Ancient Egyptian technology
Ancient Egyptian technology describes devices and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt. The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes, they used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, pottery were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin; the wheel was used for a number of purposes, but chariots only came into use after the Second Intermediate period. The Egyptians played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses. Significant advances in ancient Egypt during the dynastic period include astronomy and medicine, their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, flooded annually by the Nile river. The 3,4,5 right triangle and other rules of thumb served to represent rectilinear structures, the post and lintel architecture of Egypt. Egypt was a center of alchemy research for much of the western world.
The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus was produced in Egypt as early as 3000 BC, was sold to ancient Greece and Rome; the establishment of the Library of Alexandria limited the supply of papyrus for others. According to the Roman historian Pliny, as a result of this, parchment was invented under the patronage of Eumenes II of Pergamon to build his rival library at Pergamon. However, this is a myth. Egyptian hieroglyphs, a phonetic writing system, served as the basis for the Phoenician alphabet from which alphabets, such as Hebrew and Latin were derived. With this ability and record keeping, the Egyptians developed one of the —if not the— first decimal system; the city of Alexandria retained preeminence for its scrolls with its library. This ancient library was damaged by fire when it fell under Roman rule, was destroyed by 642 CE. With it, a vast supply of antique literature and knowledge was lost.
Some of the older tools used in the construction of Egyptian housing included reeds and clay. According to Lucas and Harris, “reeds were plastered with clay in order to keep out of heat and cold more effectually”. Other tools that were used were "limestone, chiseled stones, wooden mallets, stone hammers". With these tools, ancient Egyptians were able to create more than just housing, but sculptures of their gods, Many temples from Ancient Egypt are not standing today; some are in ruin from tear, while others have been lost entirely. The Egyptian structures are among the largest constructions conceived and built by humans, they constitute one of the most enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization. Temples and tombs built by a pharaoh famous for her projects, were massive and included many colossal statues of her. Pharaoh Tutankamun's rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings was full of jewelry and antiques. In some late myths, Ptah was identified as the primordial mound and had called creation into being, he was considered the deity of craftsmen, in particular, of stone-based crafts.
Imhotep, included in the Egyptian pantheon, was the first documented engineer. In Hellenistic Egypt, lighthouse technology was developed, the most famous example being the Lighthouse of Alexandria. Alexandria was a port for the ships that traded the goods manufactured in Egypt or imported into Egypt. A giant cantilevered hoist lifted cargo to and from ships; the lighthouse itself was designed by Sostratus of Cnidus and built in the 3rd century BC on the island of Pharos in Alexandria, which has since become a peninsula. This lighthouse was renowned in its time and knowledge of it was never lost. A 2006 drawing of it created from the study of many references, is shown at the right; the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world with its architectural monuments, which include the pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx—among the largest and most famous buildings in the world. The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids—huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest constructions by humans.
Pyramids functioned as tombs for pharaohs. In Ancient Egypt, a pyramid was referred to as mer "place of ascendance." The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the largest in the world. The base is over 13 acres in area, it is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, although many of the stones used for the finishing purpose have fallen or been removed for use on other structures over the millennia; the Red Pyramid of Egypt, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surfaces, is the third largest of Egyptian pyramids. Menkaure's Pyramid dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks; the Great Pyramid of Giza contains a huge granite sarcophagus fashioned of "Red Aswan Granite." The ruined Black Pyramid dating from the reign of Amenemhat III once had a polished granite pyramidion or capstone, now on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Other uses in Ancient Egypt, include columns, door lintels, sills and wall and floor veneer. The ancient Egyptians had some of the first monumental stone buildings. How the Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities believed to be present in, in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position, they acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, were obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain maat, the order of the cosmos. The state dedicated enormous resources to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for help through prayer or compelling the gods to act through magic; these practices were distinct from, but linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined.
Egyptian belief in the afterlife and funerary practices is evident in great efforts made to ensure the survival of their souls after death, providing tombs, grave goods, offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased. The religion lasted for more than 3,000 years; the details of religious belief changed over time as the importance of particular gods rose and declined, their intricate relationships shifted. At various times, certain gods became preeminent over the others, including the sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, the mother goddess Isis. For a brief period, in the theology promulgated by the Pharaoh Akhenaten, a single god, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon. Ancient Egyptian religion and mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures; the beliefs and rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. The Egyptian language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion.
