Nickelodeon is an American basic cable and satellite television network launched on December 1,1977, and is owned by Viacom through Viacom Media Networks and based in New York City. It is primarily aimed at children and adolescents aged 7–18 while its weekday morning edutainment programs are targeted at children ages 2–6. As of July 2015, Nickelodeon is available to approximately 93.7 million pay television households in the US, the name of the channel comes from the first five cent movie theaters called nickelodeons. Nickelodeons history dates back to December 1,1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Its C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7,00 a. m. to 9,00 p. m. Eastern Time, Nickelodeon launched on April 1,1979, initially distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Originally commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984, the channel airs reruns of select original series that are no longer in production, as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies.
The channel aired special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee. The channel occasionally airs feature films produced by the networks Nickelodeon Movies film production division, although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the cable channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit. Nick Jr. – Nickelodeon currently programs shows targeted at preschool-age children on Monday through Fridays from 8,30 am-3,00 pm Eastern, the block primarily targets audiences of preschool age as Nickelodeons usual audience of school-age children are in school during the blocks designated time period. Programs currently seen in this block include Blaze and the Monster Machines, Team Umizoomi, Bubble Guppies, PAW Patrol, Max & Ruby, Saturday morning block - a morning block of primarily animated series from 9 am-12,30 pm Eastern and Pacific Time. It launched on September 22,2012, as Gotta See Saturday Mornings, recent episodes of certain original series may air when no new episodes are scheduled to air that week.
The schedule features series such as SpongeBob SquarePants, Bunsen Is a Beast, ALVINNN. nicks New Saturday Night – a primetime live-action block airing from 8-10pm Eastern and Pacific Time. It launched on September 22,2012, as Gotta See Saturday Nights, recent episodes of certain original series may air when no new episodes are scheduled to air that week. The schedule features The Thundermans and Henry Danger, premieres of the networks original made-for-cable movies occasionally air during the primetime block, usually in the form of premiere showings. SNICK – SNICK was the networks first dedicated Saturday primetime block that aired from 8,00 to 10,00 p. m. Eastern, geared toward pre-teens and teenagers, it debuted on August 15,1992. The block featured mainly live-action series, although it featured animated series. SNICK was discontinued on August 28,2004, and was replaced the following week by a Saturday night edition of the TEENick block and it was hosted by Stick Stickly, a Mr. Bill-like popsicle stick character.
The block was replaced for the summer of 1999 by Henry, the Stick Stickly character was revived for The 90s Are All That on TeenNick, which debuted in 2011
The single-camera setup, or single-camera mode of production, known as Portable Single Camera, is a method of filmmaking and video production. In this setup, each of the shots and camera angles is taken using the same camera. Choices can be made during the editing process for when in the scene to use each shot. This then allows parts of the scene to be removed if it is felt that the scene is too long, in practice, sometimes two cameras shooting from the same angle are used, one to capture a medium shot, the other a close-up during the same take. Unlike film producers, who almost always opt for single-camera shooting, single-camera is mostly reserved for prime-time dramas, made-for-TV movies, music videos and commercial advertisements. Soap operas, talk shows, game shows, most reality television series, Multiple-camera shooting is the only way that an ensemble of actors presenting a single performance before a live audience can be recorded from multiple perspectives. Also for standard, dialogue-driven domestic situation comedies, the multi-camera technique, situation comedies may potentially be shot in either multiple- or single-camera modes.
Several comedy series of the era use of feature film techniques. These effects were created using editing and optical printing techniques, in the case of Get Smart, the single-camera technique allowed the series to present fast-paced and tightly-edited fight and action sequences reminiscent of the spy dramas that it parodied. Single-camera comedies were prevalent into the early 1970s, with its large cast, varied locations, and seriocomic tone, the TV series M*A*S*H was shot using single-camera style. Happy Days began in 1974 as a series, before switching to the multi-camera setup in its second season. Unlike single-camera sitcoms of the past, nearly all contemporary comedies shot in this manner are produced without a laugh track, list of single-camera sitcoms Multiple-camera setup Tapeless camcorder
A smoothie is a thick beverage made from blended raw fruit or vegetables with other ingredients such as water, dairy products or sweeteners. A smoothie containing dairy products is similar to a milkshake, though the latter typically contains less fruit. The health of a smoothie depends on its ingredients, many smoothies include large servings of fruits and vegetables which are recommended in a healthful diet. However, too many sweet fruits can lead to too much sugar, ingredients such as protein powders, sweeteners, or ice cream are often used in smoothie recipes, but are not necessarily healthful. Smoothies include dietary fiber and so are thicker than fruit juice, the fiber makes smoothies more healthful than fruit juice alone. Smoothies—particularly green smoothies —are often marketed to people, for example as a healthier alternative to milkshakes. Some commercial smoothies, have added sugar, which can more than double their carbohydrate content, the fact that smoothies can be quickly swallowed without chewing makes them less effective in providing a lasting hunger-inhibiting effect than eating the raw fruit/vegetables they contain.
