under the direct orders of the "Command of the First Army" in terrorism, but nobody was punished. The incident and the regime's inaction strengthened the public's resolve to end military rule. Moreover, Figueiredo faced other significant problems, such as soaring inflation, declining productivity, mounting foreign debt.
Political liberalization and the declining world economy contributed to Brazil's economic and social problems. In 1978 and 1980, huge strikes took place in the industrial ring around São Paulo. Protesters asserted that wage increases indexed to the inflation rate were far below an acceptable standard of living. Union leaders, including the future three-time presidential candidate and president Luís Inácio da Silva, were arrested for violating national security laws; the International Monetary Fund imposed a painful austerity program on Brazil. Under that program, Brazil was required to hold down wages to fight inflation. In the north, in the prosperous Rio Grande do Sul, impoverished rural people occupied unused private land, forcing the government to create a new land reform ministry. Tension with the Roman Catholic Church, the major voice for societal change, peaked in the early 1980s with the expulsion of foreign priests involved in political and land reform issues. To attack the soaring debt, Figueiredo's administration stressed exports — food, natural resources, arms, shoes electricity — and expanded petroleum exploration by foreign companies.
In foreign relations, the objective was to establish ties with any country that would contribute to Brazilian economic development. Washington was kept at a certain distance, the North-South dialogue was emphasized. In 1983, the economy floundered as the gross domestic product declined by 5.0%
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 6,300,000 km2, or about 35.5 percent that of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world; the Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 metres. With a length of about 6,400 km before it drains into the Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the two longest rivers in the world; the Amazon system transports the largest volume of water of any river system, accounting for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field.
The Amazon basin flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants; the ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit other plants to get closer to the sunlight, they grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents.
Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin; the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an daily basis, the exception being rainy days; the green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs and weapons. More than 1,500 species of amphibians are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are limited to habitats near the water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor.
The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters; the differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist; this is more than any other river basin on Earth, Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes. About 45% of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin; the remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.
By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes and Siluriformes, but other groups with many species include Cichlidae and Gymnotiformes. In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size; the largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m or more in length and up to 200 kg in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world. The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and seen in marine waters. In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm long; the smallest are the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm and are among the smallest fish in the world. The Amazon supports large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform l
Protected areas of Brazil
Protected areas of Brazil included various classes of area according to the National System of Conservation Units, a formal, unified system for federal and municipal parks created in 2000. Protected areas called conservation units, are divided into different categories according to their goals; these are defined by Law No. 9.985 of 18 July 2000, which established the National System of Conservation Units. Objectives include conservation of nature, sustainable development, scientific research and eco-tourism, Fully protected units are expected to maintain the natural ecosystem without human interference. Sustainable use units allow sustained use of renewable environmental resources while maintaining biodiversity and other ecological attributes; the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, which administers Federal units, defines the protected classes of unit as: Ecological stations Biological reserves National parks, State parks and Municipal nature parks Natural monuments Wildlife refuges The sustainable use units are: Environmental protection areas Areas of relevant ecological interest National forests and State forests Extractive reserves Wildlife reserves Sustainable development reserves Private natural heritage reserves In addition, some states designate areas as ecological reserve.
Although not technically protected areas, indigenous territories give the indigenous people full rights over the area, serve as an obstacle to deforestation and large-scale agriculture. As of 2016 there were 700 Indigenous Territories in Brazil, covering about 13.8%% of the country's land area. Most of them were in the Amazon Legal; the SNUC law defines a protected area mosaic as a collection of protected areas of the same or different categories that are near to each other, adjoining each other or overlapping, that should be managed as a whole. Given the different categories of conservation unit and other protected areas in a mosaic, the different conservation goals must be considered. In addition to protected and sustainable use conservation units a mosaic may include private lands and indigenous territories; the SNUC law recognises ecological corridors as portions of natural or semi-natural ecosystems linking protected areas that allow gene flow and movement of biota, recolonization of degraded areas and maintenance of viable populations larger than would be possible with individual units.
The federal Ecological Corridor Project has its roots at least as far back as 1993. It has identified seven major corridors, with focus on implementing and learning from the Central Amazon Corridor and the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor; as of 2004 federally-administered conservation units covered 7.23% of Brazilian territory, below the level of 10% recommended by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Federal coverage was: Levels of protection vary depending on the biome. Federal coverage as of 2005 was: Protected areas are subject to reduction, reclassification or declassification. Between 1981 and 2010 an area of 45,000,000 hectares was downgraded or lost in this way, with 70% of cases occurring since 2008; the main cause was making land available for hydroelectric dams in the Amazon region. Other reasons were agribusiness. List of ecoregions in Brazil
Geography of Brazil
The country of Brazil occupies half of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil covers a total area of 8,514,215 km2 which includes 8,456,510 km2 of land and 55,455 km2 of water; the highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 m. Brazil is bordered by the countries of Argentina, Colombia, Paraguay, Suriname, Uruguay and France. Much of the climate is tropical, with the south being temperate; the largest river in Brazil, the second longest in the world, is the Amazon. Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean; the only countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada and the United States. The national territory extends 4,395 kilometers from north to south, 4,319 kilometers from east to west, it spans three time zones, the westernmost of, one hour ahead of Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital and of the most populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except when it is on its own daylight saving time, from October to February.
The Atlantic islands are in the easternmost time zone. Brazil possesses the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, located 350 kilometers northeast of its "horn", several small islands and atolls in the Atlantic - Abrolhos, Atol das Rocas, Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo and Martim Vaz. In the early 1970s, Brazil claimed a territorial sea extending 362 kilometers from the country's shores, including those of the islands. On Brazil's east coast, the Atlantic coastline extends 7,367 kilometers. In the west, in clockwise order from the south, Brazil has 15,719 kilometers of borders with Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, Guyana and French Guiana; the only South American countries with which Brazil does not share borders are Ecuador. A few short sections are in question, but there are no true major boundary controversies with any of the neighboring countries. Brazil has six major ecosystems: a tropical rainforest system. In contrast to the Andes, which rose to elevations of nearly 7,000 meters in a recent epoch and inverted the Amazon's direction of flow from westward to eastward, Brazil's geological formation is old.
Precambrian crystalline shields cover 36% of the territory its central area. The dramatic granite sugarloaf mountains in the city of Rio de Janeiro are an example of the terrain of the Brazilian shield regions, where continental basement rock has been sculpted into towering domes and columns by tens of millions of years of erosion, untouched by mountain-building events; the principal mountain ranges average elevations just under 2,000 meters. The Serra do Mar Range hugs the Atlantic coast, the Serra do Espinhaço Range, the largest in area, extends through the south-central part of the country; the highest mountains are in the Tumucumaque and Imeri ranges, among others, which traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela. In addition to mountain ranges, Brazil's Central Highlands include a vast central plateau; the plateau's uneven terrain has an average elevation of 1,000 meters. The rest of the territory is made up of sedimentary basins, the largest of, drained by the Amazon and its tributaries.
Of the total territory, 41% averages less than 200 meters in elevation. The coastal zone is noted for thousands of kilometers of tropical beaches interspersed with mangroves and dunes, as well as numerous coral reefs; the Parcel de Manuel Luís Marine State Park off the coast of Maranhão protects the largest coral reef in South America. Brazil has one of the world's most extensive river systems, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Two of these basins — the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia account for more than half the total drainage area; the largest river system in Brazil is the Amazon, which originates in the Andes and receives tributaries from a basin that covers 45.7% of the country, principally the north and west. The main Amazon river system is the Amazonas-Solimões-Ucayali axis. Through the Amazon Basin flows one-fifth of the world's fresh water. A total of 3,615 kilometers of the Amazon are in Brazilian territory. Over this distance, the waters decline only about 100 meters.
The major tributaries on the southern side are, from west to east, the Javari, Juruá, Madeira, Tapajós, Tocantins. On the northern side, the largest tributaries are the Branco, Japurá, Rio Negro; the above-mentioned tributaries carry more water than the Mississippi. The Amazon and some of its tributaries, call
Politics of Brazil
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. The political and administrative organization of Brazil comprises the federal government, the 26 states and a federal district, the municipalities; the federal government exercises control over the central government and is divided into three independent branches: executive and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, advised by a cabinet. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the Regional Federal Courts; the states are autonomous sub-national entities with their own governments that, together with the other federal units, form the Federative Republic of Brazil.
Brazil is divided politically and administratively into 27 federal units, being 26 states and one federal district. The executive power is exercised by a governor elected to a four-year term; the judiciary is exercised by courts of second instance addressing the common justice. Each State has a unicameral legislature with deputies; the Constitution of Brazil knows two elements of direct democracy, stated in Article 14. The legislative assemblies supervise the activities of the Executive power of the states and municipalities; the municipalities are minor federal units of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor, directly elected by the people to a four-year term, a legislative body directly elected by the people. Due to a mix of proportional voting, the lack of election threshold and the cultural aspects of Latin American caudillismo-coronelismo, party politics in Brazil tends to be fragmented; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Brazil as "flawed democracy" in 2016.
Brazil has had seven constitutions: Constitution of 1824 – the first Brazilian constitution, enacted by Emperor Pedro I. It was monarchic and centralized, permitting suffrage only to property-holders. Constitution of 1891 – the republic was proclaimed in 1889, but a new constitution was not promulgated until 1891; this federalist, democratic constitution was influenced by the U. S. model. However and illiterates were not permitted to vote. Constitution of 1934 – when Getúlio Vargas came to power in 1930, he canceled the 1891 constitution and did not permit a new one until 1934; the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 forced Vargas to enact a new democratic constitution that permitted women's suffrage. Getúlio Vargas was indirectly elected president by the Constitutional Assembly to a four-year term, beginning in 1933. Constitution of 1937 – Getúlio Vargas suppressed a Communist uprising in 1935 and two years used it as a pretext to establish autocratic rule, he instituted a corporatist constitution nicknamed the Polish, written by Francisco Campos.
Constitution of 1946 – in October, 1945, with World War II over, a civil-military coup ousted dictatorial Getúlio Vargas, an Assembly wrote a democratic constitution. Constitution of 1967 – after the 1964 coup d'État against João Goulart, the military dictatorship passed the Institutional Acts, a supraconstitutional law; this undemocratic constitution incorporated these Acts. Constitution of 1988 – the progressive redemocratization culminated in the current constitution. Democratic, it is more expansive than a typical constitution – many statutory acts in other countries are written into this constitution, like Social Security and taxes. According to sociologist Marcelo Ridenti, Brazilian politics is divided between internationalist liberals and statist nationalists; the first group consists of politicians arguing that internationalization of the economy is essential for the development of the country, while the latter rely on interventionism, protection of state enterprises. According to Ridenti, who cites the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration as an example of the first group and the Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva administration as an example of the second, "we have it cyclically".
Lula's Workers' Party tended to the statist nationalist side, although there are privatizing forces within his party and government, while Cardoso's Social Democratic Party tended to favor the international private market side by taking neoliberal policies. Lula compares himself with Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitscheck and João Goulart, presidents seen as statist nationalists; as of May 2017, 16,668,589 Brazilians were affiliated with a political party. The largest parties are MDB, the PT, PSDB. Sources: Chamber Senate Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on representative democracy; the federal government has three independent branches: executive and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the executive branch, advised by a Cabinet; the President is both the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court
Belo Horizonte is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, ranked as the third most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and the seventeenth most populous in the Americas. Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Brazil's second most populous state, it is the first planned modern city in Brazil. The region was first settled in the early 18th century, but the city as it is known today was planned and constructed in the 1890s, to replace Ouro Preto as the capital of Minas Gerais; the city features a mixture of contemporary and classical buildings, is home to several modern Brazilian architectural icons, most notably the Pampulha Complex. In planning the city, Aarão Reis and Francisco Bicalho sought inspiration in the urban planning of Washington, D. C; the city has employed notable programs in urban revitalization and food security, for which it has been awarded international accolades.
