75th Ranger Regiment (United States)
The regiment is headquartered at Fort Benning, Georgia and is composed of one special troops battalion and three ranger battalions. The primary mission of the regiment is to conduct forcible entry operations in hostile or sensitive environments worldwide, the regiment can deploy one ranger battalion within 18 hours of alert notification. During the American Revolutionary War, many colonial commanders were former Rangers, General John Stark, commanded the First New Hampshire Militia, which gained fame at the Battles of Bunker Hill and Bennington. Stark coined the phrase Live free or die, New Hampshire’s state motto, American Ranger history predates the Revolutionary War to Ethan Allen and his guerrilla fighting group the Green Mountain Boys in Vermont. Captain Benjamin Church formed Churchs Rangers, which fought hostile Native American tribes during King Philips War, in 1756 Major Rogers, a New Hampshire native, recruited nine Ranger companies to fight in the French and Indian War. They were known as Rogers Rangers, in 1775 the Continental Congress formed eight companies of expert riflemen to fight in the Revolutionary War.
In 1777, this force of hardy frontiersmen, commanded by Dan Morgan, was known as The Corps of Rangers, francis Marion, The Swamp Fox, organized another famous Revolutionary War Ranger element known as Marions Partisans. During the War of 1812, companies of United States Rangers were raised from among the settlers as part of the regular army. Throughout the war, they patrolled the frontier from Ohio to Western Illinois on horseback, Rangers participated in many skirmishes and battles with the British and their American Indian allies. The American Civil War included Rangers such as John Singleton Mosby and his companys raids on Union camps and bases were so effective, part of North-Central Virginia soon became known as Mosbys Confederacy. After the Civil War, more than half a century passed without Ranger units in the United States, on 8 December 1941, the United States entered World War II the day after Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan. At the time, Major William Orlando Darby, the founder of the modern Rangers, was assigned to be on duty in Belfast, frustrated with his lack of hands-on experience as General Russell P.
Hartle’s aide, was put in charge of a new unit. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, envisioned an elite unit of fifty men selected voluntarily from the 34th Infantry Division and he believed Darby was the man to do the job. On 8 June 1942, Darby was officially put in charge of the First Ranger Battalion under General Hartle, on 19 August 1942, fifty Rangers fought alongside Canadian and British Commandos in the ill-fated Dieppe Raid on the coast of occupied France. Three Rangers were killed and several captured, the first American soldier killed in Europe in World War II was part of this raid, Ranger Lieutenant E. V. Loustalot. During the mission, he took command after the British captain leading the assault was killed. Loustalot scaled a cliff with his men, was wounded three times, but was eventually cut down by enemy crossfire in his attempts to reach the machine gun nest at the top of the cliff. In November 1942, the entire 1st Ranger Battalion entered combat for the first time when they landed at Arzew, the First were split into two groups in hopes of assaulting Vichy-French batteries and fortifications before the 1st Infantry Division would land on the beach
United States Marine Corps
The U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military officer in the U. S. Armed Forces, is a Marine Corps general, the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working closely with naval forces for training and logistics. The USMC operates posts on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world, two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting for independence both at sea and on shore. The role of the Corps has since grown and evolved, expanding to aerial warfare and earning popular titles such as, Americas third air force, second land army. By the mid-20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps had become a major theorist of and its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.
As of 2016, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and it is the smallest of the U. S. The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness and this last clause, while seemingly redundant given the Presidents position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary responsibilities of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in the Congressional acts For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps of 1834, in 1951, the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee called the clause one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps. In addition to its duties, the Marine Corps conducts Visit, Board and Seizure operations, as well as missions in direct support of the White House. The Marine Band, dubbed the Presidents Own by Thomas Jefferson, Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. The Executive Flight Detachment provides transport to Cabinet members. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S.
Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself, for over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, in 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of War furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15,1948, during the first year of the MSG program,36 detachments were deployed worldwide. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore, the Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ships landing force, manning the ships weapons and providing shipboard security.
Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II, during World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Airman Battle Uniform
The Airman Battle Uniform is a service-distinctive camouflage battledress uniform for the United States Air Force. It is currently in production and replaced the Battle Dress Uniform on 1 November 2011 after a four year phase-in period. The first prototype of the ABU was unveiled in the summer of 2003, the early uniform prototypes consisted of trousers, an embroidered undershirt, and a blouse. The camouflage pattern, developed by Tiger Stripe Products and based upon their popular copyrighted Original Vietnam Tiger Stripe, was a blue/gray, after months of wear testing, Air Force officials revised the color scheme and camouflage pattern due to feedback received from Airmen. The new elementary semi-pixelated tiger pattern would trade its dominant blue overtones for a subdued palette. However, few of the recommendations made by Airmen in the field were implemented into the uniform which remains very similar in design to the older BDU style uniforms. This has been a subject of complaints from Airmen returning from duty in Iraq.
While not officially recommended, USAF Airmen can cut the pockets out of the inside of the blouse because it does not alter the appearance of the uniform. Since 2008, it has been issued to Airmen deploying to locations in CENTCOM, including Kuwait, personnel in other countries were issued DCU uniforms while inventory lasted. The ABU is available at Army and Air Force Exchange Service military clothing stores, the ABU became mandatory at the beginning of fiscal year 2012. In 2010, MultiCam was authorized to replace the ABU-pattern on the Airman Battle System-Ground in the War in Afghanistan by Air Force ground forces, in June 2011, The Air Force Times released the announcement of a summer weight ABU to be available in 2012. The Improved Airman Battle Uniform will be made of a 50–50 nylon-cotton blend and is the material used by the Army for the ACU. Just like the ABU, the IABU is machine washable and wrinkle resistant, chief of Staff of the Air Force Gen. Norton A. Schwartz gave approval of the IABU coat and pants which will be available to trainees at Basic Military Training first.
No special allowance will be given to troops since they are not being forced to buy the uniform, in May 2012, the Air Force changed the terminology of the new ABU uniforms to RABU. U. S. Air Force - Mobile The ABU is worn USAF-wide in the Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve, the Air Forces auxiliary, Civil Air Patrol, wear-tested the ABU in late 2015. In May 2016, the commander of the Civil Air Patrol issued a memorandum allowing the wear of the ABU effective June 15,2016. However, the uniform is worn dark blue name tapes and insignia cloth. The Airman Battle Uniform is similar to the Universal Camouflage Pattern in color, with the inclusion of slate blue, the ABU is to be worn with low-maintenance sage green suede combat boots
MultiCam is a Crye Precision camouflage pattern designed for use in a wide range of conditions. Variants of it, some unlicensed, are in use with armed forces, the pattern is sold for civilian usage. First introduced in 2002, MultiCam was designed for the use of the U. S. Army in varied environments, elevations and it is a seven-color, multi-environment camouflage pattern developed by Crye Precision in conjunction with United States Army Soldier Systems Center. However, it was re-commissioned by the U. S. Army in 2010, replacing UCP for units deploying to the War in Afghanistan and it had already been used by some American special operations units and civilian law enforcement agencies. MultiCam is available for sale to civilians. A version of MultiCam has been adopted by the forces of the United Kingdom as the Multi-Terrain Pattern. MTP retains the color palette of Multicam but incorporates shapes similar to the previous DPM scheme, after using the Multicam scheme in Afghanistan, Australia has adopted its own version, combining the pattern of Multicam with the color palette of its earlier DPCU / Auscam pattern.
On 25 November 2013, Crye Precision unveiled a family of MultiCam variants, the variants are designed for arid and snow-covered environments, plus a black variant for use by law enforcement tactical teams. This allows for the appearance to change from greenish to brownish in different areas of the fabric. A non-licensed copy of the pattern is slightly darker or with pink or yellow tone. Another non-licensed copy, called Suez pattern, similar to original MultiCam, is used by Polish special forces GROM, BOA and BOR. The MultiCam color scheme in Hex triplet is as follows, Not Black 3B2F23, Coyote brown 81613E, Dead Veg A4B167, Lightish Tannish D6D2B4, Cucumber Slumber 4E693B, Troops with greater levels of concealment across the range of terrains in Afghanistan – urban and green. Previously, depending upon the terrain, Australian troops had to transition between green and desert colored Australian Disruptive Pattern Camouflage Uniforms, the Australian Army decided to standardize MultiCam-patterned uniforms starting in October 2014 called the Australian Multicam Camouflage Uniform.