Ancient Egyptian religion consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine. The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians' understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived; the Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces of themselves. These deified forces included animal characteristics, or abstract forces; the Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage; this polytheistic system was complex, as some deities were believed to exist in many different manifestations, some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities; the diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or "demons" with limited or localized functions.
It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, sometimes humans: deceased pharaohs were believed to be divine, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep became deified. The depictions of the gods in art were not meant as literal representations of how the gods might appear if they were visible, as the gods' true natures were believed to be mysterious. Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god's role in nature; this iconography was not fixed, many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form. Many gods were associated with particular regions in Egypt. However, these associations changed over time, they did not mean that the god associated with a place had originated there. For instance, the god Montu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere; the national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way.
Deities had complex interrelationships, which reflected the interaction of the forces they represented. The Egyptians grouped gods together to reflect these relationships. One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father and child, who were worshipped together; some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Ennead, assembled nine deities into a theological system, involved in the mythological areas of creation and the afterlife; the relationships between deities could be expressed in the process of syncretism, in which two or more different gods were linked to form a composite deity. This process was a recognition of the presence of one god "in" another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first; these links between deities were fluid, did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one. Sometimes, syncretism combined deities with similar characteristics. At other times it joined gods with different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Ra, the god of the sun.
The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature. Many deities could be given epithets that seem to indicate that they were greater than any other god, suggesting some kind of u
Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife, is the term, used to refer to the principal wife of the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, who served many official functions. While most Ancient Egyptians were monogamous, a male pharaoh would have had other, lesser wives and concubines in addition to the Great Royal Wife; this arrangement would allow the pharaoh to enter into diplomatic marriages with the daughters of allies, as was the custom of ancient kings. In the past the order of succession in Ancient Egypt was thought to pass through the royal women; this theory, referred to as the Heiress Theory, has been rejected regarding the eighteenth dynasty since a 1980s study of its royalty. The throne just passed to the eldest living son of those pharaohs; the mother of the heir to the throne was not always the Great Royal Wife, but once a pharaoh was crowned, it was possible to grant the mother of the king the title of Great Royal Wife, along with other titles. Examples include Iset, the mother of Thutmose III, the mother of Thutmose IV and Mutemwia, the mother of Amenhotep III.
Meretseger, the chief wife of Senusret III, may be the earliest queen whose name appears with this title. However, she is only attested in the New Kingdom; the first holder of its title was Nubkhaes of the Second Intermediate Period. A special place in the history of great royal wives was taken by Hatshepsut, she was Great Royal Wife to her half-brother Thutmose II. During this time Hatshepsut became God's Wife of Amun. After the death of her husband, she became regent because of the minority of her stepson, the only male heir, who would become Thutmose III. While he was still young, Hatshepsut was crowned as pharaoh and ruled successfully in her own right for many years. Although other women before her had ruled Egypt, Hatshepsut was the first woman to take the title, pharaoh, as it was a new term being used for the rulers, not having been used before the eighteenth dynasty; when she became pharaoh, she designated her daughter, Neferure, as God's Wife of Amun to perform the duties of high priestess.
Her daughter may have been the great royal wife of Thutmose III, but there is no clear evidence for this proposed marriage. Elsewhere, in Kush and other major states of ancient Africa, the rulers structured their households in much the same way as has just been described. List of consorts of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, for the modern queens and sultanas of Egypt God's Wife of Amun Divine Adoratrice of Amun Interregnum queen
Clothing in ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian clothes refers to clothing worn in ancient Egypt from the end of the Neolithic period to the collapse of the Ptolemaic Kingdom with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Egyptian clothing was filled with a variety of colors. Adorned with precious gems and jewels, the fashions of the ancient Egyptians were made for not only beauty but comfort. Egyptian fashion was created to keep cool while in the hot desert. In ancient Egypt, linen was by far the most common textile, it helped people to be comfortable in the subtropical heat. Linen is made from the flax plant by spinning the fibers from the stem of the plant. Spinning and sewing were important techniques for all Egyptian societies. Plant dyes could be applied to clothing but the clothing was left in its natural color. Wool was considered impure. Only the wealthy wore animal fibers, they were forbidden in temples and sanctuaries. Peasants and other people of modest condition wore nothing, but the shenti was worn by all people. Slaves worked naked.
