Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Green Clay Smith
Green Clay Smith was a United States soldier and politician. Elected to the Kentucky state house before the American Civil War, he was commissioned as a Union officer when he volunteered, advancing to the rank of brigadier general before he resigned to go to Congress, he was promoted to Major General by brevet on March 13, 1865. He was elected to the US Congress from Kentucky in 1862 representing the Unionist Party, serving until 1866; that year, Smith was appointed as the Territorial Governor of Montana, serving from 1866 to 1869. He returned to Washington, DC, where he was ordained as a Baptist minister and became active in the temperance movement. Smith was born in 1826 in Richmond, Kentucky to John Speed Smith and his wife Elizabeth Lewis Smith as the third of seven children, he was named for his maternal grandfather, Green Clay, a wealthy planter and slaveholder in Kentucky and a prominent politician. His siblings included Sally Ann Lewis, named for her maternal grandmother. Smith's father was elected to the Kentucky legislature and the U.
S. House of Representatives, his mother's younger brothers, Brutus J. Clay and Cassius M. Clay, both became state politicians and were elected as members of the Unionist Party to the US Congress from Kentucky during the American Civil War. Cassius became known as an abolitionist before the war; as a young man, Green Clay Smith pursued academic studies. When the U. S.-Mexican War began, he enlisted in the Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the First Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Infantry on June 9, 1846. Smith returned to Kentucky, where he graduated from Transylvania University in 1849 studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1852, he began his practice in Covington. From 1853 to 1857, Smith served as a school commissioner. Smith was elected as a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives, serving from 1861 to 1863. On April 4, 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers on June 12, 1862.
Like his uncles Brutus J. and Cassius M. Clay, Smith joined the Unionist Party. In 1862, he was elected as an Unconditional Unionist to the thirty-eighth congress, resigning from his military post on December 1, 1863, he served as chairman of the Committee on Militia from 1865 to 1866. He was brevetted major general of volunteers on March 13, 1865. Smith resigned from Congress in July 1866 when President Andrew Johnson appointed him as Territorial Governor of Montana, he served there from 1866 to 1869, working to moderate hostilities between European American settlers and the Native Americans who occupied the lands, including tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy. After he resigned, Smith returned to Washington, D. C.. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry and served in a number of congregations while supporting the temperance movement, he was pastor in Richmond, Mt. Sterling and Louisville, Kentucky. In 1890 he was called as pastor of the Metropolitan Baptist Church in Washington, D. C. which he served until his death in 1895.
In 1876, the National Prohibition Party nominated Smith for President of the United States. With his running mate, Gideon T. Stewart, the two received 9,737 popular votes in the election. Smith continued his work in temperance. Smith was interred in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. List of American Civil War generals United States Congress. "Green Clay Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-08-17 Green Clay Smith at Arlington National Cemetery "Green Clay Smith". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-08-13
Department of the Gulf
The Department of the Gulf was a command of the United States Army in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and of the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. The department was constituted on February 23, 1862 when the United States War Department issued General Orders No. 20. F. Butler." On March 20, 1862, Butler activated his command at Ship Island, Mississippi by issuing General Orders No. 1 assuming his new command. United States Navy's West Gulf Blockading Squadron captured New Orleans, Louisiana on April 29, 1862, Butler moved his headquarters to New Orleans on 1 May; the department, sometimes referred to as the Army of the Gulf, became a union occupying force in the region. Major General B. F. Butler, March 20, 1862 – December 17, 1862 Major General N. P. Banks, December 17, 1862 – September 23, 1864 Major General S. G. Hurlbut, September 23, 1864 – to April 22, 1865 Major General N. P. Banks, 22 April 22, 1865 – June 3, 1865 Major General E. R. S. Canby, June 3, 1865 – The department referred to as the Gulf District, was established on July 2, 1862 as a part of Department No. 2.
On November 3, 1863, the northern boundary was extended to latitude 33° north. On July 25, 1863, the department/district was transferred to the Department of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, it remained in that department only until January 28, 1864, when it was transferred to the Department of Alabama and Eastern Mississippi. Upon being transferred, the department/district boundaries were redefined as beginning at the mouth of the Pearl River, running north to latitude 32° north, east to the Georgia State line and south to the Gulf of Mexico. On May 8, 1864, the boundary was again modified to define the eastern edge as being the intersection of latitude 32° north with a line running from the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa to point where the Choctawhatchee River entered Florida following the Choctawhatchee to its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico; the department/district surrendered on May 4, 1865. John H. Forney, July 2, 1862 – December 8, 1862 William W. Mackall, December 8, 1862 – December 14, 1862 Simon B.
