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Artemisia biennis

Artemisia biennis is a species of sagebrush known by the common name biennial wormwood. It is a common and distributed weed, so well established in many places that its region of origin is difficult to ascertain. One source maintains that the species is most native to northwestern North America and naturalized in Europe, New Zealand, eastern and southern North America; this is an annual or biennial herb producing a single erect green to reddish stem up to 2 metres in maximum height. It is hairless and unscented; the frilly leaves are up to 13 centimetres long and divided into thin, lance-shaped segments with long teeth. The inflorescence is a dense rod of clusters of flower heads interspersed with leaves; the fruit is a tiny achene less than a millimeter wide. It is an invasive noxious weed in many places, it is a weed of several agricultural crops soybeans, other types of dry edible beans, sunflowers. Jepson Manual Treatment

History of bras

The history of bras is inextricably intertwined with the social history of the status of women, including the evolution of fashion and changing views of the female body. Women have used a variety of garments and devices to cover, reveal, or modify the appearance of breasts. Bra- or bikini-like garments are depicted in some female athletes of the Minoan civilization in the 14th century BC. From the 14th century onward, the undergarments of wealthier women in the Western world were dominated by the corset, which supported the breasts by transferring their weight to the rib cage. Corsets varied in length from short ones which only supported the bust to longer ones used to shape the waist. In the latter part of the 19th century, women experimented with various alternatives such as splitting the corset into a girdle-like restraining device for the lower torso and transferring the upper part to devices suspended from the shoulder. In the late 19th century, bras replaced the corset as the most used means of breast support.

By the early 20th century, garments more resembling contemporary bras had emerged, although large-scale commercial production did not occur until the 1930s. Since bras have replaced corsets and some, as well, go without; the metal shortages of World War II encouraged the end of the corset. By the time the war ended, most fashion-conscious women in Europe and North America were wearing bras. From there the bra was adopted by women in Asia and Latin America, although we have no information about what arrangements, if any preceded the adoption of the bra across Asia and Latin America. During the 20th century, greater emphasis has been given to the fashion aspects of bras; the manufacture of bras is a multibillion-dollar industry dominated by large multinational corporations. In ancient Egypt, women were bare breasted; the most common items of female attire were the skirt and the sheath dress described as a tunic or kalasiris, a rectangular piece of cloth, folded once and sewn down the edge to make a tube.

The kalasiris might be worn with shoulder straps. While the top could reach anywhere from below the breast to the neck, the bottom hem touched the ankles. A variant was a single cross strap over the left breast; the shorter kalasiris was worn by common women or slaves, to be more comfortable when working. Although the majority of female figures in ancient Indian sculptures are devoid of a blouse, there are several instances of ancient Indian women wearing bras; the first historical reference to bras in India is found during the rule of King Harshavardhana. Sewn bras and blouses were much in vogue during the Vijayanagara empire and the cities brimmed with tailors who specialized in tight fitting of these garments; the half-sleeved tight bodice or kanchuka figures prominently in the literature of the period Basavapurana, which says kanchukas were worn by young girls as well. Wearing a specialized garment designed to restrain a woman's breasts may date back to ancient Greece. Wall paintings in Crete, the center of the Minoan civilization, show a woman performing athletics in what has been described as a "bikini".

Minoan women on the island of Crete 3,000 years ago wore garments that supported and revealed their breasts. Their clothing looked somewhat like a corselette; the support device was worn outside other clothing and supported and exposed the breasts, pushing them upwards and making them more visible. The succeeding Mycenae civilization emphasized the breast, which had a special cultural and religious significance, associating the mature figure with fertility and procreation. Women in Classical Greece are depicted loosely draped in diaphanous garments, or with one breast exposed. Women wore an apodesmos (Greek: ἀπόδεσμος stethodesmē, mastodesmos and mastodeton, all meaning "breast-band", a band of wool or linen, wrapped across the breasts and tied or pinned at the back. A belt could be fastened over a simple tunic-like garment or undergarment, just below the breasts or over the breasts; when the apodesmos was worn under the breasts, it accentuated them. Another word for a breast-band or belt was strophion.

A further term was kestós, used for Aphrodite's charmed girdle in the Iliad, whose power was to make every woman who wore it irresistible to men. In view of its association with the love goddess, this type of garment had an erotic connotation because of its effect to accentuate the breast; the basic item of classical Greek costume was the peplos the chiton, which evolved into the chemise, the most common item of underclothing worn by men and women for hundreds of years. In Sparta, women wore the chiton open on the left side. Women in ancient Rome adopted a form of the Greek apodesme, known as the mamillare. Since the Romans regarded large breasts as comical, or characteristic of aging or unattractive women, young girls wore breast bands secured in the belief that doing so would prevent overly large, sagging breasts; the so-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa Romana del Casale shows women performing gymnastic or dance routines while wearing a garment similar to a strapless bra and briefs.

Other primitive iterations of a bra are depicte