The city is built on several hills and is surrounded by mountains. There are several large parks in the immediate surroundings of Belo Horizonte; the Mangabeiras Park, 6 km southeast of the city centre in the hills of Curral Ridge, has a broad view of the city. It has an area of 2.35 km2. The Jambeiro Woods nature reserve extends over 912 hectares, with vegetation typical of the Atlantic Forest. More than 100 species of birds inhabit the reserve, as well as 10 species of mammals. Belo Horizonte was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city shared the host of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the football tournament during the 2016 Summer Olympics; the metropolis was once a small village, founded by João Leite da Silva Ortiz, a bandeirante explorer from São Paulo. The explorer settled in the region in 1701, he established a farm called "Curral d'el Rey", archaic Portuguese for the "King's Corral", which in modern Portuguese would be spelled Curral do Rei. The farm's wealth and success encouraged people from surrounding places to move into the region, Curral del Rey became a village surrounded by farms.
Another important factor contributing to the growth of the village was the migrants from the São Francisco River region, who had to pass through Curral d'el Rey to reach southern parts of Brazil. Travelers visited a small wooden chapel, where they prayed for a safe trip. Due to this fact, the chapel was named Capela da Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem, which means "Chapel of Our Lady of the Good Journey." After the construction of Belo Horizonte, the old baroque chapel was replaced by a neo-gothic church that became the city's cathedral. The previous capital of Minas Gerais, Ouro Preto called "Vila Rica", was a symbol of both the monarchic Brazilian Empire and the period when most of Brazilian income was due to mining; that never pleased the members of the Inconfidência Mineira, republican intellectuals who conspired against the Portuguese dominion of Brazil. In 1889, Brazil became a republic, it was agreed that a new state capital, in tune with a modern and prosperous Minas Gerais, had to be set.
In 1893, due to the climatic and topographic conditions, Curral Del Rey was selected by Minas Gerais governor Afonso Pena among other cities as the location for the new economic and cultural centre of the state, under the new name of "Cidade de Minas," or City of Minas. Aarão Reis, an urbanist from the State of Pará, was set to design the second planned city of Brazil. Cidade de Minas was inaugurated in 1897, with many unfinished constructions as the Brazilian government set a deadline for its completion. Inhabitation of the city was subsidised by the local government, through the concession of free empty lots and funding for building houses. An interesting feature of Reis' downtown street plan for Belo Horizonte was the inclusion of a symmetrical array of perpendicular and diagonal streets named after Brazilian states and Brazilian indigenous tribes. In 1906, the name was changed to Belo Horizonte. At that time the city was experiencing a considerable industrial expansion that increased its commercial and service sectors.
From its beginning, the city's original plan prohibited workers to live inside the urban area, defined by Avenida do Contorno, reserved for the public sector functionaries, bringing about an accelerated occupation outside the city's area well provided with infrastructure since its beginning. The city's original planners did not count on its population growth afterwards, which proved intense in the last 20 years of the 20th century. In the 1940s, a young Oscar Niemeyer designed the Pampulha Neighbourhood to great acclaim, a commission he got thanks to then-mayor, soon-to-be-president Juscelino Kubitschek; these two men are responsible for the wide avenues, large lakes and jutting skylines that characterise the city today. A 1949 American government film favorably reviewed the building of the city. Belo Horizonte is fast becoming a regional centre of commerce; the Latin American Research and development centre of Google, situated in Belo Horizonte, was responsible for the management and operation of the former social networking website Orkut.
It continues to be a tren