Buckner, December 14, 1862 – April 27, 1863 Franklin Gardner, April 27, 1863 – May 1863 Dabney H. Maury, May 1863 – July 26, 1864 Franklin Gardner, July 26, 1864 – August 15, 1864 Dabney H. Maury, August 15, 1864 – November 22, 1864 Daniel Leadbetter, November 22 – December 12, 1864 Dabney H. Maury, December 12, 1864 – May 4, 1865 The department was constituted by General Order 7, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, dated March 11, 1898; the order specified that the department was to include the states of South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi and Texas. All of the named states had been included in the Department of the East except Texas, the sole state in the Department of Texas; the depart was redesignated as the Department of the South on March 12, 1898 and back to the Department of the Gulf on March 18, 1898. Brigadier General William M. Graham assumed command of the department on March 14, 1898; the department was headquartered in Georgia. On October 25, 1899, the department was merged with the Department of the East.
It was reestablished in December 1903. Brigadier General William M. Graham, March 14, 1898 – May 18, 1898 Major General John R. Brooke, May 17, 1898 – July 4, 1898 Brigadier General A. C. M. Pennington, July 4, 1898 – March 22, 1899 Brigadier General Royal T. Frank, March 22, 1899 - October 18, 1899... Brigadier General Thomas H. Barry, December 1903 – May 15, 1905 Brigadier General James F. Wade, May 15, 1905 - April 6, 1906 Brigadier General William Penn Duvall, April 6, 1906 - February 18, 1907 Brigadier General Winfield Scott Edgerly, March 3, 1907 – July 31, 1907 Brigadier General R. D. Potts, July 1, 1908 – December 23, 1908 Colonel George A. Dodd, 12th Cavalry Regiment, December 23, 1908 – January 16, 1909 Brigadier General R. D. Potts, January 16, 1909 – April 24, 1909 Colonel J. T. Van Orsdale, 17th Infantry Regiment, April 24, 1909 – May 28, 1909 Brigadier General A. L. Mills, May 28, 1909 – June 3, 1909 Colonel J. T. Van Orsdale, 17th Infantry Regiment, June 3, 1909 – June 27, 1909 Brigadier General A. L. Mills, June 27, 1909 - January 15, 1912 Brigadier General William W. Wotherspoon, January 15, 1912 - August 17, 1912 Brigadier General Robert K. Evans, August 17, 1912 - March 1914 History of the administration of the department of the Gulf in the year 1862: With an account of the capture of New Orleans and a sketch of the previous career of the general and military.
Ticknor and Fields. 1866. Proclamation, Department of the Gulf, New Orleans, May 1st, 1862 United States. Army. Dept. Of The Gulf. Army. Dept. of the Gulf. General Orders from Headquarters, Department of the Gulf, Issued by Major-General B F Butler, from May 1st, 1862, to the Present Time. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-175-53110-0. Augustine Joseph Hickey Duganne. Camps and prisons: Twenty months in the department of the Gulf. J. P. Robens. Map of the military Department of the Gulf Civil War - Use Withheld from Grant Constitution during the Civil War Department of the Gulf from Ohio Civil War NYPL Blog of Sanitary Commission The Civil War in Louisiana 153rd NY Infantry Regiment The photographic history of the Civil War, Volume 10 Department of the Gulf Reenactors Dept of the Gulf, CSA Use of Negros by CSA History Part IX The Confederate Soldier in the Civil War, 1861-1865
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in May 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April; the Army of the Potomac was created in 1861 but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, it was the army that fought the war's first major battle, the First Battle of Bull Run; the arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan changed the makeup of that army. McClellan's original assignment was to command the Division of the Potomac, which included the Department of Northeast Virginia under McDowell and the Department of Washington under Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield. On July 26, 1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, was merged with McClellan's departments and on that day, McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, composed of all military forces in the former Departments of Northeastern Virginia, Washington and the Shenandoah.
The men under Banks's command became an infantry division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more. After the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope, it is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellan's unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign. On the contrary, Pope's army consisted of different units, was named the Army of Virginia. During the time that the Army of Virginia existed, the Army of the Potomac was headquartered on the Virginia Peninsula, outside Washington, D. C. with McClellan still in command, although three corps of the Army of the Potomac were sent to northern Virginia and were under Pope's operational control during the Northern Virginia Campaign. The Army of the Potomac underwent many structural changes during its existence; the army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three grand divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more.
Hooker abolished the grand divisions. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, reported directly to army headquarters. Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and— in 1864— the remaining five corps were recombined into three. Burnside's IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below; the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28, 1865, shortly following its participation in the Grand Review of the Armies; the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregard's Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia, which became famous under General Robert E. Lee. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association.