Previous Disruptive Pattern Camouflage Uniforms and Australian MultiCam Pattern Operational Combat Uniforms will be worn until all Army personnel have been issued with the AMCU, the Chilean Marine Corps, Chilean Naval Special Warfare Division, and the Chilean Air Force Commandos adopted Multicam in 2009. Multicam is the standard uniform of the Chilean Marine Corps. A domestic variant of MultiCam is in use with the Georgian Armed Forces as standard issue for all military branches as well as units of the MIA. The pattern got adopted somewhere in 2010 replacing the DWC and MARPAT, a modified version of MultiCam has been adopted by the some of Polish Special Forces. A version of MultiCam has been adopted by the Federal Security Service, the colors of the MultiCam pattern were in the development of the British Forces Multi Terrain Pattern used by UKSF in Afghanistan
I. Spiewak & Sons
Spiewak & Sons, Inc. commonly known simply as Spiewak, is a New York-based apparel manufacturer founded in 1904. Spiewak currently manufactures high-visibility safety apparel, EMS protective gear, and other uniforms for private businesses, Spiewak offers a line of consumer outerwear. Spiewak uniform products include VizGuard safety wear, WeatherTech waterproof/breathable outerwear, Titan outerwear, Spiewak produces uniform outerwear for, The company offers a line of consumer outerwear constructed with workwear values. Isaac Spiewak grew up in Warsaw and fled to America in 1903 and it was there, in Brooklyn, NY, that he started a small family business, making sheepskin vests by hand and selling them on the docks of Williamsburg in 1904. By 1906, Isaacs vests were in sufficient demand around New York for him to establish a small manufacturing space in Brooklyn, the moniker Golden Fleece was first branded in 1919. During World War I, Spiewak produced wool coats and breeches for the US Army and Navy, including pea coats, during the Korean War, Spiewak continued to make WWII styles for the military, and added G-8WEP flight jackets and M-52 field jackets.
Michael Spiewak, the face of Spiewak Clothing, died in October 2007
Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps
The Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps serve to distinguish Marines from members of other services. Among current uniforms in the United States Armed Forces, the Marines uniforms have been in service the longest, the Marine Dress Blue uniform has, with few changes, been worn in essentially its current form since the 19th century. The Marine Corps dress uniform is a uniform worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. Its basic form of a jacket with red trim dates back to the 19th century. It is the only U. S. military uniform that incorporates all three colors of the U. S. Flag. There are three different variations of the Dress uniform, Evening Dress, Blue Dress, and Blue-White Dress, only officers and staff non-commissioned officers are authorized to wear the Evening Dress. Until 2000, there was a White Dress uniform, similar in appearance to the U. S. Navys Dress White uniforms and this uniform has since been replaced with the Blue/White Dress uniform for officers and SNCOs. The most recognizable uniform of the Marine Corps is the Blue Dress uniform and it is often called Dress Blues or simply Blues.
It is equivalent in composition and use to civilian black tie, full-size medals are worn on the left chest, with ribbon-only awards worn on the right. Women wear pumps in place of shoes, and may wear a skirt in place of slacks, for men, the dress coat is cut to be formfitting. Blue Dress B is the same as A, but medals are replaced with their corresponding ribbons, Blue Dress C is the same as B, but a khaki long sleeve button-up shirt and tie replace the outer blue coat and white gloves. Ribbons and badges are worn on the shirt. Blue Dress D is the same as C, but with a short sleeve button-up shirt. Because the Blue Dress uniform is considered formal wear, Blue Dress C and D are rarely worn, the main exceptions are Marine Recruiters and Marine Corps Security Guards, who wear the C and D in warm weather, and Marine One pilots in place of a flight suit. Only the B, C, and D Blue Dress uniforms are authorized for leave and liberty wear, Officers, NCOs, and SNCOs wear a scarlet stripe down the outer seam of each leg of the blue trousers.
General officers wear a 2 in wide stripe, field- and company-grade officers have a 1.5 in wide stripe, general officers wear trousers that are the same color as the coat, while all other ranks wear medium blue trousers. A blue boatcloak with a lining is optional. When wearing the sweater with the long sleeve khaki shirt
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners.
However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. S
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany