1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Madison County, North Carolina
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,764, its county seat is Marshall. Madison County is part of NC Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 451 square miles, of which 450 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. Madison County is located deep in the Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, much of the county's terrain is rugged forested, sparsely populated; the county's northern border is with the State of Tennessee. Madison County's largest river is the French Broad River, which flows north-northwest through the county, first past the county seat of Marshall past the resort town of Hot Springs. Greene County, Tennessee - north Unicoi County, Tennessee - northeast Yancey County - east Buncombe County - south Haywood County - southwest Cocke County, Tennessee - northwest Pisgah National Forest The county was formed in 1851 from parts of Buncombe County and Yancey County.
It was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. As of 1903, Madison County was a sundown county, prohibiting African Americans from living there, except within a mile of the courthouse in Marshall; as of the census of 2000, there were 19,635 people, 8,000 households, 5,592 families residing in the county. The population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 9,722 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.63% White, 0.83% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 1.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,000 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.20% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,985, the median income for a family was $37,383. Males had a median income of $27,950 versus $22,678 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,076. About 10.90% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 19.20% of those age 65 or over. Hot Springs Mars Hill Marshall The county is divided into eleven townships: Beech Glenn, Ebbs Chapel, Hot Springs, Mars Hill, Revere Rice Cove, Sandy Mush, Spring Creek and Walnut. There were sixteen townships, which were both numbered and named: Madison is a Republican county that for a time turned competitive before again becoming Republican – although as as 2008 Barack Obama came within two hundred votes of carrying the county.
The county is notorious for political machines: the Ponder machine governed the county from the late 1950s to the 1990s, before that a long-lived Republican machine had ruled the county and kept it in GOP hands between 1880 and 1956: it was one of five North Carolina counties to reject Franklin Roosevelt in all four of his campaigns, one of only seven each to vote for Alf Landon in 1936 and for Wendell Willkie in 1940. Madison County is governed by a five-member board of commissioners; the board holds scheduled meetings on the second Monday of each month. Madison County is a member of the Land-of-Sky Regional Council of governments. Madison is considered a "dry" county, meaning that the sale and/or public consumption of alcoholic beverages is illegal within the county limits. However, individual towns have right of self-determination regarding alcohol sales, Hot Springs and Mars Hill all allow beer and wine sales, but not liquor. Madison County's public educational system consists of one early college high school, one traditional high school, one middle school, three elementary schools.
Brush Creek Elementary was built as a merger of Marshall Elementary and Walnut Elementary after the latter burned down in 1998. The county is home to Mars Hill University, a private, four-year liberal-arts university. Founded in 1856, Mars Hill is university in western North Carolina; the university offers 34 majors and seven degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Social Work, Master of Education. Madison County was a center for old-time folk music. Among others, the folk song Rain and Snow originated there, in the late 19th century. List of counties in North Carolina National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, North Carolina Official Website - Madison County Government NCGenWeb Madison County - free genealogy resources for the county
The Unaka Range is a mountain range on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina, in the southeastern United States. It is a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains and is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains physiographic province; the Unakas stretch from the Nolichucky River to the south to the Watauga River to the north. The Unakas include the prominent Roan Highlands; the Iron Mountains border the Unakas to the north, the Bald Mountains border the Unakas opposite the Nolichucky to the south. The name unaka is rooted in the Cherokee term unega, meaning "white"; the Cherokee National Forest and the Pisgah National Forest protect large sections of the Unaka Mountains. The Appalachian Trail traverses the Unaka crest. In some geological and in historical sources, the term "Unaka Range" is used to identify the entire crest of the Appalachian Mountains along the Tennessee-North Carolina border, including the Unakas, the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the mountains in the Big Frog Wilderness and Little Frog Mountain Wilderness.
Unakite was first discovered in the Unaka Range, was thus named after it. The highest point in the Unaka Range is Roan High Knob. "Unaka Mountains". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Bald Mountains". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Summerlin, Vernon. "Upper Unaka Mountains". Longstreet Highroad Guide to the Tennessee Mountains. Sherpa Guides. Retrieved 2011-06-07. "Roan-Unaka Mountains". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2011-06-07
Cherokee National Forest
The Cherokee National Forest is a large National Forest created on June 14, 1920 and managed by the U. S. Forest Service and encompassing some 655,598 acres; the Cherokee National Forest headquarters are located in Tennessee. The Cherokee National Forest lies within eastern Tennessee, along the border with North Carolina, comprises nearly the entire border area except for the section within Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the Cherokee National Forest has two separate sections: a northern region to the northeast of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and a southern section to the southwest of the Smokies. The Cherokee National Forest contains such notable sites as the Ocoee River; the forest is located in parts of one county in North Carolina. In descending order of forestland area they are Polk, Carter, Cocke, Greene, Washington and McMinn counties in Tennessee and Ashe County in North Carolina; the forest is home to mammalian species such as black bear, coyote, opossum, two species of squirrel, chipmunk, river otter, two species of fox and white-tailed deer.
Birdwatchers view species of juncos, mourning doves, chimney swifts, eastern phoebes, barn swallows, blue jays, indigo buntings, towhees, sparrows and warblers. Raptors include turkey vultures, hawks and peregrine falcons. Reptiles include timber rattlesnake, northern copperhead, eastern box turtle, common snapping turtle, southeastern five-lined skink. Amphibians of frogs and salamanders are all common residents. Notable species of salamander include Jordan's hellbender. Recreation opportunities in the Cherokee National Forest are diverse; the forest's fast-flowing rivers support trout fishing. Rainbow trout are stocked in many rivers. Brook trout and brown trout are present. Bass and crappie are found in the forest's lakes, which are open to wind surfing, water skiing and boating. Trails criss-cross the forest. In addition to the Appalachian Trail, these include the John Muir Recreation trail, other hiking trails, some trails designed for equestrian use. Bicycle trails are being developed. Camping is available in RV campgrounds and tent-only camping areas, primitive tent camping is allowed throughout much of the forest.
The Unicoi Mountains are a mountain range rising along the border between Tennessee and North Carolina in the southeastern United States. They are part of the Blue Ridge Mountain Province of the Southern Appalachian Mountains; the Unicois are located south of the Great Smoky Mountains and west of the Cheoah Mountains. Most of the range is protected as a national forest, namely the Cherokee National Forest on the Tennessee side and the Nantahala National Forest on the North Carolina side— although some parts have been designated as wilderness areas and are thus more regulated. There are eleven official wilderness areas in Cherokee National Forest, which are all part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Three of these extend into neighboring National Forests: Bald River Gorge Wilderness Big Frog Wilderness Big Laurel Branch Wilderness Citico Creek Wilderness Cohutta Wilderness Gee Creek Wilderness Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Wilderness Little Frog Mountain Wilderness Pond Mountain Wilderness Sampson Mountain Wilderness Unaka Mountain Wilderness Bald River Roan Mountain, Tennessee Tennessee State Route 67 Watauga River Media related to Cherokee National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Mitchell County, North Carolina
Mitchell County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,579, its county seat is Bakersville. The county is home to the "Mineral City of the World", Spruce Pine and Roan Mountain which includes the world's largest natural rhododendron garden, the longest stretch of grassy bald in the Appalachian range. Throughout the year such festivals as North Carolina Mineral and Gem Festival and North Carolina Rhododendron Festival bring many people to the area. Mitchell County was one of the three dry counties in North Carolina, along with Graham and Yancey, but in March, 2009, after much controversy, the Town of Spruce Pine approved beer, ABC store sales. However, alcohol sales are still illegal in the areas of the county outside the town of Spruce Pine, except areas within 1.5 air miles of the Blue Ridge Parkway. The county was formed in 1861 from parts of Burke County, Caldwell County, McDowell County, Watauga County, Yancey County, it was named for Elisha Mitchell, professor of mathematics, chemistry and mineralogy at the University of North Carolina from 1818 until his death in 1857.
Dr. Mitchell was the first scientist to argue that a nearby peak in the Black Mountains was the highest point east of the Mississippi River, he measured the mountain's height and explored it. In 1857 he fell to his death on a waterfall on the side of the mountain; the mountain was subsequently named Mount Mitchell in his honor. By 1899, Mitchell County had a sundown town policy of preventing African Americans from living or working in the county; the county took a direct hit from "The Storm of the Century" known as the "’93 Superstorm", or "The Blizzard of 1993". This storm event was similar in nature to a hurricane; the storm occurred between March 12 -- 1993, on the East Coast of North America. Parts of Cuba, Gulf Coast States, Eastern United States and Eastern Canada were impacted; the county suffered a tragic event on the evening of Friday, May 3, 2002 when a fire broke out at the Mitchell County jail in Bakersville, North Carolina. As a result of the fire eight men lost their lives. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 222 square miles, of which 221 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in North Carolina by land second-smallest by total area; the northwest sections of county border the State of Tennessee. Sections of both the Blue Ridge Parkway and Appalachian Trail are located in the county. Parts of the Pisgah National Forest and Roan Mountain State Park are located in the northern sections of the county. Carter County, Tennessee - north-northeast Avery County - northeast McDowell County - south Yancey County - southwest Unicoi County, Tennessee - north-northwest Blue Ridge Parkway Pisgah National Forest US 19E NC 80 NC 197 NC 226 NC 226A NC 261 As of 2015, the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Mitchell County were: As of the census of 2000, there were 15,687 people, 6,551 households, 4,736 families residing in the county; the population density was 71 people per square mile. There were 7,919 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.87% White, 0.22% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.66% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 1.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,551 households out of which 27.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.20% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 27.10% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,508, the median income for a family was $36,367.
Males had a median income of $26,550 versus $20,905 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,933. About 10.70% of families and 13.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 16.40% of those age 65 or over. Bakersville Spruce Pine Owing to its high altitude and consequent strong Civil War-era Unionist sympathies, along with its rural nature, Mitchell is a powerfully Republican county. No Democratic presidential candidate has carried Mitchell County since Samuel J. Tilden in 1876. At this time Mitchell included Avery County, detached from it in 1911, more Republican. However, since Tilden’s win every Republican candidate has obtained at least sixty percent of the county’s vote, with the solitary exception of the 1912 election when the party was divided between the two candidacies of William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt, the latter of whom carried the county. In the 2016 Republican Primary in Mitchell County, Donald Trump received 1,775 votes followed by Ted Cruz who came in second with 1,188 votes.
In the 2016 Democratic Primary, Bernie Sanders received 450 votes whereas Hillary Clinton only won 314 votes. In the general election Donald Trump received 6,282 votes whereas Hillary Clinton only received 1,596 votes and Libertaria