The Campeonato Argentino de Mayores is an annual rugby union competition in Argentina for provincial teams. The Campeonato Argentino is amateur, only players from local clubs are allowed; the competing teams do not represent the 24 political provinces of Argentina, but rather the unions of the rugby provinces that make up the Unión Argentina de Rugby. Some of these unions represent more than one political province, for example "Noreste" represents the provinces of Chaco and Corrientes. Other unions may only represent part of a political province, most notably the unions that make up the province of Buenos Aires and the unions of Santa Fe and Rosario, both within the borders of the province of Santa Fe; the competition is split into three divisions: Zona Campeonato which contains the 8 best unions, Zona Ascenso, with the next best 8 teams divided in two pools, with the winner of them play a play-off with the lowest two of the higher level for promotion to the Zona Campeonato. The last two of the pools play a play-off.
The loser is relegated to Estimulo Super 9 with 9 teams. The winner is promoted to Ascenso. In the 2012 edition, the national teams of Chile and Uruguay participated at the Zona Campeonato, while the national teams of Brazil and Paraguay played in the third level. In 2015 Uruguay enters in the competition with a team at Zona Ascenso; the same for Paraguay, from in 2016, in order to compete in Super 9. Campeonato Argentino at Unión Argentina de Rugby website
San Juan Province, Argentina
San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza, it borders with Chile at the west. The province has an area of 89,651 km2, covering a mountainous region with scarce vegetation, fertile oases and turbulent rivers. Throughout the entire province there are an important number of paleontological sites. Similar to other regions in Argentina, agriculture is one of the most important economic activities, highlighting wine production and olive oil. Additionally, a variety of fruits and vegetables are produced in the fertile valleys irrigated by artificial channels in the western part, close to the Andes mountain range; this is the second province in volume of wine production at the national level and in South America, possesses outstanding varietal wines. It is an important center of mining and oil production. Before the arrival of Spanish conquistadores, different tribes like Huarpes, Capazanes and Yacampis influenced by the Inca empire, inhabited the area.
The city of San Juan de la Frontera was founded by Juan Jufré y Montesa in 1562 and relocated 2 kilometres south in 1593 due to the frequent flooding of the San Juan River. In 1776, San Juan was annexed to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, becoming one of the cities of the Province of Cuyo. In the same year, the first recorded earthquake caused massive damage to the city; the father of Argentine independence, Gen. Jose de San Martin, was appointed Governor of the Province of Cuyo in 1814. From there, San Martin began his legendary crossing of the Andes, one of military history's great tactical decisions. San Juan a small town, was a great supporter of the expedition supplying gold and mules. In 1820, San Juan was granted autonomy from the Province of Cuyo, thereby becoming an autonomous province; the remainder of Cuyo region became Mendoza Province. Following an era of international isolation for Argentina, the advent of new, more liberal government in 1853 attracted a number of exiled intellectuals back into San Juan.
Among these, was a San Juan military officer and novelist named Domingo Sarmiento. Sarmiento was elected governor in 1862, pursuing sorely needed public investments and enacting Argentina's first law mandating compulsory education. Once elected President of Argentina in 1868, those policies became national law. In 1944 a moderate, yet destructive earthquake near the capital destroyed most of the city and killed 10,000 people. A fundraiser was organized to raise money for the victims of the quake where Colonel Juan Perón met his eventual wife and political companion Eva Duarte. A more powerful earthquake stuck the same city in 1977; the most noteworthy loss following this event was the destruction of the Cathedral of San Juan. A new, modernist house of worship was put up in its place and inaugurated in 1979. Among the most growing provinces in Argentina after 1945, the national government began the construction of the National University of San Juan, which opened its doors in 1973. Congress further responded to the needs of San Juan's growing agricultural sector by breaking ground in the mid'70s for the largest hydrostructural project in the province up to that point, the Ullum Dam and Reservoir.