Most raw green leafy vegetables are bitter, but this can be ameliorated by suitable choice of vegetables or fruit, some blender manufacturers specifically target their products towards making green smoothies, and provide a booklet of green smoothie recipes. Green smoothies have been growing rapidly in popularity since the early 2000s, smoothies have become increasingly popular worldwide since the 1990s, due in part to being factory-produced, enabling them to be sold via supermarkets and other mass-market outlets. However, they have a longer history in various countries. Health food stores on the West Coast of the United States began selling smoothies in the 1930s, the actual term smoothie was in use in recipes and trademarks by the mid-1930s. By the late 1960s, smoothies were widely sold across the US by ice cream vendors as well as food stores. They were mainly made from fruit, fruit juice, and ice, though from the early 1970s, in 1973, Steve Kuhnau founded Smoothie King. He set up numerous smoothie bars across the United States and popularized adding ingredients such as vitamins, as smoothies became more popular and prominent, large companies decided to make pre-bottled smoothies and sell them in supermarkets.
Many types of smoothies are found in Indian, fruit sharbats typically include yogurt and honey. In India, the mango lassi is a smoothie or milkshake comprising crushed ice, smoothies are mixed with soft drinks or alcohol to make cocktails. Ayran Blaster Bates Chaas Doogh Health shake Kumis List of beverages List of dairy products List of fruit dishes List of yogurt-based dishes and beverages Milkshake OBrian, Betty Sue
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in fields such as communication, social psychology, anthropology. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, a World Happiness Database study found that people with close friendships are happier. Although there are forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place. While there is no limit on what types of people can form a friendship, friends tend to share common backgrounds, occupations. In the typical sequence of an individuals emotional development, friendships come after parental bonding, the absence of friends can be emotionally damaging. The evolutionary psychology approach to development has led to the theory of Dunbars number. He theorized that there is a limit of approximately 150 people with whom a human can maintain stable social relationships, in childhood, friendships are often based on the sharing of toys, and the enjoyment received from performing activities together.
These friendships are maintained through affection and creative playtime and they begin to see their friends points of view, and enjoy playing in groups. They experience peer rejection as they move through the middle childhood years, establishing good friendships at a young age helps a child to be better acclimated in society on in their life. In a 1975 study, Bigelow and La Gaipa found that expectations for a best friend become increasingly complex as a child gets older, the study investigated such criteria in a sample of 480 children between the ages of six and fourteen. Their findings highlighted three stages of development in friendship expectations, in the first stage, children emphasized shared activities and the importance of geographical closeness. In the second, they emphasized sharing and commitment, in the final stage, they increasingly desired similar attitudes and interests. High-quality friendships have often assumed to have positive effects on many aspects of childrens social development.
Perceived benefits from such friendships include enhanced social success, but they apparently do not include an effect on childrens general self-esteem, numerous studies with adults suggest that friendships and other supportive relationships do enhance self-esteem. Other potential benefits of friendship include the opportunity to learn about empathy, coaching from parents can be useful in helping children to make friends. Eileen Kennedy-Moore describes three key ingredients of childrens friendship formation, openness and shared fun, parents can help children understand social guidelines they havent learned on their own
Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, accessories, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses and it is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous, early Western travelers, traveling whether to Persia, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in the respective places. The Japanese Shoguns secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration.
Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia, the beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers, the pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and mens fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex. Art historians are able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, in the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century.
