Under United States law, an unincorporated territory is an area controlled by the United States government, not "incorporated" for the purposes of United States constitutional law. In unincorporated territories, the U. S. Constitution applies only partially. In the absence of an organic law, a territory is classified as unorganized. In unincorporated territories, "fundamental rights apply as a matter of law, but other constitutional rights are not available". Selected constitutional provisions apply, depending on congressional acts and judicial rulings according to U. S. constitutional practice, local tradition, law. There are 13 unincorporated territories, comprising a land area of 12,000 square kilometers containing a population of four million people. Of the 13 territories, five are inhabited; these are self-governing but unincorporated. These are Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa. There are nine uninhabited U. S. possessions, of which only Palmyra Atoll is incorporated.
All modern inhabited territories under the control of the federal government can be considered as part of the "United States" for purposes of law as defined in specific legislation. However, the judicial term "unincorporated" was coined to legitimize the late–19th-century territorial acquisitions without citizenship and their administration without constitutional protections temporarily until Congress made other provisions; the case law allowed Congress to impose discriminatory tax regimes with the effect of a protective tariff upon territorial regions which were not domestic states. From 1901 to 1905, the U. S. Supreme Court, in a series of opinions known as the Insular Cases, held that the Constitution extended ex proprio vigore to the continental territories. However, the Court in these cases established the doctrine of territorial incorporation, under which the Constitution applies only in incorporated territories such as Alaska and Hawaii, applies only in the new unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
To define what is an unincorporated territory, in Balzac v. People of Porto Rico, 258 U. S. 298, the Court used the following statements regarding the United States District Court in Puerto Rico: The United States District Court is not a true United States court established under article 3 of the Constitution to administer the judicial power of the United States therein conveyed. It is created by virtue of the sovereign congressional faculty, granted under article 4, § 3, of that instrument, of making all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory belonging to the United States; the resemblance of its jurisdiction to that of true United States courts, in offering an opportunity to nonresidents of resorting to a tribunal not subject to local influence, does not change its character as a mere territorial court. In Glidden Co. v. Zdanok, 370 U. S. 530 the court cited Balzac and made the following statement regarding courts in unincorporated territories: Upon like considerations, Article III has been viewed as inapplicable to courts created in unincorporated territories outside the mainland, Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.
S. 244, 266–267. S. 298, 312–313. S. 138, 145, 149, to the consular courts established by concessions from foreign countries, In re Ross, 140 U. S. 453, 464–465, 480. 18 "The inhabitants of the ceded territory... shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Philippines – administered directly by the U. S. government 1898–1901. S. government 1903–1979. April 11, 1899 The Treaty of Paris of 1898 came into effect, transferring Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico from Spain to the United States, all three becoming unorganized, unincorporated territories. Puerto Rico's official name was changed to Porto Rico, a phonetic reinterpretation of the Spanish name for the territory. April 12, 1900 The Foraker Act organized Puerto Rico. June 7, 1900 The United States took control of the portion of the Samoan Islands given to it by the Treaty of Berlin of 1899, creating the unorganized, unincorporated territory of American Samoa. April 1, 1901 General Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader in the Philippine–American War and President of the Malolos Republic, surrendered to the United States, allowing the U.
S. to form a civilian government for the Philippines. February 23, 1903 Under the terms of a 1903 lease agreement, the United States came to exercise complete control over Guantanamo Bay, while Cuba retained ultimate sovereignty over the territory. August 29, 1916 The Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law was signed, promising the Philippines independence. March 2, 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act reorganized Puerto Rico; this act conferred United States citizenship on all citizens of Puerto Rico. March 31, 191
Barbara Sykes is a Chicago based experimental video artist who explores themes of spirituality and indigeneity from a feminist perspective. Sykes is known for her pioneering experimentation with computer graphics in her video work, utilizing the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Chicago, at a time when this technology was just emerging, her work has been exhibited internationally, at institutions such as Moderna Museet, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, as well as being the first female video artist to present her work in China. From 1974 to 1979 Sykes studied at the University of Illinois Chicago, during which experimental video art was developing in Chicago; the Electronic Visualization Laboratory was started by two UIC faculty, Tom Defanti and Dan Sandin, was influential in developing computer graphics with the goal of creating video art. The research lab known for developing the Sandin Image Processor, a video synthesizer similar to synthesizers used to create music.
The Image Processor allows for abstract analogue visuals to be created using analogue computer graphics, a new technology at the time. The lab was known for its Electronic Visualization Events, where live performances combined music and video processing in real time; as a student of this new technology, Barbara Sykes used the image processor to create early work and participated in EVE events. Before earning an undergraduate degree, Sykes enrolled in the School of the Art Institute of Chicago emerging video program in 1979, obtained her MFA in 1981. While a student, Sykes worked as a freelance videographer, producing dance and documentary videos for instructors. In graduate school she worked on the production team for a weekly Greek variety show creating commercials in order to fund her tuition. Much of Sykes' work from the 1970s such as A Movement Within and By The Crimson Bands of Cyttorak utilized the Sandin Image Processor to create abstract compositions, psychedelic colors and shifting forms.
