In the United States, a uniform act is a proposed state law drafted and approved by the Uniform Law Commission. Federalism in the United States traditionally limits the legislative authority of the federal government in favor of the states; the Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution states that "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people". Therefore, state governments are free to enact unique laws in any area beyond the purview of federal preemption. Under the doctrine of Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins, federal courts cannot dictate law to states on pure issues of state common law. However, a variety of legal issues transcend state lines, which makes a predictable and uniform set of laws across states a desirable objective. "Uniform acts" are collaboratively written model laws intended to facilitate the enactment of identical or similar laws by the separate states. Such laws are distinct from interstate compacts.
The NCCUSL is a body of private and government lawyers and federal judges, law professors who are appointed by state governors. It drafts laws on a variety of subjects and proposes them for enactment by each state, the District of Columbia, the U. S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. NCCUSL was established in 1892; the NCCUSL, while influential, does not have any direct legislative power itself. Among the most influential uniform acts are the Uniform Commercial Code, Uniform Probate Code, Uniform Trust Code, Uniform Partnership Act, Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, Uniform Transfers to Minors Act, Uniform Certification of Questions of Law Act, Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act, Uniform Controlled Substances Act, Uniform Arbitration Act, Uniform Environmental Covenants Act, Uniform Conservation Easements Act, Uniform Management of Institutional Funds Act, Uniform Interstate Family Support Act, Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. In total, there are more than 100 uniform acts.
Recent examples include the Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, Revised Uniform Arbitration Act, Revised Uniform Partnership Act, Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act, the Uniform Prudent Management of Institutional Funds Act. The NCCUSL website should be consulted for the latest uniform revisions thereof. A state may adopt a uniform act as written by NCCUSL. Unless such changes are minor, they can obstruct the purpose of uniform acts—legal harmonization. Therefore, persons doing business in different states must always still check local law to ensure that a uniform act was enacted in the state that governs a particular legal issue, the local act conforms to the text promulgated by NCCUSL. For example, in Payne v. Stalley, a lawyer relied on the official text of the Uniform Probate Code and failed to check the relevant Florida statute; as a result, the lawyer missed a filing deadline on a multimillion-dollar claim. The court wrote, "e cannot rewrite Florida probate law to accommodate a Michigan attorney more familiar with the Uniform Probate Code".
The Model Penal Code, which seeks to harmonize state criminal law statutes, is in effect a uniform act but it was developed by the American Law Institute rather than the NCCUSL. The Uniform Auction and Auctioneer Licensing Act is a sample law proposed by the National Auctioneers Association, intended as a template for states drafting their own legislation governing auctions and auctioneers. Other notable non-NCCUSL model laws include the Uniform Vehicle Code, the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, the Model Business Corporation Act, the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration; the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were intended to serve as a model civil procedure for states and have been adopted, to some extent, by 35 states. List of Uniform Acts Uniform Commercial Code State law Model act The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws NCCUSL's List of Uniform Acts
The Church of St David, Monmouthshire, Wales, is a parish church with its origins in the 14th century. Its founder may have been Geoffrey Lord of Trostrey Castle; the church was rebuilt in the 16th century and restored by John Prichard in 1876–1877. It remains an active parish church; the original church may have been founded by Geoffrey Marshall in the 14th century. However, a record exists of an earlier structure, dating from c. 1160. The church was reconstructed in the late 15th or early 16th centuries and restored in the Victorian era by John Prichard. St David's remains an active church in the parish of Trostrey; the church is built of grey rubble with dressings of Old Red Sandstone. The style is Perpendicular; the building comprises a nave, porch and a double bell gable. The interior contains a "fine baroque monument" to Charles Hughes of Trostrey Court, who died in 1676; the church is a Grade II* listed building. Newman, John. Gwent/Monmouthshire; the Buildings of Wales. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-071053-1.
Media related to St David's Church, Trostrey at Wikimedia Commons
Ena or ENA may refer to: École nationale d'administration, French Grande école, for civil service Education Networks of America English National Association, a former political party Ensame Nacionalista Astur, a defunct political part in Spain Ethiopian News Agency, of the Government of Ethiopia Étoile Nord-Africaine, a former Algerian nationalist organization Ena von Baer, Chilean journalist, political scientist and senator Ena Baga, British pianist and theatre organist Ena Begović, Croatian actress Ena Sandra Causevic, Danish model from Sønderborg, Denmark Ena Cremona, Maltese judge at the European Union General Court Ena de Silva, Sri Lankan artist Ena Gregory, Australian motion picture actress Ena Guevara, Peruvian long-distance runner Ena Kadic, Bosnian-Austrian model and beauty pageant titleholder Ena Murray, Afrikaans writer Ena Noël, teacher and advocate for children's literature Ena Lamont Stewart, Scottish playwright Ena Lucía Portela, Cuban writer Ena Saha, Indian actress Ena Shibahara, American tennis player Ena Stockley, New Zealand swimmer Ena Swansea, American artist Ena Twigg, British psychic medium Paul Kostabi, American artist and producer Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen of Spain Justin Ena, American football player Rav Ena, Jewish Savora sage Ena Sharples, from the British soap opera Coronation Street Aunt Ena, from the book Bambi, a Life in the Woods Ena District, Gifu, a former district in Japan Ena, Gifu, a city in Japan Ena, Gujarat, a village in India Ena Lake Mount Ena, in Japan Ena, a genus of land snails Extractable nuclear antigen Energetic neutral atom European Nucleotide Archive Elastic Network Adapter, used by Amazon Web Services Eastern North America—This abbreviation is sometimes used in archaeology and linguistics in the context of study of the prehistoric human presence on the continent.
Ena Railway, in Japan. S. Steel and other steelmakers
A cosmology episode is a sudden loss of meaning, followed by a transformative pivot, which creates the conditions for revised meaning. In the wake of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the 1977 Tenerife airport disaster, the 1984 Bhopal chemical disaster, the sudden insertion of personal computers into the workplace, organizational scholar Karl E. Weick coined the term "cosmology episode," as follows, in 1985: "Representations of events hang together sensibly within the set of assumptions that give them life and constitute a'cosmos' rather than its opposite, a'chaos.' Sudden losses of meaning that can occur when an event is represented electronically in an incomplete, cryptic form are what I call a'cosmology episode.' Representations in the electronic world can become chaotic for at least two reasons: The data in these representations are flawed, the people who manage those flawed data have limited processing capacity. These two problems interact in a deadly vicious circle."The concept of cosmology episodes evolved between 1985 and 1993, when Weick published his now-classic reanalysis of Norman Maclean's study of the Mann Gulch wildland firefighting disaster in 1949.
In the 1993 article, Weick positions cosmology episodes within a constructivist ontology, he links the term to a variety of similar concepts, he provides a better-developed definition than he was able to provide in 1985. First, Weick makes it clear that cosmology episodes occur within a constructivist ontology of the world, rather than the more familiar objectivist and subjectivist ontologies: "The basic idea of sensemaking is that reality is an ongoing accomplishment that emerges from efforts to create order and make retrospective sense of what occurs.... Sensemaking emphasizes that people try to make things rationally accountable to themselves and others. Thus, in the words of Morgan and Pondy, "individuals are not seen as living in, acting out their lives in relations to, a wider reality, so much as creating and sustaining images of a wider reality, in part to rationalize what they are doing, they realize their reality by'reading into' their situation patterns of significant meaning."Second, Weick clarifies the key phrase "sudden loss of meaning" by linking it to related ideas described by other organizational scholars: "Minimal organizations, such as we find in the crew at Mann Gulch, are susceptible to sudden losses of meaning, which have been variably described as fundamental surprises or as events that are inconceivable, hidden, or incomprehensible.