Though textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentlemans coat, by 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike, local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and a badge of the conservative peasant. The Haute house was the established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. Since then, the idea of the designer as a celebrity in his or her own right has become increasingly dominant. The impact of unisex expands more broadly to various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail. Fashion weeks are held in cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. Modern Westerners have a number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests, when people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may start
Pepper Ann is an American animated series created by Sue Rose and aired on ABC. It debuted on September 13,1997, and ended on November 18,2000 and it aired on Toon Disney until 2005. Pepper Ann was the very first animated series for Disney to be created by a woman. Tom Warburton, who created Cartoon Networks Codename, Kids Next Door, Pepper Ann stars adolescents and charts their ups and downs at Hazelnut Middle School. It aired as part of the Disneys One Saturday Morning block, the character originated in a comic strip published in YM magazine. The series was mostly rated TV-Y, with the exception of the season 1 finale In Support Of, at the end of the opening sequence, she always finds something different under her desk, such as a mood ring or maracas. In season one, she always finds five bucks, Pepper Ann Pearson, The 12-year-old protagonist of the series, whose emotions come out in fantasies. Nicky Anais Little, Pepper Anns best friend and she is soft-spoken and an overachieving violinist. Nicky used to be a bully and skipped Kindergarten when she started school, nicky eventually became a nice person and switched from First Grade to Kindergarten.
Milo Kamalani, Other best friend of Pepper Ann, who he calls P. A. for short and he is a very eccentric and highly dramatic artist. Lydia Pearson, Overprotective divorced perky mother of Pepper Ann and Moose, margaret Rose Moose Pearson, Pepper Anns tomboyish little sister. Principal Hickey, Hazelnut Middle Schools tough disciplinarian with zero tolerance for Pepper Anns shenanigans, janie Lilly Diggety, Pepper Ann and Mooses aunt, who served as a Green Beret. Jo Jo Diggety, Pepper Ann and Mooses uncle, who works as a cop, trinket St. Blair, A popular rich and spoiled girl who is mean to Pepper Ann. Dieter Lederhosen, The German exchange student, cissy Rooney, A popular girl who is Trinkets friend. Tessa & Vanessa James, The twin school gossips, craig Bean, The cool 8th grader, and Pepper Anns love interest. They are the only Walt Disney Television Animation characters ever to appear on House of Mouse, lydia says Dont touch the villain, dear, to Pepper Ann after Pete falls out of the sky after being kicked out of the club.
Pepper Ann at the Internet Movie Database Pepper Ann at TV. com
Drake & Josh
Drake & Josh is an American television sitcom created by Dan Schneider for Nickelodeon. The series follows the lives of two boys with opposite personalities, Drake Parker and Josh Nichols, who become stepbrothers. Both actors previously appeared in The Amanda Show along with Nancy Sullivan, miranda Cosgrove plays Megan, Drakes mischievous younger sister, and Jonathan Goldstein plays Walter, Joshs father. The series opening song, Found a Way, is written by Drake Bell and Backhouse Mike. The series ran from January 11,2004, to September 16,2007 and it had two TV films, Drake & Josh Go Hollywood and Merry Christmas, Drake & Josh. The series is focused on a pair of stepbrothers who have opposite personalities, the boys are often involved in comedic misadventures and obstacles while handling teenage situations such as school and popularity. A notable running joke on the series is the presence of parodies of various brands, TV shows, Films. Such parodies include Mountain Fizz, a parody of Mountain Dew, the GameSphere, a parody of the Nintendo GameCube and the Gary Coleman Grill, the boys are left at home in San Diego, California after Audrey and Walter go on a ten-day cruise.
Drake and Josh are told to take Megan to the airport so she can visit her friend in Denver, Colorado and Josh go to Hollywood to get Megan back, end up stopping a multibillion-dollar heist, and booking a guest-spot for Drake on TRL. The TV film aired on January 6,2006, according to TV Guide and it currently holds a 78% on Rotten Tomatoes. A new Drake & Josh TV film tentatively entitled Drake & Josh, Best Christmas Ever began production in July 2008, the title was changed to Merry Christmas, Drake & Josh. Creator Dan Schneider returned as producer, with Marjorie Cohn. While the boys are not enjoying their time and Walter are feeling worse on their vacation because they have to stay in a hut while in a hurricane, the TV film was broadcast in HD format, unlike the previous TV film Drake & Josh Go Hollywood. It featured Henry Winkler and MMA fighter Kimbo Slice, the premiere of Merry Christmas, Drake & Josh broke the record of most viewers for the premiere of a Nickelodeon film with 9.10 million viewers, a title previously held by iGo to Japan.
Despite the strong ratings, the film is the lowest-reviewed of the two Drake & Josh films, currently holding a 70% on Rotten Tomatoes, U. S. 8/10 on TV. com, and a high 7. 6/10 from reviews on IMDb. According to creator Dan Schneider, Drake & Josh had its highest ratings in its final season, to this day, Drake & Josh has widely been considered one of Nickelodeons best live-action shows, if not one of the best Nickelodeon shows of all time. Drake & Josh has had singles and a soundtrack. The music releases are shown below, two video games based on Drake & Josh have been released on the Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS
Emma Rose Roberts is an American actress and singer. After making her debut as Kristina Jung in Blow, Roberts gained recognition for her lead role as Addie Singer on the Nickelodeon television series Unfabulous. She released her studio album and More, which served as the series soundtrack. Roberts appeared in a series of roles, including Nancy Drew, Wild Child, Hotel for Dogs, Valentines Day, Its Kind of a Funny Story. Looking for more roles, Roberts went on to obtain both supporting and lead roles in Lymelife,126.96.36.199, Scream 4, Adult World, Were the Millers. She currently stars in the role of Chanel Oberlin on the Fox television series Scream Queens, as well as playing main roles in American Horror Story, Coven. Roberts was born in Rhinebeck, New York, to Kelly Cunningham and her parents separated when she was a baby. Through her fathers marriage, she is the stepdaughter of Eliza Roberts, through her mothers marriage, she is the stepdaughter of musician Kelly Nickels. She has a maternal half-sister and her paternal grandmother was acting coach Betty Lou Bredemus, and her aunts are actresses Julia Roberts and Lisa Roberts Gillan.
During her childhood, Roberts spent time on the sets of her aunt Julias films and these experiences sparked a desire to follow her father and aunts into the film industry. Her mother initially wanted her to have a normal childhood, Roberts made her acting debut at age nine in Ted Demmes 2001 drama film Blow. It was the first film for which she ever auditioned, in the film, she portrayed Kristina Jung, the daughter of Johnny Depps character. That year, she had a role in Leif Tildens 10-minute short bigLove, in 2004, she began starring as the lead character Addie Singer in the Nickelodeon series Unfabulous, which debuted in September of that year. The sitcom earned Roberts a Teen Choice Award nomination and several Young Artist Award nominations, the series focused on a seventh grader and her two best friends. The show spawned TV movies, including The Perfect Moment, in 2004, Roberts guest-starred in an episode of the Nickelodeon series Drake & Josh titled Honor Council. After her run on Unfabulous, Nickelodeon had considered giving Roberts a kick start into a music career, in 2006, Roberts returned to the big screen, starring alongside Sara Paxton and singer JoJo in Aquamarine.
She won a 2007 Young Artist Award for Best Supporting Young Actress in a Feature Film for her role in the film, the film Aquamarine took fifth place at the box office in its opening weekend making $8 million. In early 2006, Roberts finished shooting her title role in Nancy Drew, the film was released to theaters on June 15,2007, and grossed over $7 million in its opening weekend, though the film was not well received by critics
Raja Jean Fenske is an American actor, probably best known for his role as Jake Behari in Nickelodeons Unfabulous alongside Emma Roberts and Malese Jow. He is sometimes credited as RJ Fenske, Fenske was born in Rockville, Maryland. His mother is originally from Chennai, while on his fathers side and he had dreams of becoming a professional basketball player in the NBA. He is a player of competitive basketball as well as football within the Nike Entertainment Flag Football League. Fenske attended Thousand Oaks High School in California, in September 2007 he began his freshman year at California State University, where he studied BA - Cinema Television Arts - Emphasis Cinematography. He has appeared as a guest star on a number of shows such as including Lizzie McGuire, CSI. His 2003 appearance on CSI, Miami earned him a nomination for the Young Artist Award for Best Performance in a TV Drama Series, in 2009, he produced and starred in a short, a thriller named Injustice. In 2013, Fenske will be playing the lead in a new comedy called Pendejo, the story focuses on a college graduate who loves a life of partying until his father wants him to get a real job, and the antics that ensue.
Fenske describes his character as someone who gets to have a lot of fun and has a lot of things that go on. It is scheduled for release in late November, raja Fenske at the Internet Movie Database
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some part of Earth and this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. Even acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a system in the desert. Though many animals build things to provide an environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams. People seldom find absolutely natural environments on Earth, and naturalness usually varies in a continuum, more precisely, we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, and see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in a field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the environment of giraffes is the savanna.
Earth science generally recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively. Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in sciences, namely geography, geophysics. These major disciplines use physics, biology, the Earths crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle. It has been generated greatly by igneous processes in which magma cools, beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle which is heated by the decay of radioactive elements. The mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection and this convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. The resulting process is known as plate tectonics, volcanoes result primarily from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes.
An ocean is a body of saline water, and a component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered by ocean, a body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans. More than half of area is over 3,000 meters deep