The most common headdress was a striped cloth worn by men. There were several ancient Egyptian deities related to fabrics and weaving, chiefly the god Hedjhotep and the goddess Tayt. Royal clothing is well documented, as well as the clothing and crowns of the Pharaohs; the pharaohs would wear animal skins leopard or lion, as a sign of their station. From about 2130 BC during the Old Kingdom, garments were simple; the men wore wrap around skirts known as the shendyt, which were belted at the waist, sometimes pleated or gathered in the front. During this time, men's skirts were short; as the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the skirt was worn longer. Around 1420 BC, there was a light tunic or blouse with sleeves, as well as a pleated petticoat. During the Old and New Kingdom, ancient Egyptian women wore a simple sheath dress called a kalasiris. Women's clothing in ancient Egypt was more conservative than men's clothing; the dresses were held up by one or two straps and were worn down to the ankle, while the upper edge could be worn above or below the breasts.
The length of the dress denoted the social class of the wearer. Beading or feathers were used as an embellishment on the dress. Over the dress, women had a choice of wearing capes, or robes; the shawl was a piece of fine linen cloth around 4 feet 14 feet long. This was worn pleated as well; until the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty women wore a tight-fitting sheath dress, a simple garment that falls from just below the breasts to just above the ankles, being held up by two shoulder straps. On statues the straps cover the breasts, but in painting and relief the single breast depicted in profile is exposed; the dress hugs the body with no slack. When women are shown in movement, sitting or kneeling, the dress still clings to the outline of the body as if elasticated; however Egyptian clothes were made from linen, which tends to sag. Surviving dresses consist of a body made from a tube of material sewn up one side, supported not by straps but by a bodice with sleeves. In contrast to dresses shown in art, such linen garments tend to be baggy, would conceal rather than reveal the body.
Children wore no clothing until 6 years old. Once they turned six years old they were allowed to wear clothing to protect them from the dry heat. A popular hairstyle among the children was the side-lock, an unshaved length of hair on the right side of the head. Though children wore no clothing, they wore jewelry such as anklets, bracelets and hair accessories; when they grew up, they wore the same styles as their parents. Wigs were worn by the wealthy of both sexes. Made from human hair and sometimes supplemented with date palm fiber, they were styled in tight curls and narrow braids. For special occasions, both men and women could top their wigs with cones of perfumed fat that would melt to release their fragrance and condition the hair. Jewelry was popular in ancient Egypt, no matter the social class, it was rather voluminous. The main reason for wearing jewelry is because of its aesthetic function; the Egyptians were quite soberly dressed in white linen fabrics, jewelry offered a possibility for contrast.
The Egyptian preference was towards the use of lustrous stones and precious metals. Gold was won in large quantities in the eastern desert of Egypt, but came from Nubia, an Egyptian colony for centuries. On the other hand, silver was imported from Asia. Therefore, it was silver, considered more precious than gold; the eastern desert was an important source for colorful semi-precious stones such as carnelian and jasper. In the Sinai were turquoise mines, the deep blue lapis lazuli had to come from far away Afghanistan. Glass and faience were favorites to replace rocks; the Egyptians became skilled when making jewelry from turquoise, metals like gold and silver, small beads. Both men and women adorned themselves with earrings, rings and neck collars that were brightly colored; those who could not afford jewelry made from gold or other stones would make their jewelry from colored pottery beads. One creation, specific to ancient Egypt was the gorgerine, an assembly of metal discs worn on the chest, either over bare skin or over a shirt, attached in the back.
Embalming allowed the development of perfumes. The perfumes of Egypt were the most numerous, but the most sought and the costliest of antiquity, which used t
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith within the surface of the crust of the Earth or other terrestrial planets. Bedrock refers to the substructure composed of hard rock exposed or buried at the earths surface, an exposed portion of bedrock is called an outcrop. Bedrock may have various chemical and mineralogical compositions and can be igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary in origin; the bedrock may be overlain by weathered regolith which includes soil and the subsoil. The surface of the bedrock beneath the soil cover is known as rockhead in engineering geology, its identification by digging, drilling or geophysical methods is an important task in most civil engineering projects. Superficial deposits can be thick, such that the bedrock lies hundreds of meters below the surface. Bedrock when exposed or within the subsurface may experience weathering and erosion by external factors. Weathering may be physical or chemical and alters the structure of the rock and may cause it to erode and or alter over time based on the interactions between the mineralogy and its interactions.
