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Uniform Resource Identifier

A Uniform Resource Identifier is a string of characters that unambiguously identifies a particular resource. To guarantee uniformity, all URIs follow a predefined set of syntax rules, but maintain extensibility through a separately defined hierarchical naming scheme; such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI; the most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator referred to informally as a web address. More seen in usage is the Uniform Resource Name, designed to complement URLs by providing a mechanism for the identification of resources in particular namespaces. A Uniform Resource Name is a URI. A URN may be used how to access it. For example, in the International Standard Book Number system, ISBN 0-486-27557-4 identifies a specific edition of Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet; the URN for that edition would be urn:isbn:0-486-27557-4.

However, it gives no information as to. A Uniform Resource Locator is a URI that specifies the means of acting upon or obtaining the representation of a resource, i.e. specifying both its primary access mechanism and network location. For example, the URL refers to a resource identified as /wiki/Main_Page, whose representation, in the form of HTML and related code, is obtainable via the Hypertext Transfer Protocol from a network host whose domain name is A URN may be compared to a person's name. In other words, a URN identifies a URL provides a method for finding it. Technical publications standards produced by the IETF and by the W3C reflect a view outlined in a W3C Recommendation of 2001, which acknowledges the precedence of the term URI rather than endorsing any formal subdivision into URL and URN; as such, a URL is a URI that happens to point to a resource over a network. However, in non-technical contexts and in software for the World Wide Web, the term "URL" remains used.

Additionally, the term "web address" occurs in non-technical publications as a synonym for a URI that uses the http or https schemes. Such assumptions can lead to confusion, for example, in the case of XML namespaces that have a visual similarity to resolvable URIs. Specifications produced by the WHATWG prefer URL over URI, so newer HTML5 APIs use URL over URI. While most URI schemes were designed to be used with a particular protocol, have the same name, they are semantically different from protocols. For example, the scheme http is used for interacting with web resources using HTTP, but the scheme file has no protocol; each URI begins with a scheme name that refers to a specification for assigning identifiers within that scheme. As such, the URI syntax is a federated and extensible naming system wherein each scheme's specification may further restrict the syntax and semantics of identifiers using that scheme; the URI generic syntax is a superset of the syntax of all URI schemes. It was first defined in Request for Comments 2396, published in August 1998, finalized in RFC 3986, published in January 2005.

The URI generic syntax consists of a hierarchical sequence of five components: URI = scheme:path where the authority component divides into three subcomponents: authority = host This is represented in a syntax diagram as: The URI comprises: A non-empty scheme component followed by a colon, consisting of a sequence of characters beginning with a letter and followed by any combination of letters, plus, period, or hyphen. Although schemes are case-insensitive, the canonical form is lowercase and documents that specify schemes must do so with lowercase letters. Examples of popular schemes include http, ftp, file and irc. URI schemes should be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, although non-registered schemes are used in practice. An optional authority component preceded by two slashes, comprising: An optional userinfo subcomponent that may consist of a user name and an optional password preceded by a colon, followed by an at symbol. Use of the format username:password in the userinfo subcomponent is deprecated for security reasons.

Applications should not render as clear text any data after the first colon found within a userinfo subcomponent unless the data after the colon is the empty string. A host subcomponent, consisting of an IP address. IPv4 addresses must be in dot-decimal notation, IPv6 addresses must be enclosed in brackets. An optional port subcomponent preceded by a colon. A path component, consisting of a sequence of path segments separated by a slash. A path is always defined for a URI. A segment may be empty, resulting in two consecutive slashes in the path component. A path component may resemble or map to a file system path, but does not always imply a relation to one. If an authority component is present the path component must either be empty or begin with a slash. If an authority component is absent the path cannot begin with an empty segment, with two slashes, as the following characters would be interpreted as an authority component; the final segment of the

Bundle of His

Discovered in 1893 by Swiss-born cardiologist and anatomist Wilhelm His Jr. the bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction. As part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, it transmits the electrical impulses from the AV node to the point of the apex of the fascicular branches via the bundle branches; the fascicular branches lead to the Purkinje fibers, which provide electrical conduction to the ventricles, causing the cardiac muscle of the ventricles to contract at a paced interval. The bundle of His is an important part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, as it transmits impulses from the atrioventricular node, located at the anterior-inferior end of the interatrial septum, to the ventricles of the heart; the bundle of His branches into the left and the right bundle branches, which run along the interventricular septum. The left bundle branch further divides into the left posterior fascicles; these bundles and fascicles give rise to thin filaments known as Purkinje fibers.

These fibers distribute the impulse to the ventricular muscle. The ventricular conduction system comprises the Purkinje networks, it takes about 0.03–0.04 seconds for the impulse to travel from the bundle of His to the ventricular muscle. Disorders affecting the cardiomyocytes that make up the electrical conduction system of the heart are called heart blocks. Heart blocks are separated into different categories based on the location of the cellular damage. Damage to any of the conducting cells in or below the bundle of His are collectively referred to as "infra-Hisian blocks". To be specific, blocks that occur in the right or left bundle branches are called "bundle branch blocks", those that occur in either the left anterior or the left posterior fascicles are called "fascicular blocks", or "hemiblocks"; the conditions in which both the right bundle branch and either the left anterior fascicle or the left posterior fascicle are blocked are collectively referred to as bifascicular blocks, the condition in which the right bundle branch, the left anterior fascicle, the left posterior fascicle are blocked is called trifascicular block.

Infra-hisian blocks limit the heart's ability to coordinate the activities of the atria and ventricles, which results in a decrease in its efficiency in pumping blood. A 2000 study found that direct His bundle pacing is more effective in producing synchronized ventricular contraction—and therefore in improving cardiac function—than apical pacing; these specialized muscle fibers in the heart were named after the Swiss cardiologist Wilhelm His Jr. who discovered them in 1893. Bachmann's bundle Bundle of Kent Scheinman MM, Saxon LA. "Long-term His-bundle pacing and cardiac function". Circulation. 101: 836–37. Doi:10.1161/01.cir.101.8.836. PMID 10694517. Gillette PC, Swindle MM, Thompson RP, Case CL. "Transvenous cryoablation of the bundle of His". Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 14: 504–10. Doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.1991.tb02821.x. PMID 1710054. Flowers NC, Hand RC, Orander PC, Miller CB, Walden MO, Horan LG. "Surface recording of electrical activity from the region of the bundle of His". The American Journal of Cardiology.

33: 384–89. Doi:10.1016/0002-914990320-8. PMID 4591112. Kistin AD. "Observations on the anatomy of the atrioventricular bundle and the question of other muscular atrioventricular connections in normal human hearts". American Heart Journal. 37: 847–67. Doi:10.1016/s0002-870390937-0. PMID 18119894. Atlas image: ht_rt_vent at the University of Michigan Health System - "Right atrioventricular bundle branch, anterior view" thoraxlesson4 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman

Human rights in Ethiopia

According to the U. S. Department of State's human rights report for 2004 and similar sources, the Ethiopian government's human rights "remained poor; the report listed numerous cases where police and security forces are said to have harassed, illegally detained, and/or killed individuals, who were members of opposition groups or accused of being insurgents. Thousands of suspects remained in detention without charge, lengthy pretrial detention continued to be a problem. Prison conditions were poor; the government ignores citizens' privacy rights and laws regarding search warrants. Freedom House agrees. Although fewer journalists have been arrested, detained, or punished in 2004 than in previous years, the government continues to restrict freedom of the press; the government limits freedom of assembly for members of opposition groups, security forces have used excessive force to break up demonstrations. Violence and discrimination against women continue to be problems. Female genital mutilation is widespread.

The economic and sexual exploitation of children continues. Forced labor among children, is a persistent problem. Low-level government interference with labor unions continues. Although the government respected the free exercise of religion, local authorities at times interfere with religious practice. In order to improve Ethiopia's image, they hired US agencies to improve Ethiopia's image for $2.5 million. According to report of amnesty international 2016/2017 prolonged protests over political, economic and cultural grievances were met with excessive and lethal force by police; the report added that the crackdown on the political opposition saw mass arbitrary arrests and other ill-treatment, unfair trials and violations of the rights to freedom of expression and association. On 9 October, the government announced a state of emergency, which led to further human rights violations. In September 2018, more than 20 have died in ethnic based attacks. Protestors outside the capital have been calling for the prime minister to issue a state of emergency to prevent further killings.

Ethiopia’s Anti-Terrorism Proclamation was introduced in 2009. The broad provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation allow the authorities to criminalize the exercise of freedom of expression. Amnesty International believes that at least 108 journalists and opposition members were arrested in 2011 because of their legitimate and peaceful criticism of the government; the sheer numbers involved in this wave of arrests represents the most far-reaching crackdown on freedom of expression seen in many years in Ethiopia. From March 2011 to December 2011 at least 108 opposition party members and six journalists were arrested in Ethiopia for alleged involvement with various proscribed terrorist groups; the detainees had been charged with crimes under the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation and the Criminal Code. Many arrests in 2011 came in the days after individuals publicly criticised the government, were involved in public calls for reform, applied for permission to hold demonstrations, or attempted to conduct investigative journalism in a region of Ethiopia to which the government restricts access.

Amnesty International believes the individuals will not receive a fair trial and will be convicted for exercising their right to freedom of expression. Many of the detainees complained that they experienced torture and were forced to sign confessions or incriminating evidence. All were denied access to lawyers and family at start of detention; the trials have become politicized owing to the interest of senior government officials including the Prime Minister who declared in the national parliament that all the defendants are guilty. The Prime Minister has publicly threatened to carry out further arrests. In the first week of December 135 people were reported to be arrested in Oromia. Amnesty International calls on the United Nations, European Union, African Union, governments to: Conduct systematic monitoring of the ongoing terrorism trials and the trials of members of the Oromo people political opposition arrested during 2011 and make findings public. Two journalists and four opposition politicians of the Unity for Democracy and Justice party, the Ethiopian National Democratic party, were arrested on 14 September and on 9 September 2011.

They were accused of involvement with a banned political party. According to Amnesty International citizens were pressed to leave opposition parties in May 2010 elections. Voters in Addis Ababa were threatened with the withdrawal of state assistance if they did not vote for the EPRDF. There was political violence: One candidate and several activists were killed. Registration as candidates was prevented by armed forces. Opposition parties said that their members were harassed and detained by the EPRDF in the build-up to the elections. Hundreds of people were arrested arbitrarily in the Oromia region on the grounds of supporting the, an armed group. Detention without trial and killings of Oromos were reported; the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front consolidated political control with 99.6 percent victory in the May 2010 parliamentary elections. According to Human Rights Watch the polls were preceded by months of intimidation of opposition party supporters. According to European election observers the election fell short of international standards.

The government had a five-year strategy to systematically close down space for pol

Matthew Gentzkow

Matthew Gentzkow is an American economist and a professor of economics at Stanford University. He was the Richard O. Ryan Professor of Economics and Neubauer Family Faculty Fellow at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, he was awarded the 2014 John Bates Clark Medal. Gentzkow received his A. B. in Economics in 1997, A. M. in Economics in 2002, Ph. D. in Economics in 2004, all from Harvard University. His research is in the fields of Political Economy. ———. "Ideological Segregation Online and Offline". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 126: 1799–1839. Doi:10.1093/qje/qjr044. Hdl:1811/52901. ———. "The Effect of Newspaper Entry and Exit on Electoral Politics". American Economic Review. 101: 2980–3018. Doi:10.1257/aer.101.7.2980. ———. "Media Bias and Reputation". Journal of Political Economy. 114: 280–316. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1086/499414. ———. "Television and Voter Turnout". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 121: 931–972. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1162/qjec.121.3.931. Website at Stanford