It had its last reunion in 1929. Because of its proximity to the large cities of the North, such as Washington, D. C. Philadelphia, New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more contemporary media coverage than the other Union field armies; such coverage produced fame for a number of this army's units. Individual brigades, such as the Irish Brigade, the Philadelphia Brigade, the First New Jersey Brigade, the Vermont Brigade, the Iron Brigade, all became well known to the general public, both during the Civil War and afterward; the army consisted of fourteen divisions commanded by Edwin Sumner, William B. Franklin, Louis Blenker, Nathaniel Banks, Frederick W. Lander, Silas Casey, Irvin McDowell, Fitz-John Porter, Samuel Heintzelman, Erasmus Keyes, William F. Smith, Charles P. Stone, George McCall; because this arrangement would be too hard to control in battle, President Lincoln issued an order on March 13, 1862, dividing the army into six corps headed by Sumner, Banks, McDowell and Keyes, the highest-ranking officers.
McClellan was not happy with this, as he had intended to wait until the army had been tested in battle before judging which generals were suitable for corps command. After the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, McClellan requested and obtained permission to create two additions corps. Gen Fitz-John Porter, the VI Corps, headed by Brig. Gen William B. Franklin, both personal favorites of his. After the Battle of Kernstown in the Valley on March 23, the administration became paranoid about "Stonewall" Jackson's activities there and the potential danger they posed to Washington D. C. and to McClellan's displeasure, detached Blenker's division from the II Corps and sent it to West Virginia to serve under John C. Fremont's command. McDowell's corps was stationed in the Rappahannock area. In June 1862, George McCall's division from McDowell's corps was sent down to the Peninsula and temporarily attached to the V Corps. In the Seven Days Battles, the V Corps was engaged; the Pennsylvania Reserves, in particular, suffered heavy loss
Army of the Tennessee
The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the named Army of Tennessee, a Confederate army named after the State of Tennessee, it appears that the term "Army of the Tennessee" was first used within the Union Army in March 1862, to describe Union forces more properly described as the "Army of West Tennessee". In April 1862, Grant's troops survived a severe test in the bloody Battle of Shiloh. During six months marked by discouragement and anxiety for Grant, his army first joined with two other Union armies to prosecute the bloodless Siege of Corinth and strained to hold Union positions in Tennessee and Mississippi. In October 1862, Grant's command was reconfigured and elevated to departmental status, as the Department of the Tennessee. Grant commanded these forces until after his critically important victory at Vicksburg on July 4, 1863. Under other generals, starting with William Tecumseh Sherman, the army marched and fought from the Chattanooga Campaign, through the Relief of Knoxville, the Meridian Campaign, the Atlanta Campaign, the March to the Sea, the Carolinas Campaign, to the end of the war and disbandment.
This article discusses Grant's 1861–1862 commands — the District of Southeast Missouri and the District of Cairo — because the troops Grant led in the Battle of Belmont and the Henry-Donelson campaign during that period became the nucleus of the Army of the Tennessee. A 2005 study of the army states that it "was present at most of the great battles that became turning points of the war—Fort Donelson and Atlanta" and "won the decisive battles in the decisive theater of the war." More poetically, in 1867 speaking of the Atlanta campaign, General Sherman said that the Army of the Tennessee was "never checked—always victorious. History remembers the Army of the Tennessee as one of the most important Union armies during the Civil War, an army intimately associated with the Union's two most celebrated generals, Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, it is thus rather ironic that frequent military reorganizations and looseness of usage during the war itself make it difficult to pinpoint the exact date at which this army formally came into existence.
It should suffice to note that the "nucleus around, to gather the... Army of the Tennessee" first took shape in 1861–1862, while Grant was headquartered at Cairo, Illinois; those troops continued under Grant in the distinct District of West Tennessee. However, army correspondence began using the term "Army of the Tennessee" in March 1862. During the course of the war, elements of the Army of the Tennessee performed many tasks, the army evolved with the addition and subtraction of many units, it is not feasible to chronicle every such development here at the corps level. Rather, this article traces the main thrust of the army's development and its most memorable activities. At any given time, substantial numbers of troops were engaged in activities. For example, in April 1863, less than half of Grant's departmental strength was directly engaged in the Vicksburg Campaign. In September 1861, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant subordinate to Maj. Gen. John Fremont in the Union's Western Department, assumed command of the District of Southeast Missouri.
One of Grant's wartime aides, John A. Rawlins stated that "rom this time... commenced the growth and organization of the Army of the Tennessee." Just days prompted by Confederate occupation of Columbus, Kentucky, on the Mississippi River, Grant led a small force to seize Paducah, where the Tennessee River joins the Ohio River. Paducah promptly became a separate Union command under Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith, who soon occupied Smithland, Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland River and the Ohio. According to Rawlins, the "first affair dignified by the name of a battle" for any of Grant's forces occurred at Fredericktown, where some of Grant's troops helped defeat Confederate forces under M. Jeff Thompson. Grant's own first engagement came on November 7 at Belmont, Missouri, a Mississippi River landing opposite Columbus, Kentucky. Grant, accompanied by Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand, moved a force of 3,000 to Belmont by water, cut his way into the Confederate camps there, had to fight his way back out to regain his transports.