Bedrock may experience subsurface weathering at its upper boundary, forming saprolite. A geologic map of an area will show the distribution of differing bedrock types, rock that would be exposed at the surface if all soil or other superficial deposits were removed. Geology – The study of the composition, physical properties, history of Earth's components, the processes by which they are shaped. Outcrop Regolith – A layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock Soil – mixture of organic matter, gases and organisms that together support life Weathering – Breaking down of rocks and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere and waters Rafferty, John P. "Bedrock GEOLOGY". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 April 2019. Harris, The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. P515-516. Media related to Bedrock at Wikimedia Commons
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period. In the 5th millennium BCE, the stone circles at Nabta Playa may have made use of astronomical alignments. By the time the historical Dynastic Period began in the 3rd millennium BCE, the 365-day period of the Egyptian calendar was in use, the observation of stars was important in determining the annual flooding of the Nile; the Egyptian pyramids were aligned towards the pole star, the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak was aligned on the rising of the midwinter Sun. Astronomy played a considerable part in fixing the dates of religious festivals and determining the hours of night, temple astrologers were adept at watching the stars and observing the conjunctions and risings of the Sun and planets, as well as the lunar phases. In Ptolemaic Egypt, the Egyptian tradition merged with Greek astronomy and Babylonian astronomy, with the city of Alexandria in Lower Egypt becoming the centre of scientific activity across the Hellenistic world.
Roman Egypt produced the greatest astronomer of Ptolemy. His works on astronomy, including the Almagest, became the most influential books in the history of Western astronomy. Following the Muslim conquest of Egypt, the region came to be dominated by Arabic culture and Islamic astronomy; the astronomer Ibn Yunus observed the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe, his observations on eclipses were still used centuries later. In 1006, Ali ibn Ridwan observed the SN 1006, a supernova regarded as the brightest stellar event in recorded history, left the most detailed description of it. In the 14th century, Najm al-Din al-Misri wrote a treatise describing over 100 different types of scientific and astronomical instruments, many of which he invented himself. In the 20th century, Farouk El-Baz from Egypt worked for NASA and was involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program, where he assisted in the planning of scientific explorations of the Moon. Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times.
The presence of stone circles at Nabta Playa in Upper Egypt dating from the 5th millennium BCE show the importance of astronomy to the religious life of ancient Egypt in the prehistoric period. The annual flooding of the Nile meant that the heliacal risings, or first visible appearances of stars at dawn, were of special interest in determining when this might occur, it is no surprise that the 365-day period of the Egyptian calendar was in use at the beginning of Egyptian history; the constellation system used among the Egyptians appears to have been of native origin. The precise orientation of the Egyptian pyramids serves as a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the 3rd millennium BCE, it has been shown the pyramids were aligned towards the pole star, because of the precession of the equinoxes, was at that time Thuban, a faint star in the constellation of Draco. Evaluation of the site of the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak, taking into account the change over time of the obliquity of the ecliptic, has shown that the Great Temple was aligned on the rising of the midwinter Sun.
The length of the corridor down which sunlight would travel would have limited illumination at other times of the year. Astronomy played a considerable part in religious matters for fixing the dates of festivals and determining the hours of the night; the titles of several temple books are preserved recording the movements and phases of the Sun and stars. The rising of Sirius at the beginning of the inundation was a important point to fix in the yearly calendar. One of the most important Egyptian astronomical texts was the Book of Nut, going back to the Middle Kingdom or earlier; the death of a king had a strong connection to the stars for Ancient Egyptians. They believed once a king was deceased, their soul would become a star. Translated pyramid texts describe the king ascending and becoming the Morning Star among the Imperishable Stars of past kings. Beginning with the 9th Dynasty, ancient Egyptians produced'Diagonal star tables', which were painted on the inside surface of wooden coffin lids.