Maja Flagstad

Marie "Maja" Flagstad was a Norwegian pianist, choral conductor, répétiteur. Born Marie Johnsrud, she was from the Johnsrud farm in the village of Eidsvoll Verk, she was the sister of the organist Hans Nielsen Johnsrud. She married the musician Michael Flagstad and was the mother of Kirsten Flagstad, whom she taught voice and accompanied on recordings, her other children were musicians: the conductor Ole Flagstad, pianist Lasse Flagstad, singer Karen-Marie Flagstad. The family lived in Vinderen in Christiania. At a young age, Maja Flagstad was active in the capital's music scene, first at the Christiania Theater in 1891, at the Central Theater, where her husband conducted. At the opening of the cabaret theater Chat Noir, she accompanied Bokken Lasson singing "Tuppen og Lillemor" on March 1, 1912; the Flagstad family was central in the short-lived Opera Comique, where Kirsten sang. The family performed at the Mayol Theater and Casino. Maja Flagstad was the first conductor of the Oslo Philharmonic Choir.

She was a guest conductor at the National Theater in Bergen and was credited with discovering the performing artist and bass singer Bjarne Bø during a performance at Bergen Cathedral in 1929. She worked extensively as a répétiteur, accompanying well-known artists such as Hauk Aabel and Erik Ole Bye

Uebert Angel

Uebert Angel is the founder of Spirit Embassy, a Pentecostal ministry in the United Kingdom. The church was founded in 2007 as "Spirit Embassy" and in October 2015 it rebranded its name to "Good News Church", retaining "Spirit Embassy" as a term for Angel's overall ministry. Described as "a young charismatic prophet", Angel travels by helicopter to preach the message that God wants his flock to be rich, as rich as he is, he is the founder of The Angel Organisation, the parent company for his other business interests. Angel grew up in Masvingo, Zimbabwe, he moved to Manchester, where he founded the Spirit Embassy ministry in 2007. In October 2015 it re-branded its name to the "Good News Church"; the church ministry attracted numerous followers and there are 70 branches in over 15 different countries in Europe and the US. Angel has launched Miracle TV and Good News TV where he carries out regular speaking engagements and broadcasts programs on behalf of the Good News Church, he is the founder and president of Osborn Institute of Theology, an online Bible school, launched in August 2012.

Angel started his career in 2005 as a businessman when he founded Club Millionaire Limited, providing concierge services in Britain. He entered the real estate business developing residential properties and moved to commercial establishments and building acquisition, as well as buying and selling of properties. In 2006 he made his first property sale, in 2008 he founded Sam Barkeley Construction and the Angel Organisation, the parent company for his business interests, of which he is CEO, he runs other business enterprises under the parent company, including Brits Bank and Atom Mobile. He is the founder of The Millionaire Academy, whose stated purpose is to instruct individuals how to become successful entrepreneurs and run businesses of their own. In 2014, Angel was featured in Forbes Magazine Africa detailing his wealth. Angel and his wife Beverly Angel have both been involved in charity work since the launch of his church in 2007, he helps poor families in Africa and Asia by providing monthly groceries and paying tuition fees of children thorough his "Adopt a Family" scheme.

In November 2015, he founded Uebert Angel Foundation with his wife which helps poor students by providing scholarships, tuition fees for education. He is founder of Free Earth Humanitarian Organisation which works to ensure that underprivileged people have their basic needs for living met. Becoming a Millionaire in Real Estate God's Get Rich Quick Scheme Good News The Greatest Secret God Told Me about Money Prayer Banks God's Medicine Praying for the Impossible How To Hear The Voice of God Supernatural Power of the Believer Official website