Grant's casualties in this first battle totaled about 500. While Grant had suffered a repulse, he won favorable press coverage; this battle, reports Rawlins, "confirmed General Grant in his views" that he should "give battle" whenever "he had what he thought a sufficient number of men." In November, John Fremont lost his command at St. Louis, to be replaced by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, whose command was designated the Department of the Missouri. On December 20, Grant's command was reconfigured to include C. F. Smith renamed the District of Cairo. From
David S. Stanley
David Sloane Stanley was a Union Army general during the American Civil War. After taking part in the liberation of the Upper Mississippi, serving at Corinth and Stones River, he was made a corps commander under Sherman and sent to Tennessee to oppose John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee. At a critical moment in the Battle of Franklin, he saved part of George D. Wagner’s division from destruction, earning America's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, he explored the Yellowstone River, his favourable reports encouraged settlement of this region. Stanley was born in Wayne County, Ohio, he went to the Western frontier to survey railroad routes. He engaged in Indian fighting and was promoted to captain in March 1861, shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Stanley was on duty at Fort Washita in Indian Territory, he led his men to Kansas. He fought at several battles in Missouri, including the Battle of Wilson's Creek, where he guarded the supply trains. President Abraham Lincoln appointed Stanley as brigadier general September 28, 1861, although the U.
S. Senate did not confirm the appointment until March 7, 1862. Fighting in the Western Theater, he participated in the operations against New Madrid and the Battle of Island Number Ten, he was involved in numerous major battles, including the Second Battle of Corinth, where he commanded a division of infantry of the Army of the Mississippi, the Battle of Stones River, in which he led the cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland. On March 11, 1863, Stanley was appointed major general to rank from November 29, 1862. Stanley led the Union cavalry in the Tullahoma Campaign, he missed the Battle of Chickamauga. In 1864, he fought under William Tecumseh Sherman as a division commander in the IV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland during the Atlanta Campaign, he was promoted to command of the corps when Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard was named commander of the Army of the Tennessee. After the capture of the city, instead of employing him marching to the sea, Sherman dispatched Stanley and his IV Corps to Tennessee to help protect the state from invasion by John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee.
For leading one of his brigades in a successful counterattack during a critical moment in the fighting at the Battle of Franklin on November 30, 1864, the President of the United States on behalf of the United States Congress presented him with the Medal of Honor on March 29, 1893. Two of his divisions having been reassigned to the defensive lines of the XXIII Corps before the battle, Stanley had no actual command. Two brigades of the remaining division, under Brig. Gen. George D. Wagner, were overwhelmed by the initial Confederate assault, having been left in an exposed position, it was for his role in the counterattack by the 3rd Brigade of Wagner's division that Stanley was awarded the medal. He had his horse shot out from under him. Maj. Gen. Jacob Cox, commanding the defenses, provided Stanley a remount with which to seek medical attention, Stanley did not participate further in the battle, he returned to corps command only after the Battle of Nashville. After the war, Stanley was appointed colonel of the 22nd U.
S. Infantry serving in the Dakota Territory until 1874, he commanded the Yellowstone Expedition of 1873 conducting his troops through several unmapped areas, his favorable reports on the country led to subsequent settlement of the region. In 1879, Stanley and his regiment were reassigned to Texas to suppress Indian raids in the western portion of the state, he was ordered to Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 1882, placed in command of the District of New Mexico. In March 1884, he was appointed a brigadier general in the regular army, assigned command of the Department of Texas, he retired in 1892. Stanley was interred at the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery in Washington, D. C. - Plot: Section O-20. He was a First Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and a Hereditary Companion of the Military Order of Foreign Wars. In 1894 he became a member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, his son-in-law, Willard Ames Holbrook served as a major general in the U.
S. Army, his only son, David Sheridan Stanley, five of his grandsons would graduate from West Point. Additionally, his son, David Sheridan Stanley was the principal founder of the Army Navy Country Club, located in Arlington, VA. Rank and Organization: Major General, U. S. Volunteers. Place and Date: At Franklin, Tenn. November 30, 1864. Entered Service At: Congress, Wayne County, Ohio. Born: June 1, 1828, Cedar Valley, Ohio. Date of Issue: March 29, 1893. Citation: At a critical moment rode to the front of one of his brigades, reestablished its lines, gallantly led it in a successful assault. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: Q–S List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G..
"Stanley, David Sloane". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Jacobson, Eric A. and Richard A. Rupp. For Cause & for Country: A Study of the A