This practice continued until the 12th dynasty. These'Diagonal star tables' or star charts are known as'diagonal star clocks'; these star charts featuring the paintings of Egyptian deities, decans and star observations are found on the ceilings of tombs and temples. From the tables of stars on the ceiling of the tombs of Rameses VI and Rameses IX it seems that for fixing the hours of the night a man seated on the ground faced the Astrologer in such a position that the line of observation of the pole star passed over the middle of his head. On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it, the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder, etc. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus, we may conclude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations. In careful hands, it might give results of a high degree of accuracy.
Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius attributed the planetary theory where the Earth rotates on its axis and the interior planets Mercury and Venus revolve around the Sun which in turn revolves around the Earth, to the ancient Egyptians. He named it the "Egyptian System," and stated that "it did not escape the skill of the Egyptians," though there is no other evidence it was known in ancient Egypt
Military of ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, it developed over the next three millennia, its history occurred in a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as intermediate periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in the late period, the rule of the pharaohs ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province. Although the Egyptian military forces in the Old and Middle kingdoms were well maintained, the new form that emerged in the New Kingdom showed the state becoming more organized to serve its needs. For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government; the main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out.
The arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile River valley. The great expanses of the desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was impossible for massive armies to cross; the Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta, in the Eastern Desert, in Nubia to the south. Small garrisons could prevent minor incursions, but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked other defenses; the history of ancient Egypt is divided into two intermediate periods. During the three kingdoms Egypt was unified under one government. During the intermediate periods government control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners; the geography of Egypt allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests, they enfeebled their enemies like bows and arrows. They had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy.
The Old Kingdom was one of the greatest times in Egypt's history. Because of this affluence, it allowed the government to stabilize and in turn organize a functioning military. Before Egypt's New Kingdom, there were four major causes for military conflict: the Libyans from the Sahara to the west, the Nubians from the south, the Sinai and Canaanites to the north, internal conflict when the regions, or nomes, divided from the monarchy to form rival factions. All of the areas outside Egypt were connected in conflict either by raiding parties entering Egypt or Egypt maintaining a policy of eradication imperialism; the Old Kingdom's military was most marked by their construction of forts along the Nile River. At this time, the main conflict was with Nubia and Egypt felt the urge to defend their borders by building forts deep into this country; these forts were never attacked, but they acted as a deterring factor towards potential invaders. Many are underwater in Lake Nasser, but while they were visible they were a true testament to the affluence and military prowess of ancient Egypt during this time.
During the Old Kingdom there was no professional army in Egypt. All the armies would come together under the Pharaoh to battle; because military service was not considered prestigious, the army was made up of lower-class men, who could not afford to train in other jobsOld Kingdom soldiers were equipped with many types of weapons, including shields, cudgels, maces and bows and arrows. The most common Egyptian weapon was the arrow. During the Old Kingdom, a single-arched bow was used; this type of bow was difficult to draw, there was less draw length. After the composite bow was introduced by the Hyksos, Egyptian soldiers used this weapon, as well; the pharaoh Mentuhotep II commanded military campaigns south as far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. He restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, lost to Egypt since the end of the Old Kingdom. From the Twelfth Dynasty onwards, pharaohs kept well-trained standing armies, which formed the basis of larger forces raised for defense against invasion.
Under the rule of Senusret I, Egyptian armies built a border fort at Buhen and incorporated all of lower Nubia as an Egyptian colony. After Merneferre Ay of the mid-13th dynasty fled his palace, a Canaanite tribe called the Hyksos sacked Memphis and claimed dominion over Upper and Lower Egypt. After the Hyksos took control, many Egyptians fled to Thebes, where they began to oppose the Hyksos rule; the Hyksos, Asiatics from the Northeast, set up a fortified capital at Avaris. The Egyptians were trapped at this time, they were in the middle of an "enemy sandwich" between the Hyksos in the north and the Kushite Nubians in the south. This period marked a great change for Egypt's military; the Hyksos have been credited with bringing to Egypt the horse, the Ourarit, the composite bow—tools that drastically altered the way Egypt's military functioned. The composite bow, which allowed for more accuracy and greater kill distance with arrows, along with horses and chariots assisted the Egyptian military in ousting the Hyksos from Egypt, beginning when Seqenenre Tao b