The nature of the Image Processor allows for limited analogue control, with much of the process left up to chance and experimentation. While Sykes’s early works are montages of meditative, poetic abstractions, her work demonstrates more personal and expressive narratives and themes. Shiva Darson and A Song of the River are among these works. Sykes began to directly create videos that "reflect her interests in female mythological figures, dance and music of other cultures as well as depicting dream states and fantasized visions." While this work is different in process, there are clear relationships to her earlier work, as is evident in Electronic Masks, which demonstrates a blend of image processing with themes of spirituality. A Song of the River was shot and created during Sykes's sabbatical research trip throughout Asia and East Africa. While there, she visited various indigenous tribes and was interested in learning about their spiritual relationships, how these relationships are evident in everyday life.
In a statement about the film, Sykes describes that "From birth to death, special rights and ceremonies mark the important events of one’s existence, assuring a symbiosis of body and soul with the divine. This deep relationship between the people and their gods are reaffirmed through daily activity. At times, the person symbolically becomes god, strengthening their own sense of sacredness and self-respect." These themes are continued in Shiva Darson, another video in her series entitled "In Celebration of Life... In Celebration of Death..." Shiva Darson discusses the Hindu god Shiva through a personal account of Sykes's visit to the Shivaratri Festival at the Pashupatinath Temple. "In Celebration of Life... In Celebration of Death...", funded by Columbia College, won several awards throughout 1994 and 1995 including the CINE Golden Eagle Award and the First place Documentary Award at La Crosse Video Festival, among others. The series was shown at a variety of video festivals, such as the Festival of Illinois Film and Video Artists in Chicago, the Three Rivers Arts Festival.
Besides creating artwork, Barbara Sykes has had a notable presence in the Chicago new media scene. In the late 1970s she became involved with The Center for New Television where she would host video workshops and screen her work. In 1981, Sykes curated Video: Chicago Style, exhibited at Global Village in New York City, was additionally screened on Manhattan Cable; this exhibition grew into Video and Computer Art: Chicago Style, which travelled throughout Japan, China and Spain during 1988 and 1989. Sykes was a tenured experimental film and television professor at Columbia College Chicago from 1982-2005. While at Columbia College, she served as director of the visiting lecturer series for the Department of Film & Television, organizing lectures by industry professionals and artists such as Rafael Franca, which occurred in conjunction with “Brazilian Video Art”, the first exhibition of Brazilian experimental video work in Chicago. In 2016 Sykes took part in Celebrating Women in New Media Arts, a panel symposium held at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
The symposium highlighted women. Joan Truckenbrod and Claudia Hart were among some of the participants who shared their experiences making technological artwork as women, some of the challenges they faced; the symposium preceded the 2018 release of the book Women in New Media Arts: Perspectives
Hewes Street is a local station on the BMT Jamaica Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of Hewes Street and Broadway in Brooklyn, it is served by the J train at all times except weekdays in the peak direction and the M train at all times except late nights; the Z train skips this station. The Union Elevated Railroad, leased to the Brooklyn Elevated Railroad, opened an elevated line above Broadway from Gates Avenue northwest to Driggs Avenue in Williamsburg on June 25, 1888, with a station at Hewes Street; this elevated station, built four stories above street level, has two side platforms and three tracks. The center track is used by the Z trains in the peak direction weekday midday and rush hours; each platform has beige windscreens, green canopies, red roofs that run from end to end. The artwork here is called El in 16 Notes by Mara Held, it features sixteen panels of art glass, each containing random geometric shapes and is based on shapes found in dress patterns. The station has the east end of its platforms.
On the west end, each platform has a single staircase leading to an elevated station house beneath the tracks. It has token booth. Outside of fare control, two staircases lead to the western corners of Hooper Street; each staircase landing has an exit-only turnstile to allow passengers to exit without having to go through the station house. On the east end, each platform has a single staircase leading to a turnstile bank. Outside of fare control, a single staircase from each side leads to the eastern corners of Broadway and Hewes Street; the station house has been removed. These exits were closed in the 1980s due to high crime and served as emergency exits until 2018, they were reopened on November 16, 2018 to accommodate L train riders who would be displaced during the 14th Street Tunnel shutdown in 2019–2020. As part of the tunnel shutdown plans, these exits would contain a temporary MetroCard transfer to the nearby Broadway station on the G train, during weekends and late nights. Nycsubway.org – BMT Jamaica Line: Hewes Street Station Reporter — J Train Station Reporter — M Train The Subway Nut — Hewes Street Pictures MTA's Arts For Transit — Hewes Street Hooper Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Hewes Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View