Inaugurated in 1980, it has contributed to the province's production of irrigated desert crops, like olives, figs and, most wine grapes. In 2005, Barrick Gold Corporation, one of the world's largest gold-mining conglomerates, announced the purchase of large tracts in the San Juan Andes where a gold mine was started; these have, so far, been yielding over 11,000 ounces of gold yearly, though evidence suggests these activities may be having an adverse impact on San Juan's glaciers. In 2007, the same company installed the world's highest-situated wind turbine at the Veladero mine in San Juan Province at nearly 4,200m elevation; the province is part of the continental semi-desert Cuyo region. The arid plains start on the east, with a few low hills in the middle and swiftly turn into 6,000-meter-high mountain peaks towards the west. Both areas are subject to the dry hot Zonda. Most of the precipitations take place during the summer as electrical storms; the hot wind has modeled the clay-rich red soil into Pampa del Leoncito and Valle de la Luna 200-million-year-old geological formations.
The Jáchal and San Juan rivers, both part of Desaguadero River system, are the source of fertile valleys and centre of the province's economy. The San Juan River finishes on the southeast. San Juan concentrates most of its population in the oases or central valleys, Tulum Valley, Ullum and Jáchal, containing nearly 80% of this population; the remaining is located in the oasis located at the foot of the Andes in Calingasta. Another population concentration is in Fertile Valley. San Juan focuses its economy in agriculture, specially wine production. Additionally, preserved foods production is developed. Mining is a growing activity, with the extraction of various minerals financed by multinational companies. Tourism is a new and flourishing activity and it is becoming an important source of revenue for the province. San Juan's is a diversified, economy, its output was estimated in 2006 at US$3.613 billion, or US$5,827 per capita (a third less than the national averag
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, to the west with the republic of Chile, its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina with 5.35% of the country's total area. The population for 2010 is 1,741,610 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth most populated province of the country, or 4.35% of the total national population. Archeological studies have determined that the first inhabitants in the area date from the Holocene, but there are few remains of those people to know their habits; the earliest sites of human occupation in Mendoza Province, Agua de la Cueva and Gruta del Indio, are 12-13,000 years old. In the basins of the Atuel River, in 300 BC lived a group of people that lived via hunting and the cultivation of maize and beans.
Those valleys saw the rise of ancestor of the Huarpes. They were influenced by the Inca empire during the 15th century. Oral tradition sets the arrival of the Inca Túpac Yupanqui to Coquimbo in 1470. Puelches and other groups received a strong influence of the Mapuches; the first Spanish conquerors came around 1550 from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1561 Mendoza was founded by the conquistador Pedro del Castillo; until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the area of what is now Mendoza Province belonged to the Captaincy General of Chile. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its 30,000 inhabitants became part of the intendency of Cuyo de Córdoba del Tucumán, but in 1813 the intendency was separated and the Province of Cuyo created, with José de San Martín as its first Governor, he received important support from Mendoza when he led his Army of the Andes from Plumerillo to the 1817 crossing of the Andes, in his campaign to end Spanish rule in Chile.
The Province of Cuyo was divided in 1820, Mendoza parted ways with San Luis and San Juan Provinces. The 1861 earthquake nearly destroyed the city of Mendoza, which had to be entirely reconstructed. In 1885 railways were built to the province, allowing for easy transport of the region's wines to the country's trade hub of Buenos Aires. Following the development of the wine industry in the province around 1900, Mendoza began to grow attracting tens of thousands of European immigrants Spaniards. In 1939 the National University of Cuyo, one of the more important universities of the country, was founded in the province. In reaction to President Juan Perón's populist policies, some of which taxed agriculture to finance urban development and public works, Mendoza landowners formed the conservative Democratic Party, which secured the Vice Governor's post in 1958. Increasing their presence in the Mendoza Legislature, the Democrats became an obstacle to progressive Governor Ernesto Ueltschi, an ally of president Arturo Frondizi's.
With majorities in both houses by 1961, they had Gov. Ueltschi removed and Democrat Vice-governor Francisco Gabrielli appointed in his stead. Elected governor in his own right in 1963, Gov. Gabrielli was deposed following the June 1966 coup against President Arturo Illia. In contrast to the pragmatism that had distinguished his 1963–66 term, Gabrielli governed with a hard line, freezing state salaries and ordering large utility rate increases, used the Mendoza police to repress dissent and took foreign policy prerogatives like collaborating with Chilean saboteurs opposed to their country's new Marxist president, Salvador Allende; these events came to a head in April, 1972, when violent protests forced the newly unpopular Gabrielli to resign. Upon the return to democracy in March 1973, Mendoza voters turned to a left-leaning Peronist, Alberto Martínez Baca. Enacting needed labor and land reforms, Martínez Baca, made the mistake of appointing affiliates of the extreme-left Montoneros movement, an organization whose armed wing had perpetrated a string of violent crimes since 1970.
Alarmed by this move from the otherwise pragmatic Martínez Baca, President Perón had him removed in June 1974. Becoming more politically independent-minded following these two disappointments, Mendoza voters elected centrist Radical Civic Union as well as populist Justicialist Party lawmakers since Argentina's return to democracy in 1983. Though Mendoza has prospered since its critical wine industry was left reeling from the 1983 collapse of state-owned vintner Bodegas GIOL, whose dictatorship-era receivers had run the wine conglomerate, accumulated over US$6 billion of debt. Elected in 2003, Radical Civic Union Governor Julio Cobos highlighted this independent sentiment by parting ways with many in his party and endorsing newly elected Peronist President Néstor Kirchner's policies in 2004. Over the opposition of his party, Julio Cobos accepted the post of running mate to first lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the ruling Front for Victory, in the presidential elections of October 2007.
Fernández and Cobos won in the first round, Cobos became Vice President of Argentina. The province is represented by three senators in the Argentine Senate María Perceval, Ernesto Sanz and Mónica Troadello. Mendoza is represented by 10 deputies in the Argentine
History of the Argentina national rugby union team
The History of the Argentina national rugby union team starts with the first international played by an Argentine side v. the British Islands in 1910 when they toured on South America. Argentina gained recognition in 1965, when the team toured South Africa playing a series of friendly matches there. In that tour the national team was nicknamed Los Pumas, a name that became an identity mark for Argentina, remaining to present days. Argentina has taken part in all the Rugby World Cups since the first edition in 1987, being their best performance the 3rd. Place achieved in 2007; the national side plays the Rugby Championship since the 2012 edition, after joining the competition one year before. At the middle of the 19th century the British immigrants in Argentina introduced sports and contributed to establish clubs in the country, although the first clubs in Argentina only admitted English members. Natives were accepted, most of the cases as an exception; the first rugby union match in Argentina was played in 1873, in the Buenos Aires Cricket Club Ground, located in Palermo, Buenos Aires.
Both teams were formed by members of the BACC and they play a mix between football and rugby. On 29 June 1886, it is recorded that Buenos Aires F. C. and Rosario A. C. played the first inter-clubs match in Plaza Jewell, Santa Fe. In 1899, four clubs in Argentina's capital, Buenos Aires, joined together to form the River Plate Rugby Football Union and organised the first club championship that same year. In 1910 a side managed by Oxford University –supposedly the England national team, but including three Scottish players— toured Argentina as part of the celebrations for the 100th anniversary of the May Revolution; the people of Argentina termed it the "Combined British" known as "Great Britain XV". Argentina made its international debut against this team under the name "The River Plate Rugby Football Union" on 12 June; the match was played at Sociedad Sportiva Argentina of Palermo and Argentina lost 28–3. The only try for the Argentine squad was scored by Buenos Aires F. C. player Frank Heriot. The Argentina line-up was: J.
E. Saffey. McCarthy, Oswald Gebbie, F. Heriot, Henry Talbot. A. Watson. H. Gribell, W. M. Hayman. W. Saywer. Argentina's most notable players were captain Oswald St. John Gebbie and Barrie Heatlie, a South African, played for the Springboks. In 1927 the British Isles Lions toured Argentina for second time, with the Lions winning all nine encounters. Of the nine encounters, four tests were played. All the games took place in Buenos Aires; the important fact was. 1927 saw the first time Argentina wore the traditional light blue and white jersey, after a proposal from Mr. Abelardo Gutiérrez of Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires; that request was accepted and Argentina wore the striped uniform v. the British Lions. Five years passed until another international team would return to Argentina, which would be the Junior Springboks which arrived in the country for the first time in 1932 to play a series of friendly matches v. local clubs and combined teams. On July 16 and 23 the JS played 42 -- 0 and 34 -- 3, respectively.
The line-up for the first match was R. de Abelleyra. Echeverría, N. Escary. J. Stanfield, J. E. Bridger. L. Francombe, N. C. Tozer, G. A. Stewart, Ernesto Cilley, A. Navajas, K. A. M. Cookson, A. Rodríguez Jurado, C. A. Huntley Robertson Two of the members of the Junior Springboks, Rybeck Elliot and Wollie Wolheim, would return to Argentina one year to play for Hindú Club. In 1936 the British Isles visited Argentina again, winning all ten of their matches and only conceding nine points in the whole tour. Only one test was played on the tour, with Argentina losing 23–0; the following month Argentina left the country to play their first away tests – against Chile in Valparaíso. Argentina won the first test, 29–0; the second match was won by a similar margin. Two years Argentina hosted Chile, which resulted in Argentina winning by 30 points. Argentina hosted the first South American tournament, in 1951; the other teams participating were Chile. Argentina won the tournament after large victories over Uruguay and Brazil being the last v. Chile by 13–3.
All the matches were played at Estadio G. E. B. A.. In 1954 the French national team toured Argentina and Chile playing with the national team on August 29 at Gimnasia y Esgrima. Argentina lost the match by 8–22. On September 12, both teams played a second test match at the same venue, with another victory for France which won by 30–3. At the second South American tournament, in 1958, Argentina accounted for Uruguay 50–3 and Peru 44–0, Argentina emerged victorious against the hosts Chile in Santiago, by 14–0 to win their second title. In 1959 the Junior Springboks returned to South America to play a series of friendly matches in Buenos Aires and Rosario against local clubs and combined teams; the South African played Argentina in two test-matches at GEBA, winning both fixtures 14–6, 20–5. The JS played; the third edition of the South American competition, in 1961 held in Uruguay found Argentina to win their third consecutive title after defeating Chile and local team Uruguay by 36–3, with all the matches being played at Carrasco Polo of Montevideo.
Argentina won their four South America
Argentina national rugby sevens team
The Argentina national rugby sevens team competes in the Sevens World Series, in the Rugby World Cup Sevens, beginning in 2016, in the Summer Olympics. The Argentine rugby sevens team has had some success in the World Rugby Sevens Series, finishing third in 2003-04, finishing among the top six teams in five out of six seasons from 2003-04 to 2008-09. Argentina won the USA Sevens tournament in 2004 and again in 2009. During its peak, the Argentine team was led by Santiago Gómez Cora, ranked all-time first in tries, fifth in points, third in appearances. Argentina's best finish at the Rugby World Cup Sevens came in 2009, when the team reached the finals and finished as runners up. A red box around the year indicates tournaments played within Argentina * asterisk indicates a shared placing 2017–18 World Rugby Sevens Series World Sevens Series Rugby World Cup Sevens Argentina national rugby union team Rugby union in Argentina Official website WorldRugby profile
Rugby union in Argentina
Rugby union in Argentina is a popular team sport. The first rugby match played in the country dates back to 1873, as the game was introduced by the British; the Argentina national team, sometimes referred to as the Pumas, have competed at the Rugby World Cup, are considered a tier one nation by the sport's governing body, World Rugby. The Unión Argentina de Rugby was formed in 1899 as the River Plate Rugby Football Union, 26 years after the first rugby match had been played, it was affiliated to the English Rugby Football Union until 1932. The union is a member of World Rugby with two seats and three votes on that body's Executive Council; the UAR is one of the oldest rugby unions in the world. The union became a member of the International Rugby Football Board known as the International Rugby Board and now as World Rugby, after being invited to the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987. Rugby enjoys widespread popularity in Argentina, most in the Greater Buenos Aires urban area, which boasts more than eighty rugby clubs, Tucumán Province.
While rugby in Argentina is still amateur, there are many professional players. Prior to the country's entry into Super Rugby in 2016, most national team members played professionally in Europe in England and France. Today, most members of the national team play on the country's Super Rugby side, the Jaguares. At the middle of the 19th century the Irish immigrants in Argentina introduced sports and contributed to establish clubs in the country, although the first clubs in Argentina only admitted English members. Natives were accepted, most of the cases as an exception. Rugby union began to be practiced in Argentina in 1873 by the resident British people; the first rugby union match in Argentina was played that same year in the Buenos Aires Cricket Club Ground, located in Palermo neighbourhood, where the Galileo Galilei planetarium is located today. Both teams were formed by members of the BACC and they play a mix between football and rugby. On 29 June 1886, it is recorded that Buenos Aires F. C. and Rosario A.
C. played the first inter-clubs match in Plaza Jewell, Santa Fe. The line-ups were: Rosario: C. E. Baines, W. Graham, A. Musgrove, A. Williamson, R. C. Baines, A. Dickenson, Geary, E. D. Graham, Hanckel, Smyth, Towse. Buenos Aires: G. E. Gunson, F. J. Bennett, W. R. S. Baikie, J. C. Hutchings, J. Nisbet, A. H. Scott, W. P. Drabble, J. Earnshaw, A. Lace, R. Barton, J. Paterson, A. Hughes, J. P. Simpson, R. W. Anderson, W. H. Stuart; the match was won by Rosario by 3-0 with a try scored by A. Dickenson. Early rugby was not immune to political problems either. An 1890 game in Buenos Aires resulted in both teams, all 2,500 spectators being arrested. National president Juárez Celman was paranoid after the Revolution of the Park in the city earlier in the year, the police had suspected that the match was in fact a political meeting. In 1899, three clubs from Buenos Aires and one from Rosario got together to form "The River Plate Rugby Union"; that same year the Union organised the first rugby championship, won by Lomas.
This body, one of the oldest rugby unions in the world became known as the Unión Argentina de Rugby, which became a member of the International Rugby Board only after being invited to the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987. From that year until 1903, the only teams taking part in tournaments had been founded by English native or their descendants. Only they knew the rules of their families were from the high society, it was only in 1904 when the first team formed by "criollos" made its appearance, named "Centro de Estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería". Some players of that team were the Newbery Brothers, Martín Miguens, Alberto Lagos, Luis Duhau, Mariano Paunero and Germán Dates. Although rugby went professional in the mid-1990s, the domestic competition in Argentina has remained amateur; that has ensured large numbers of Argentines playing overseas in European competitions, though these players are still eligible for the national team, make up a large amount of the side. It was dominated by the British community in Argentina, but unlike certain other regions, it became transplanted to the local population.
For example, in its early days the River Plate Rugby Union, had a membership whose surnames portrayed their English and Scottish origins - such as Anderson, Bellamy, Corry-Smith, Jacobs, Taylor, Thurn. Away from Buenos Aires, where the game's background is traditionally somewhat refined, Tucuman is a heartland for the sport, where supporters are passionate, burn the opposition's flag on the terraces; this is a region. One of Argentina's main problems has been geographical isolation, despite Chile, Uruguay and to a much lesser extent, Brazil playing the game, Argentina towers above them, has not a reasonable match in its continent, its first contact outwith the continent was in 1910, when the British and Irish Lions led by J. Raphael toured on Argentina, winning all six matches, scoring 213 points, conceding a mere 31; the British Lions returned to Argentina in 1927, that time led by David MacMyn, playing 9 matches, 4 of them against the Argentina national team. Other rivals of the Lions during the tour included CA San Isidro, Buenos Aires FC, Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires.