Each of these labels points to the low probability that the event could occur, why it is meaningless. But these explanations say less about the astonishment of the perceiver, less about the perceiver's inability to rebuild some sense of what is happening."Third, Weick expands his 1985 definition -- "sudden losses of meaning"—to a more nuanced description: "Cosmology refers to a branch of philosophy subsumed under metaphysics that combines rational speculation and scientific evidence to understand the universe as a totality of phenomena. Cosmology is the ultimate macro perspective, directed at issues of time, space and contingency as they relate to the origin and structure of the universe. Integrations of these issues, are not just the handiwork of philosophers. Others must make their peace with these issues, as reflected in what they take for granted. People, including those who are smokejumpers, act as if events cohere in time and space and that change unfolds in an orderly manner; these everyday cosmologies are subject to disruption.
And when they are disrupted, I call this a cosmology episode. A cosmology episode occurs when people and feel that the universe is no longer a rational, orderly system." Building on Weick's 1993 definition of cosmology episodes, his colleagues, other researchers have advanced knowledge of best practices during cosmology episodes at four levels of analysis: catastrophic cosmology episodes, such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks of 2001 and the Haitian earthquake of 2010. The study of cosmology episodes is distinct from the study of high-reliability organizations because the concept directs explicit attention to the integral role of human spirituality during catastrophic events—as the threatened entity, the source of inspiration/improvisation, the re-established entity; the topic of cosmology episodes lends itself to study by researchers within two small academic organizations—the American Psychological Association's Division 36 and the Academy of Management's MSR Division. A 2016 article titled "Cosmology Episodes: A Reconceptualization," Doug Orton and Kari O'Grady identified three taxonomies that they found helpful in studying 164 citations of the term "cosmology episode" on Google Scholar.
One taxonomy was based on level of analysis. One taxonomy was based on five resilience processes (anticipating, sense-losing, impro
The Japanese manga Fullmetal Alchemist was written and illustrated by Hiromu Arakawa. It has been serialized in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan since its August 2001 issue and concluded on its July 2010 issue with a total of 108 chapters; the plot follows the adventures of two alchemist brothers named Alphonse Elric. They are striving to find the legendary Philosopher's Stone so that they may recover parts of their bodies that they lost in an attempt to bring their mother back to life. Therefore, Edward joins the state military and discovers that several members of the military are attempting to get the stone. Square Enix collected the chapters in tankōbon form; the first volume was released on January 22, 2002, the last, volume 27, was released on November 22, 2010. A few chapters have been rereleased in Japan in two "Extra number" magazines and Fullmetal Alchemist: The First Attack, which features the first nine chapters of the manga as well as other side stories. On July 22, 2011, Square Enix started republishing the series in kanzenban format.
Viz Media is releasing English language editions of the manga in North America. The first volume was released on May 3, 2005, the last one, was released on December 20, 2011. On June 7, 2011, Viz started publishing the series in omnibus format, featuring three volumes in one; the animation studio Bones adapted the manga into two animated adaptations. The first ran for 51 episodes with several changes made to the manga and it was followed by a film sequel in 2005. In April 2009, Bones started airing a new anime adaptation of the manga entitled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood for the North American release. Official Gangan Fullmetal Alchemist manga and novel website "Official Viz Fullmetal Alchemist website". Archived from the original on 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2008-12-01
Pablo E. Carrillo is a one-time admiralty lawyer from New Orleans, U. S. Senator John McCain's chief of staff. In that capacity, Carrillo led McCain's investigations of the Jack Abramoff tribal lobbying scandal and the KC-X Boeing tanker scandal, which McCain referred to extensively throughout his campaign. Carrillo served, as The Washington Monthly described in May 2006, as "McCain's wingman on Indian Affairs", as his Chief Investigative Counsel on the Senate Indian Affairs Committee. There, Carrillo led a high-profile investigation into allegations that flamboyant GOP lobbyist Jack Abramoff and his partner Michael Scanlon, a former aide of House Leader Tom Delay, bilked several Indian tribes out of tens of millions of dollars. Holding what Vanity Fair described as "five gory publicized in 2004 and 2005" on that issue, Carrillo's investigation first exposed Abramoff and Scanlon's scheme to defraud these tribes and led to, according to The Washington Post, "one of the widest ranging federal corruption investigations in decades," which "may help McCain, a contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 2008, reinforce his image as a Washington reformer and a proponent of campaign finance reform."
That investigation was described by Roll Call as "set a standard for what Congressional oversight should be, but isn't" and the New York Post as giving rise to "the worst Washington corruption scandal since the Abscam sting nailed six congressmen and a senator 25 years ago." It helped expose wrongdoing that led to, among other things, guilty pleas from Abramoff, Michael Scanlon, a US congressman, two senior congressional staffers on fraud and public corruption charges. Carrillo led McCain's investigation of the Air Force's decision to replace its tanker fleet by leasing airplanes from Boeing; the investigation resulted in a major corruption scandal, which led to successful prosecutions of Boeing's CFO Michael M. Sears and senior Air Force official Darleen Druyun; the investigation received widespread praise: The Seattle Times described that investigation as "hav outmaneuvered Air Force brass and Boeing's 35 person Washington lobbying operation in a classic Washington power play and a media blitz worthy of Madison Avenue".
Carrillo's role in that investigation was profiled by the National Journal's CongressDaily and the investigation, in among others places, 60 Minutes Wednesday. Carrillo is a graduate of Tulane University and Tulane Law School, where he served as Managing Editor for the Tulane Law Review. 1 LinkedIn Professional Networking Website—Pablo E. Carrillo, available at http://www.linkedin.com/pub/8/262/1a2. "People—Oscar! Use a Coaster!", CongressDailyAM 2 Peter H. Stone. "Heist—Superlobbyist Jack Abramoff, His Republican Allies, the Buying of Washington". "The K Street Gang—The Rise and Fall of the Republican Machine". A. Frank and Zachary Roth. "White Hats vs. Black Hats--Who's who in Washington's scandal investigations", Washington Monthly. "Gimme Five--Take Two?", TPM Muckraker, available at http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2006/07/gimme_five_take_two.php 3 Institute for U. S. Law. "U. S. Legal Method—Introduction to U. S. Law: Faculty and Guest Lecturers", available at http://www.iuslaw.org/lecturers.php 4 T.
A. Frank and Zachary Roth. "White Hats vs. Black Hats--Who's who in Washington's scandal investigations", Washington Monthly. "Class of 1992", available at http://murphy.tulane.edu/pdfs/exchange-fall-2005.pdf 5 Paul Kiel. "Gimme Five--Take Two?", TPM Muckraker, available at http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2006/07/gimme_five_take_two.php 6 David Margolick. "Corruption--Washington's Invisible Man", Vanity Fair, available at http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2006/04/abramoff200604?printable=true¤tPage=all 7 Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. "'Gimme Five'—Investigation of Tribal Lobbying Matters," 109th Cong. SEN. REPT. NO. 109 325, available at https://web.archive.org/web/20081025073337/http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/gimme5.html 8 House Committee on Government Reform. "Justice Undone—Clemency Decisions in the Clinton White House,", 107th Cong. H. R. REPT. NO. 107 454 9 House Committee on Government Reform. "Failure of White House to Produce Subpoenaed Email—Threats and Unanswered Questions,", 106th Cong.
H. R. Rept. No. 106 1023 10 Pablo E. Carrillo. "Manuel v. Louisiana Sheriff's Risk Management Fund: The Louisiana Supreme Court Clarifies the Non Retroactivity Principle in Third Party Bad Faith Actions," 71 TULANE LAW REVIEW 325 11 Pablo E. Carrillo. "Beware of Scylla and Charybdis: Stock Purchases of Privately Held Companies and the Remedies Problem Under Rule 10b 5—What is the Buyer to Do?" 72 TULANE LAW REVIEW 2113 12 Pablo E