The Lions would make a third tour on Argentina in 1936, playing 10 matches. Other team t
World Rugby Pacific Challenge
The World Rugby Pacific Challenge the IRB Pacific Rugby Cup, is an annual rugby union football tournament held in Oceania since 2006. It is contested by national'A' teams from the Asia-Pacific region; the tournament is run by World Rugby through Oceania Rugby. The original IRB Pacific Rugby Cup featured two teams from each of the three Pacific Island countries of Fiji and Tonga; the competition followed the completion of Fiji's Colonial Cup, Samoa's National Provincial Championship and Tonga's Provincial Championship and provided player development pathway leading into the IRB Pacific Nations Cup. Since 2011, the tournament has been contested by national'A' sides, although some matches featured teams from Super Rugby academies in Australia and New Zealand. Teams from Japan and Canada have joined the tournament to compete with the three Pacific Island countries; the competing national'A' teams as of the 2018 season were: Fiji Warriors Junior Japan Samoa A Tonga A Summary of all Pacific Challenge winners and runners-up, for tournaments up to and including 2018: The Pacific Rugby Cup featured six representative teams, two from each Pacific Island country: The format was a single round-robin tournament with the top-placed team hosting a final against the second-placed to decide the title.
The Fiji Warriors won the competition twice, the Samoan teams won the Cup once each, Tautahi Gold claimed the title once for Tonga. From 2011, the three Pacific Island countries were represented by their national'A' teams, they were joined by Japan's national'A' team, Junior Japan, as the fourth core team in 2013. The itinerary included tour matches against Super Rugby academy opposition from Australia and New Zealand and included the following sides: The tournament was split into three stages with the core Pacific Cup teams playing Super Rugby academies in the first two stages in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. In the third stage, the Pacific Cup teams played each other in a single round robin, home or away, to decide the title. No finals were played and the team finishing on top of the combined table after all stages was the tournament winner; the Fiji Warriors won all three tournaments from 2011 to 2013. The format was expanded again in 2014 with Argentina's Pampas XV and four Australian academy teams joining the competition as core teams competing with the Pacific A sides.
The New Zealand development teams did not participate in 2014 and the tournament was held in Australia. Two pools were formed as follows: A single round robin was played in each pool with the top ranked sides from each playing in the final; the Pampas XV defeated Reds A in the final held in Sydney to win the title. Fiji Warriors defeated Samoa A in the play-off for third place; the Pacific Rugby Cup was held in Fiji. It returned to a being a tournament for national'A' teams, with Canada A replacing the Australian academy teams. Pampas XV won in 2015. Notes Teams listed are those. Results of the final matches are written so that the score of the team in each row is mentioned first. Contested by the national'A' teams of Fiji, Japan and Tonga. Canada A along with Argentina's Pampas XV competed in 2015. Contested by the national'A' teams of Fiji and Tonga. Japan A joined as a core team in 2013; the core teams played against Super Rugby academy opposition from Australia and New Zealand before meeting each other in a single round robin to decide the title.
No finals were played and team finishing on top of the table after all matches were completed was the tournament winner. In 2014, Argentina's Pampas XV and four Australian Academy sides were added as core teams. Two pools were formed and a single round robin played in each; the top ranked sides in each pool played off in the final for the title and the second ranked teams played off for third place. Notes: For the first five seasons, the tournament was contested by six teams; the format consisted of a single round-robin, home or away, the teams finishing in the first two positions on the table played in a final, hosted by the top ranked team, to decide the Pacific Rugby Cup title. Pacific Nations Cup Oceania Rugby official website